Skip to main content

Full text of "The Numismatic Chronicle And Journal, Vol Xiii"

See other formats


THE 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE 

AND 

JOURNAL OF 

THE ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 



THE 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE 

AND 

JOURNAL 

OP THE 

ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

EDITED BY 

G. E. HILL, M.A., 

KFrPER or COINS, BRITISH M US FUJI, 

OLIVER CODRINGTON, M.D., F.S.f , M.ti.A.S., 

AND 

G. C. BROOKE, B.A. 

FOURTH SERIES— YOL. XIII. 



Factum abiit — monumenta manent.— Ov Fast. 


LONDON : 

BERNARD QUARITCH, 7, GRAFTON ST., W. 
PARIS : 

MM. ROLLIN ET FEUARDENT, PLACE LOUVOIS, No. 4. 
1913, 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S E , AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET, W. 



CONTENTS. 


ANCIENT NUMISMATICS. 

PAGE 

The Coins of Hierapolis in Phrygia. (Plates I.-IV.) By Leo 

Weber 1, 133 

The First Corbridge Find. (Plates V., VI.) By H. A. Grueber, 

F.S.A 31 

Chronology of the Danubian Wars of tire Emperor Marcus Anto- 
ninus. (Plate XIV.) By Rev. C. H. Dodd . . 162, 276 

Greek Coins acquired by the British Museum, 1911-1912. 

(Plates XII., XIII.) By G. F. Hill, M.A. . . .257 

Helena N. F. By P. PL Webb 377 

Some Cretan Coins. (Plate XV.) By Captain J. S. Cameron 

and G. F. Hill, M.A 381 

Countermarked Coins of Asia Minor. By J. Grafton Milne, 

M.A 389 


Some Uncertain Coins associated with Chios. By J. Mavro- 

gordato 427 


MEDIAEVAL AND MODERN NUMISMATICS. 

Two Hoards of Edward Pennies recently found in Scotland. 

(Plates VII.-IX.) By George Macdonald, M.A., LL.D* . 57 



1] 


CONTENTS. 


1*A OK 

Are the Coins of Charles I bearing the Letters : SA : correctly 

assigned to a Mint at Salisbury? By H. Symonds, F.S.A. 119 

Cpuntermarking of Base Testoons. By G. 0. Brooke, B.A. . 130 

Tables of Bullion coined under Edward I, II, and III. By C. G. 

Crump, B.A., and C. Johnson, M.A 200 

Medallions True and False of Mary Queen of Scots and 

Charles I. (Plates X., XI.) By Helen Farquhar . . 246 

Loss of Minorca, 1756. By F. Willson Yeates . .254 

Counter marking of Base Testons. By H. Symonds, F.S.A. , 256 

The Douglas Find of Anglo-Saxon Coins. By II. A. Grucber, 

F.S.A 322 

English Mint Engravers of the Tudor and Stuart Periods, 1485 

to 1688. By H. Symonds, F.S.A 349 

The Boulton Copper Coinage. By R. B. Prosser . . . 379 

Epigraphical Data for the Arrangement of the Coin-Types of 
William II, Henry I, and Stephen. (Plates XVL-XIX.) 

By G. C. Brooke, B.A 399 

Notes on Some Italian Medals. (Plate XX.) By T. Whitcombe 

Greene . . . 413 

A New Medal by Claude Warin. (Plate XXI.) By G. F. Hill, 

M.A 422 


ORIENTAL NUMISMATICS. 

Coins in the Name of a King of Jinns. By Oliver Codrington, 

M.D., F.S.A 123 



CONTENTS. 


Ill 


NOTICES OF RECENT NUMISMATIC PUBLICATIONS. 

PAGK 

Manuel de Numismatique Franraisu. By A. Blancliet and 

A. Dieudonne. Vol. 1 130 

Numismatique Consfcantinienne. By J. Maurice. Tome III. . 4*28 

Die Antiken Munzen Mysiens. By H. von Fritxe. I. . - 438 

Die Munzen und das Miinzwusen bei den Scriptores Historian 

Augustae. By K. Menadier 439 


LIST OF PLATES CONTAINED IN VOL. XIII. 

PLATEb 

I-IV. Coins of Phrygian Hierapolis. 

V., VI. First Corbridge Find. 

VII. Pennies of Edward I from the Mellendean Find. 

VIII. ^Pennies of Edward I from the Blackhills Find. 

"IX. Pennies of Edward I and II from the Blackhills Find, 
X, Charles I and Mary Stuart. 

XI. Mary Stuart. 

XII., XIII. British Museum Greek Acquisitions, 1911-12. 

XIV. The Danubian Wars of Marcus Antoninus. 

XV. Some Cretan Coins. 

XVI. Mules ; William II, Types IL-V. 

XVII. William I, Type V. ; Henry I, Types I.-X. 

XVIII. Henry I, Types X.-XV. ; Stephen, Type I, 

XIX. Stephen, Types I.-VII. ; Henry II, Type I. 

XX. Italian Medals. 

XXI. Medals by Claude Warm. 



I. 


THE COINS QF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 

(See Plates I.-IV.) 

The coins described in the following pages do not form 
a corpus ; but no type of any importance accessible to 
me has, as far as I know, been omitted. Coins with 
magistrates’ names have, with the exception of a few 
examples of particular importance, been omitted from 
this catalogue, as have all the alliance coins. The latter 
have been separately discussed in the Jouvn. Intern. 
cVAvcheol . Nuui/sm., 1912, pp. 65 ff. The principal Apollo 
types which, with the coins with magistrates’ names, 
have already been collected in Xaptreg, pp. 466 ff., are also 
omitted; finally, I have not (with a few exceptions) 
included the coins with an agonistic type on the reverse — 
the so-called games-coins — as these have been discussed 
by von Papen in the Zeitschrift fur Numismatik, xxv i. 
168 ff. (A few additional coins are given in the Journ . 
Intern ., loo . cit.) For further information on Hierapolis, 
its history, its cults, inscriptions, &c., the reader may 
be referred to the standard work on the subject, Alter - 
turner von Hierapolis , edited by C. Humann, Conr. 
Cichorius, W. Judeich, Fr. Winter ( Jahrb . d . Archdol. 
Inst. ; Erganzungsheft, iv.), and to the article in Philo- 
loguSy lxix. 178 ff. (Apollon Pgtholdonos im Phryg. Hiera - 
polls). 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 


B 



2 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The main purpose of this article is to give a complete 
survey of the cults existing in Hierapolis and to record 
the coin-types connected with them. The deities and 
* other persons represented on the coins are therefore 
arranged in alphabetical order. It is as a rule the 
reverse types on which this arrangement is based ; since, 
however, similar types are also found on the obverses, 
particularly on the older coins of the # city, a list of the 
types is given at the end for convenience of reference. 
Within the groups thus formed the individual types and 
their varieties are as far as possible clearly distinguished 
and chronologically arranged. In this arrangement I 
have adhered throughout to that of the British Museum, 
Catalogue: Phrygia, pp. 228 ff. It will be noticed that 
this collection lacks a large number of types here 
published for the first time. This arrangement yields 
the same result as that of the alliance-coins, namely, 
that the coinage of Hierapolis was extraordinarily rich 
and varied ; the unusually large number of types clearly 
shows how prosperous the town must have been and‘“Eow 
extensive its trade, particularly in the second anJd third 
centuries after Christ. 

The following points should also be noted : — * 

The reverses of all the coins in one group are froja the 
same die unless the contrary is stated. ^ 

Special attention has also been called to identitV of 
die in the obverses of all coins, where it has b^en 
possible or seemed desirable. 

A legend in brackets means that although the reading 
is certain, its exact division is not known. ; 

Unless otherwise mentioned the figure on the obverse 
is to the right. 

The following abbreviations are used : — 



THE COINS OP HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


3 


Gr. M. = 'j ( Grleckhscko Munzen. 

M. Gr. = > Imhoof-Blumer | Mommies Grecques. 

Kl M. =J [Kleinti&Utti&rlie Rlunzen . 

Ino. Wadd. = Inventaire Sommaire de la Collection Wadding - 
ton, par M. E. Babelon. 

Hunter = G. Macdonald, Catalogue of the Greek Coins in 
the Hunterian Collection. 

Mionnet = M., Description de Mommies. 

I have to thank the authorities of the coin-cabinets in 
Athens, Berlin, Copenhagen, Dresden, Gotha, The Hague, 
London, Munich, Paris, St. Petersburg, and Vienna, and 
Dr. Imhoof-Blumer for the help so readily accorded me, 
without which it would have been impossible to under- 
take the following attempt to present for the first time 
with some degree of completeness the material available 
for the study of the coinage of Hierapolis. 

I. AKTIA. 

1. Ohv. — (AH MOC). 

Rev. — l€PAnOA€IT 1., a N NEGKO P, in field ON i\, 
AKTIA 1. Athlete naked to front, head i\, with 
r. hand placing agonistic crown on his head and 
holding palm in 1. Border of dots. 

B. M., Ho. 72 ; Copenhagen, 18 [PL I. 1]. 
On the ^Aktux in Hierapolis, cf. von Papen, Die 
Sjpiele von H. (Z. f. N ., xxvi. 168 ff). ftepre- 
sentations of agonistic crowns are found not 
only on agonistic coins proper but, even more 
frequently, on alliance coins. 

2. Oho . — NGVCTPQ r., IOC 1. Head of Zeus Troios, bound 

with taenia. Border of dots. Countermark, 
Zeus Laodikeios Q). 

A 

Rev . — IGPAnOAGITQNNGOKOP ON; KTI in laurel 

A 

wreath. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 81 [Pl. I. 2] = KL M., 13. The 
* obverse die is the same as that of the obverse 

of XIV. 6. 


B 


O 



4 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


II. APOLLO. 

The principal Apollo types, that are of special local 
.interest for Hierapolis, have already been collected in 
XapiTGQ, Fr . Leo dargebracht , pp. 480 ff. 

Another coin, in the Munich cabinet, which was 
■unknown to me when I wrote that article, may be added 
here. 


Obv. — Head of Apollo, laureate, hair bound in bunch 
behind, with loose ringlets hanging down neck. 

Lev. — IEPO r., flOMTHN 1. Tripod, M above on r. 

This piece closely resembles the two described on 
p. 481, c , but is not from the same die and is of decidedly 
later style than they. The symbol is the same as on 
p, 480, la, which likewise bears archaic types. Only 
types with purely conventional portraits of the god are 
collected here, for the striking wealth in types clearly 
shows that Apollo as the city-god was held in particular 
reverence in Hierapolis. 

1. Obv . — Head of Zeus, laureate. 

Lev. — IEPO r., riOAlTON L, in straight lines. A(pollo) 
K(itharoidos), in long chiton and mantle, stand- 
ing r., holding lyre in 1. arm and plektron in r. 

B. M., 8 (PI. xxix. 3) ; Berlin, 7. 

2. Obv. — Similar. 

Lev. — lEPOIlO r., AITQN L, in straight lines. A. EL 
monograms in front of and behind the god ; 
similar to B. M., 4, 5 (?). 1 

Inv. Wadd ., 6085 (PI. xvi. 15) fPl. I. 3tb 
Variant of B. M., 8. f 

\ 

The obverses of 1 and 2 are similar but not from th£ 
same die. Both types belong to the earliest issues o.f 



THE COINS OF HIEEAPOLIS IN PHEYGIA. 


5 


the town; type 2 is perhaps a little later in style than 
1 and intermediate between the latter and the coins of 
the following types. 

3. Ohv. — Similar. 

Rev. — lEPOn[0] r.j AITHN L, in straight lines. A. K. ; 
behind jyj. 

Copenhagen, 3 ; variant of B. M., 8 ; the 
monogram of magistrate’s name as in B. M., 1. 

4. Ohv. — Similar. 

Rev . — lEPOnOAE I (1) [TON] 1., AOPYKAN[OX] i\, in 
straight lines. A. K. 

Inv. Wadd.j 6086 ; Berlin, 5 [PL I. 4] ; Berlin, 
G (they are = Or. ill., 738, 690; PI. xii. 19). 

The obverses of types 3 and 4 are from the same dies ; 
their style is decidedly later than that of the obverses of 
the preceding coins. The reverse of Inv. Wald., 6086, 
and Berlin, 5, are from the same die ; the reverse of 
Berlin, 6, is similar to them, but not from the same die. 
The lyre frequently appears alone on the coins of this 
city, particularly on those of Augustus : B. M., 97, 107- 
109 ; Berlin, 5 specimens (cf. El. M., 25 ; Or . 11, 739, 
694a) ; Paris, 5S3 ( = Mionnet, iv. 608) ; Inv. Wadd. y 
6141 ; G-otha. Cf. also Mionnet, Supply vii. 384. 

Among the coins with the lyre on the reverse, one, in 
Dr. Imhoof-Blumer’s present collection, merits special 
mention. 

Obv . — TIBEPIOZ r., KA1SAP 1. Head of Tiberius. 

Rev . — I EPAflOAElTQN MENANAPOE; lyre; in field, 7E. 

This coin adds a new name to the list of magistrates 
in the reign of Tiberius, given in Xdptreg, p. 488? The 



6 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


name is of frequent occurrence in the inscriptions of the 
town. 

5. Obv . — AAI PBH NO r., C below. Bust of Lairbenos, 1 radiate, 
with shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Bev . — IGPAno r., A6ITON 1. A. K. Border of dots. 

B. M., 54; Inv. Wadd ., 6107 (PI. xvi. 20) 
[Pl. I. 5] ; Berlin, 66. 


1 As the British Mu^um Catalogue and Imhoof’s KhiiLCtbiatischc 
Manzen show, Hierapolis is the only Phrygian city at which this 
Lairbenos appears ; but here he is represented on a considerable 
number of coins. These have already been collected in the Journ. 
Intern ., xiv. (1912), p. 77. As in making a more thorough study of 
all the coins of this city I have found several more types, I append 
them here for completeness. Six diff erent types may be distinguished. 

1. AAI PBH NO r., C 1. (II. 5). B. M., 51; Inv. Wadd., 6107; Berlin, 

66 (cf. PI. I. 5). 

2. AAIPBHNOC r. (IX. 1). Berlin, 65; Vienna, 19868 (cf. PI. II. 22). 

3. AAlPBHNr., OC1. (IX. 2). Gotha. 

4. AAIP 1., BHNOC r. (XVI. 1-4). B. M., 57 (PI. xxx. 6), 58 ; Paris, 

570, 571 ; Berlin, 67 ; Imhoof, present collection = El, M., 8 ; 

Vienna, 19867, 27707 (cf. PI. III. 38). 

5. AAIP1., BHNOC r. (11.6,7; XXVIII. 7; XXX. 1-2). B. M., 60- 

61; Berlin, 69, 71, 72, 78 (Pythia), 79, 80 (Aktia) ; Paris, 572; 

Munich, 3 (Aktia), 4 (Pythia) ; Inv. Wadd., 6108, 6109, 6111 

(Aktia) ; Vienna, 30614, 31396 ; Athens, 5905 b (cf. PI. IV. 62, 66). 

6. AAIP 1., BHNOC r. (XVI. 5-7; XXI. 9 ; XXX. 3). Ah the alliance- 

coins with the type of L. ; also B. M., 59, 62-64 ; Berlin, 68, 73 

(cf. xdptres, p. 484, 8), 75-77; Paris, 569, 571a; Inv. Wadd., 

6110 (Pythia) ; Vienna, 19869, 30824, 30849; Athens, 19 (Pythia) ; 

Copenhagen, 62 (?) ; Munich, 5 ; Gotha (cf. B. M., PI. lii. 3 ; 

Journ. Intern. d } ArcMol. Num., xiv. 1912, PI. I'. 20). 

The head of L. also appears above on the coins of H. as a counter- 
mark, e.g. Munich, 12 (Claudius), 12a (Nero) ; there are presumably 
other specimens in existence. 

Of these six varieties, 1-3 are of markedly better style, and may be 
ascribed to the period before Caracalla (cf. B.M., 56) ; 4 is later than the 
specimens of 3 ; 6 may with certainty be placed to the period of Philip, 
and 5 to the period before Philip. It differs distinctly from the latest 
type, and points to greater skill on the part of the die-cutters. The 
remarkable outburst of deities peculiar to Asia Minor on the coins of 
Hierapolis at so late a period (besides Lairbenos there is the so-called 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


7 


6. Obv. — AAIP 1., BHNOC r. Bust of Lairbenos, radiate, 

with shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAriOAGIT 1., ONN6QKOPQN r. A. Iv. Border 
of dots. 

B. M., 60 ; Berlin, 71, 72 ; Vienna, 30614. 

7. Obv. — Similar. 

Rev . — IGPAnOAGIT L, nNNGQKOP r. ; QN in field r. 

A, K. Border of dots. 

Paris, 572 (=Mionnet, iv. 590); variant of 

B. M., 61. The obverses of Nos. 6 and 7 are from 
the same die and belong to the period before 
Philip. 

8. Obv. — (AHMOG). 

Rev. — iGPAno i\, AG1TON 1. A. Iv, Border of dots. 

, Copenhagen, 17. 

9. Obv . — (AH MOC), 

Rev. — IGPAno 1., A61TQN r. A. Iv. Border of dots. 

La\ Wadd ., 6118. Nos. 8 and 9 correspond 
to B. M., 67, 68. 

10. Obv. — AH MOC r. Head of youthful Demos laureate. 

Border of dots. 

J2 6l ._iePA r., nOAGlTQN 1. A. K. Border of dots. 

Copenhagen, 15 [PL I. 6] ; Berlin, 90, 91 
(very similar but not from the same reverse die 
as the two preceding coins). The obverses of all 
three are, on the other hand, from the same die. 

11. Obv. — (AH MOC). 

i^._IGPAno 1., A € ITQN r. A. K. Border of dots. 

Gotha. Nos. 10 and 11 are variants of B. M., 
67, 68. 

Hero with the douhlo axe and Men), is explained by the fact that the 
cult of these deities spread considerably in Imperial times. 

On Lairbenos, cf. Philolog ., lxix. 190 ff. A representation of Helios 
which is remarkably similar to the Lairbenos on a coin of Tripolis on 
the Maiandros : B. M., Lydia, 53 (PI, xl. 6). 



8 


NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 


12. Obv. — CGPACV I., NKAHTOC r. Young male bust of 

the Senate, bareheaded, with shoulders draped. 
Border of dots. 

Rev.— lEPAnOAEI 1., TQNNEQKO r., in field PQ 1., N r. 
A. K. Border of dots. 

B. M., 85 ■ Berlin, 70. 

13. Obv. — BOVAH in a straight line on r. ; veiled bust of 

Boule with stephane. 

Rev. — [IjEPAIlOAEI 1., TUN r., in straight lines. A. K. 

Berlin, 12 = Kl. M., 4; with the obverse, 
cf. XXIII. 1. 

14. Obv.— (HE BOVAH). 

Rev . — lEPAno 1., A E ITHN r. A. Iv. Border of dots. 
Inv. Wctdd.y 6125. 

15. Obv. — AVKAINEPTPAI 1., ANOCCEBrEPAAKIKOC r. 

Head of Trajan, laureate. Border of dots. 

Rev.— IEPA r., nOAEITQN 1. A. K. Border of dots. 

Imhoof-Blurner (present collection) = do. 
Zur. gr . a. tom. MicnzJc ., p. 152, 7 fPl. I. 71 : 
Vienna, 32411. 

16. Obv. — Antoninus Pius. 

Rev. — IEPA r., nOAEITON 1. A. K. Border of dots. 

B. M., 134; Paris, 597; Inv. Wadd n 6153, 
6154; Vienna, 32810, 

17. Obv. — Antoninus Pius. 

Rev. — lEPAno r., AEITON 1. A. K. Border of dots. 

Berlin 154, 155. Variants of B. M. 135 
(PI. xxxi. 15). 

18. Obv. — Otacilia Severa. 

Rev. IEP AflO 1., AEITQN r. A. K. Behind the god 
a laurel tree. Border of dots. 

Paris, 608 ( = Mionnet, iv. 645). This belongs 
to the group of coins described in XdptTcs, 
p. 484, 8, where the obverse is erroneously 
described as Lairbenos. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


9 


19. Obv . — Philippus Junior. 

Rev . — lePAno L, A€iTflN r. A. K. Behind the god 
a laurel-tree. 

Copenhagen, 53 ; similar to the coins de- 
scribed in Xd/jtrcs, p. 4S4, S, 

20. Obv . — Philippus Junior. 

_ft er _iePAnOA 1., e ITQN r. A. Iv. Without 
laurel -tree. 

Inv . Wadd., 6181 [PL I. 8]. 


Ha. ABES. 

Obv . — (©EON CYNKAHTON). Senate. 

Rev . — IEPAHO r., A1TON 1. In straight lines; T. A. 

MAIANAPiO[E] r. outside. Ares with short 
chiton, cuirass and helmet, standing to L, hold- 
ing a figure of Nike Stephanephoros in out- 
stretched r. hand, and 1. on spear. 

Inv. Wadd., 6127 [Pl. I. 9]. The legend of 
the obverse has not been found on any other 
specimen of the coins of Hierapolis ; but as the 
reverse legend shows there can be no question 
of the attribution of the coin to Hierapolis. 


III. ARTEMIS. 

1. Obv , — Head of young Dionysos, crowned with ivy; 
thyrsos in front. 

Rev . — IGPAno L, A G1TON r. Artemis wearing short 
chiton and fluttering mantle, standing r., hold- 
ing bow in outstretched 1. hand and drawing 
arrow from quiver with r. 

Beilin, 63 ; Paris, 566 [Pl. I. 10] ; Vienna, 
30834. 

To the north-east of Hierapolis lies a considerable 
stretch of high ground, which, now quite bare, must have 



10 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


been thickly wooded in ancient times and been an 
excellent hunting ground. 

1a. Obv. — APXHreTHC. Tete radiee d’Apollon. 

Bev. — l6PAnOA€ITON. Diane chasseresse debout, a 

gauche, prenant de la main droite une fl&che 
dans son carquois pendu derriere le dos, et 
tenant un arc de la gauche. 

Mionnet, Supply vii. 381, from Sestini, Descr. 
di altre Med. gr. del Mus. Fofit., pars iii. p. 78, 
N o. 1. 

2. Obv. — APXHTG r., THC 1. Bust of Apollo Archegetes, 

with lyre at breast, shoulders draped. Border 
of dots. 

Bev. — iePAno 1., A61TQN r. Cultus-statue of A(rtemis) 
E(phesia), standing to front, with usual sup- 
ports, between two stags, looking up. Border 
of dots. 

B. M., 34 (PL xxix. 10); Inv. Wadd 6103 ; 
cf. Mionnet, Supjpl ., vii. 380. 

3. Obv . — Trajanus. 

Bev, — 16 PA no 1., AEITON r. A. E. 

Paris, 595 = Mionnet, StijtpL, vii. 387 ; St. 
Petersburg (the reverses of these two coins are 
from the same die); B. M., 130; Berlin, 152 
(these reverses from the same die?); Vienna, 
27708 ; 19875 ; cf. also Mionnet, iv. 617). 

4. Obv . — M. Aurelius. 

Bev. — l €PAno 1., AG1TON r. A. E., with taenia hang- 
ing from her hands. 

Inv . Wctdd ., 6155. 

5. Obv. — Faustina Junior. 

Bev. — IGPOno L, AGITflN r. A. E., with taenia hanging 
from her hands. 

Copenhagen, 42 [PL I. 11]. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


11 


6. Obv . — Otacilia Severa. 

Bev . — IGPAno 1., AGITON r. A. E. between two stags, 
looking up. Border of dots. 

B. M., 150 (PI. xxxii. 3), 151 ; Copenhagen, 
59. 

7. — Obv . — Philippus J unior. 

Bev. — i6PAno 1., AGITON r. A. E. between two stags, 
looking up. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 196-198- Paris, 612 = Mionnet, iv. 
648; cf. also Mionnet, iv. 641 [obv. Philippus I. **). 


IV. ASKLEPIOS (HYGIEIA). 

1. Obv. — Bust of Asklepios, with serpent-staff at breast. 

Border of dots. 

Bev. — lePAnOA G I 1., TON r. Winged Nemesis standing 
1. with r. hand holding a piece of her garment 
at her breast, and in lowered 1. bridle. 
Border of dots. 

B. M., 16 (PL xxix. 6), 17 ; Berlin, 50; Inv. 
Wadd ., 6092; Hunter, 3 (IGPAno/AGITON) = 
Mionnet, Supply vii. 365, is a variant of this 
type. 

2. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Bev. — IGPAFIOAGI 1., TON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 49 = M. Gr 400, 106 [PI. I. 12]. 
Variant of B. M., 16, 17. 

3. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Bev . — IGPAflOAG 1., [TON r. Similar. Border of 
dots. 

Copenhagen, 5. The obverses of the last 
three types are from the same die ; the reverses 
of 1-3 are not from the same dies as any of 
XXI. Museo Nazionale (Naples), i. 8620, is 
another specimen of 1-3. 



12 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


4. Obv . — Similar. Border of clots. 

Rev . — l€PAno 1., A6ITON r. Hygieia standing r., 
feeding a serpent. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 39 [PI. I. 13] ; Athens 5906 "'' ; Inv . 
Wcidcl, 6093 ; Vienna, 27459 ; the Hague. The 
obverses from the same dies as those of the pre- 
ceding types. Cf. B. M., 50. 

5. Obv . — Head of bearded Herakles, with club on shoulder. 

Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAno 1., A0TQN r. Asklepios and Hygieia 
standing face to face ; Asklepios to front, head 
1., upper part of body naked, r. hand on serpent- 
staff, 1. concealed. Hygieia, standing i\, feed- 
ing a serpent in 1. hand. Border of dots. 

B. M., 51 (PL xxx. 5) ; Berlin, 25 [PL 1. 14] ; 
Munich, 17 ; Copenhagen, 58; Vienna, 19866, 
29117 ; Hunter, 1; cf. also Mionnet, iv. 582; 
Leake, p. 66. 

6. Obv . — [l]€POno 1., ? r. Head of city goddess, 

with high turreted crown. 

Rev. — Inscription illegible. Asklepios and Hygieia as 
before. 

Copenhagen, 21 (= Bamus, 3). The coin 
perhaps belongs to Hieropolis in Phrygia. 

7. Obv . — Head of youthful Dionysos, crowned with ivy 

(thyrsos before breast ?). 

Rev. — lEPAno 1., A€ITQN r. Asklepios and Hygieia as 
before. 

Berlin, 64 ; Inv . Wadd ., 6098. Cf. B. M., 51. 
The reverses are similar to those of Ho. 5, but 
not from the same die : cf. B. M., 51. 

8. Obv. — Crispina. 

Rev. — lePAno L, A6ITON r. Asklepios standing to 
front, head 1., upper part of body nude, leaning 
r. hand on serpent-staff, and 1. hand concealed. 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 163 [PI. I. 15]. 



THE COINS OF IIIERAPOLIS IN ITIRYGIA. 


13 


9. Obv . — NGH 1., KOPON r. Turreted bust of city god- 

dess, shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Bcv.~ I GPAnOA L, NGQKO r., in field, GITQ/N L, PQN 
r., coiling bearded serpent. Border of dots. 

Paris, 575“ [PI. I. 16] ; Imhoof-Blumer 
(present collection). On the error in the 
obverse, cf. Pftiloloy. lxix. 250 ; on the serpent 
of Asklepios, cf. Xdptres, p. 484, note. 

10. Obv. — Elagabalus. 

Bev . — IGPACIO AGUTIN 1. and r. ; in field GQK 1,, 
OPO r. ; N in exergue. Similar. Border of 
dots. 

Inv. WadcLy 6165. 

The hot springs, whose waters had medicinal powers, 
that welled up in the cavern at Hierapolis, as well as the 
great baths of the city itself, explain the large number 
of coins with representations of these two deities. 


Y. ATHENA. 

1. Obv . — Bust of Athena, wearing crested Corinthian 

helmet and aegis on breast. Border of dots. 

Bev. — IGPAn r., OAG1TQN 1. Nemesis standing 1. with 
r. hand plucking chiton from her breast, and 
holding bridle in lowered 1. hand. Border of 
dots. 

B. M., 12 (PI. xxix. 5) ; Berlin, 54 ; Inv. 
Wadd.y 6095 (PI. xvi. IS). 

2. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Bev. — IGPAno r., AGUTIN 1. Nemesis, as preceding. 
Border of dots. 

B. M., 13-15; Berlin, 55; Paris, 564 =r 
Mionnet, iv. 583 ; Athens ; Munich, 6, 9 ; 
Copenhagen, 7, 8 ; "Vienna, 19856, 28687, 30890; 
Hunter, 6 ; Gotha, three specimens. (Cf. Mion- 
net, Sugjpl., vii. 361-362.) The obverses of 
Nos. 1 and 2 are from the same die. 



14 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


2a. O&a. — B ust of Athena 1., wearing crested Corinthian 
helmet and aegis on breast. 

Rev. — iGPAnOA 1 \, 6ITQ N 1.. Zeus Laodikeios, stand- 
ing L, holding eagle in r. hand, and resting 1. 
on sceptre. 

Hunter, 5 = Mionnet, Suj)jjl. 3 vii. 360. Type 
XX VI. 4 (obv. Sarapis) is a variant of this coin. 

3. Obv. — Head of Athena, in round Athenian helmet with 

stephane and three crests. • Border of dots. 

Rev. — iGPAnO r., AGITON 1. Hermes, naked, standing 
to front, head L, holding purse in r. hand and 
caduceus and chlamys in 1. Border of dots. 

B. M., 21 ; Copenhagen, 65 ; Kl. M., 2 (PI. 
vii. 28) ; Vienna, 32914. Belongs to the period 
between Domitian and Antoninus Pius. 

4. Obv . — Bust of Athena 1., wearing crested Corinthian 

helmet and aegis on breast. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAno r., AG l TON 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

B. M., 49 ; Berlin, 56, 57 ; Paris, 563a ; 
Vienna, 19855. Obverses from the same die. 
The reverses of the three last specimens are 
similar to Berlin, 56, but not from the same 
die. 

5. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev . — 1GP A n O 1., AGITHN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 58 ; Inv. Wadd ., 6094 ; Copenhagen, 
9 ; Munich, 18 ; Gotha ; variants of B. M., 49. 
The obverse similar to the preceding, but not 
from the same die. 

6. Obv. — Bust of young Herakles, with club at shoulder, 

and lion skin knotted round neck. Border of 
dots. 

Rev. — lGPAflOA r., G1TQN 1. Athena helmeted, advanc- 
ing, wielding spear in uplifted r. hand, and 
round shield on 1. arm. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 37 [PI. I. 17] ; variant of B. M., 24. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


15 


7. Obi\ Bust of young Hermes, with caduceus ; shoulders 
draped. Border of dots. 

Rev f — IGPAn L, OAGITQN r. Athena Promachos. 
Similar. Border of dots. 

Lie. Wadd 6097 [PI. I. 18]; Berlin, 38. 


8. Obv . — Trajan (?). 

Rev . — ie[P]Ar]0 r., [AG1TQN] 1. Helmeted Athena stand- 
ing r., holding a statuette of Nike Stephane- 
phoros in r. hand, and leaning 1. on spear. 

Athens, 5905 b ; B. M., 132, a coin of 
Hadrian, differs slightly from this. 

9. Obv . — IGPACY 1., NKAHTOC r. Young bust of the 

Senate, with shoulders draped. 

Rev . — IGPAIIOAGIT 1., QNNGQKO r., PQN in field 1. 

Helmeted Athena, in long chiton, standing L, 
in r. hand phiale, and 1. hand on spear against 
which leans shield. Border of dots. 

Vienna, 28160, 29994; Munich, 13. B. M., 
128 (PL xxxi, 13), a coin of Trajan, differs 
from this purely conventional representation, 
which occurs frequently on Phrygian coins. 


10. Obv.— 1GPACYN r., KAHTOC 1. Young bust of the 
Senate, shoulders draped. 

Rev. — i€PAnO r., AG1THN 1. Athena standing r., r. 

hand on spear, and 1. on shield. Naked Hermes 
1., facing her, holding purse in r. and caduceus 
and chlamys in 1. Border of dots. 

Athens, 5905a = El. M., 6 ; Imhoof, present 
collection — do., Zur griech. u. rom . Munzh ., 
p. 151, 3; PI. vi. 17 [PI. II. 19]. The coin 
belongs to the time of Trajan (cf. Imhoof, 
Kl. M., 6). The reverses of the two coins are 
from the same die as the following type (obv. 
Trajan). 3 



16 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


11. Obv. — Trajan, 

Bev. — IGPAnO r., AGITON 1. Similar. 

B. M., 129 (Pi. xxxi. 14); Inv. Wcidtl , 
6151. 

12. Obv. — M. Aurelius as Caesar. 

Bev . — IGPAno r., A6ITHN 1. Athena standing r., r. 

hand on spear and 1. hand on the shield. 
Naked Hermes 1., facing her, holding a purse 
in r. hand and caduceus *and chlamys in L 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 157 ; Inv . Wadd 6156. Their 
reverses are similar, but not from the same 
dies as 10 and 11. 

13. Obv. — M. Aurelius as Caesar. 

Bev.— above, XPVCOPOAC in exergue. Athena 

standing r., leaning r. hand on spear and 1. 
on shield; facing her, standing to 1., naked 
Hermes, holding purse in r. hand and cadu- 
ceus and chlamys in 1. ; between them the 
bearded (?) river-god Chrysoroas lying on 
ground to L, upper half of body naked, hold- 
ing in r. hand poppy (?), and leaning 1. elbow 
on an over-turned vase, from which water 
flows. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 156 [PL II. 20]. 

Athena and Hermes appear on these coins as the pro- 
tectors of the very extensive commerce of Hierapolis. 


VI. BULL. 

Obv . — Bust of Apollo Lairbenos, radiate; shoulders 
draped. 

Bev. IGPAnOA above, €1 r., TUN in exergue. Bull 
advancing r. ° 

Berlin, 31 [PL IV. 59]; Inv. Wadd., 
6106. The type of the bull is no doubt 



THE COINS OP HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


17 


connected with the bull-sacrifice, the so-called 
Taurobolia, which was celebrated at the cavern 
of Hierapolis in honour of Kybele ; cf. Philolog., 
lxix. 187. 


VII. BULL’S HEAD. 

1. Obv . — Bust of Apollo Lairbenos, radiate; shoulders 

draped. Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPAnO r., A0TQN 1. Bull’s head facing, above 
it a large crescent, above which are two stars 
joined by a vertical line. Border of dots. 

Imhoof-Blumer (present collection) [PL IV. 
60] = do., Zur gr. u. rom. Munzk ., p. 151, 2 ; 
Berlin, 32 = M. Gr., 401, 109 (with note) ; cf. 
also op. eit. and Philolog., lxix. 194. 

2. Obv . — Head of young Herakles, with lion’s skin. 

Rev.— l€PAnO r., A6ITON 1. Similar. 

Inv. Wctdd., 6186. The reverse is not from 
the same die as the reverses of the two preced- 
ing coins. The type is similar to that of the 
two coins of Hieropolis, B. M., 1 ; Kl. M , ', 8, 244, 
1 (but belonging to Hierapolis). To this type 
probably belongs also the coin in Mionnet, iv. 
620 (from Vaillant, Num. gr.'), Obv. ANTI NOON 
©EON. Buste d’Antinous. Rev. lEPAnOAIC. 
Croissant avec une etoile. The description, 
however, is quite inaccurate. The bull’s-head 
type is probably connected with Men ; cf. 
Philolog., lxix. 194 


VIII. CHRYSOROAS. 

1. Obv . — AHMOC. Bust of young Demos, bareheaded (?). 
Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPAnOAI(l) TON above, XPYCO/POAC in exergue. 

Bearded river-god Chrysoroas, with upper half 
of body naked lying 1. on ground, holding in r. 
hand, which rests on knee, poppy, leaning 1. 

YOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 


0 



18 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


arm on inverted vase from which water flows. 
Border of dots. 

_ B. M., 43 ; Gotha. The reading of the reverse 
is co nfi rmed by the Gotha specimen. 

*2. Obv. — AHMOC r. Bust of young Demos, bareheaded (?) ; 
shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAIIOAI (!) TON above, XPYCOPO/AC in ex- 
ergue. Similar bearded (?) river-god Chry- 
soroas. Border of dots. • 

Berlin, 85 ; Paris, 576 = Mionnet, iv. 595. 
Variants of B. M., 43. 

3. Obv. — AH r., MOC 1. Bust of bearded Demos, bare- 

headed ; shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAnOAGITON, in exergue XPYCO/POAC. 

Bearded river-god Chrysoroas as before. 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 86 ; Munich, 8. Variants of B. M., 
44 (PI. xxx. 3), 45. 

3a. Obv. — AHMOC r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev.— IGPAnOAG [l]TON, in exergue XPYCO/POAC. 
Similar. Border of dots. 

Vienna, 32913. 

4. Obv. — (AH MOC). 

Rev. — IGPAnOAGITON, in exergue NEQKOP/QN. Similar. 
Border of dots. 

Copenhagen, 16. Variant of B. M., 70. 

5. Obv. — IGPAnOAGI 1., TON r. Bust of Artemis 1., with 

quiver and bow ; shoulders draped. Border of 
dots. 

Rev. — XPYCO/POAC in exergue. Similar. Border of 
dots. 

Imhoof, present collection (PI. II. 21] ; 
Berlin, 61, 62 (cf. M. Gr„ 403, 111); Inv. 
Wctdd., 6100. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


19 


6. Obv . — Caracalla (Elagabalus ?). 

Bev — IGPAnO 1., A€ITQ r., N in field 1., NGQKOP/OtN 
in exergue. Similar. Border of dots. 

B. M.j 142 (cf. 141) ; Berlin, 177, 178 (= KL 
M., 33 ). 


7. Obv . — Gordianus. 

Bev . — IGPA 1., no A r., 6ITQN in exergue. River-god 
Chrysoroas, as before ; cornucopiae in 1. arm 
which .rests on vase. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 183 ; the only coin of Hierapolis 
that has as yet been found with the portrait 
of Gordianus. 

The Chrysoroas was most probably a mountain stream 
flowing to north of Hierapolis. As the name shows, its 
sands must have contained gold. On games on the 
Chrysoroas, cf. von Papen, loc. cit. 


IX. DEMETER. 

1. oi V ' — AAIPBHNOC r. Bust of Lairbenos radiate ; 

shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Bev . — [ieP]AnOA[GI]THN r. Demeter, in biga, going to 
r., holding flaming torch in each hand. 

Berlin, 65 = M. Gr 401, 107 [PI. II. 22], 
described by Imhoof-Blumer, loc. cit, as Selene. 
A second specimen (rev. worn smooth) is Vienna, 
19868. The type of the reverse is certain, as 
this variety of Lairbenos is only once found on 
the obverse of coins of Hierapolis. The reproduc- 
tion of the obverse is from the Vienna specimen. 

2. Obv , — AAIPBHN r., OC 1. Bust of Lairbenos radiate; 

shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Bev . — 16 [PAnOAeiTON] Above and on r. Demeter, as 
before. Border of dots. 

Gotha. The attribution of the coin to Hiera- 
polis is confirmed by the obverse type. This 
type of Demeter is rare ; at least the B. M. Gat 
has not another in Phrygia, nor can Imhoof 

C 2 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


quote another for Asia Minor. There are two 
s im ilar types of Selene (or Hekate) at Hiera- 
polis (B. M., 55, 56). As the goddess is 
represented on these two coins w T ith the crescent 
on her shoulders, she cannot be Demeter, nor 
can the coins be from the same die. The two 
goddesses, however, are represented as very 
similar to one another. 

3, Qi Vt — Bust of young Dionysos, crowned with ivy, 

shoulders draped ; thyrsos in front. Border of 
dots. 

Bev. — i€PA["10 1., AGITQN r. Demeter standing 1., 
holding ear of corn in r. hand, and leaning 1. 
on torch. Border of dots. 

Gotha = Mionnet, Sujppl . , vii. 367 ; cf. 
Kl Iff, 3. 

4. Obv. — (IGPA CYNKAHTOC.) 

Bev.— l€PAnOA r., 6ITHN 1. Demeter, as before, with 
veil. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd ., 6128 ; Copenhagen, 25 ( = Ramus, 
6) ; cf. also Mionnet, iv. 599. The reverse 
legend of a similar coin (SuppL, vii. 382) is 
iePAnOA€lTQN NGQKOPON. B. M., 127 (PL 
xxxi. 1 2 ; obverse Agrippina) is quite a different 
variety. The goddess is seated on a throne to 
1., holding ear of com and poppy in r. 

5, Obv. — Caracalla? Elagabalus? 

Bev. — I€PAnOA € L, 1TONN6QKOP r., QN in field r. 

Demeter advancing to r,, holding lighted 
torches in r. hand behind, and in lowered 1. 
hand. Flowing veil over head, the ends of 
which fall down over arms. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 168 = Kl. Iff., 34 [PI. II. 23]. 

6. Obv. — Caracalla ? Elagabalus ? 

Bev. — 1 6PAI10A€ IT 1., QNN6OK0PQN r. Demeter 
standing L, ear of corn in r. hand, and leaning 
1. on lighted torch. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 172 [PI. II. 24], 173 ; Inv. Wadd., 
6163 ■ cf. also Mionnet, iv. 629. 



THE COINS OF HIEBAPOLIS IN PHKYGIA. 21 

7. Obv. — Caracalla? or Elagabalus? 

Rev.— I6PAnOA€I T L, ONN€QKOP£1 r. 3 N in field 1. 
Similar. Border of dots. 

Munich. Inv. Wadd ., 6194 (obv., Caracalla 
or Elagabalus ; rev., I GPOnO 1., A6ITON r. 
Demeter standing L, ear of corn in lowered r., 
leaning 1. on a torch), is a coin of Hieropolis in 
Phrygia. 

8. Obv. — Caracalla ? Elagabalus ? 

Bet?.— IG P A n OAEI TON, in exergue N6OK0PQ/N. 

Demeter standing r. in biga of winged serpents, 
holding flaring torches in r. hand behind, and 
in uplifted 1. hand; flowing veil on head. 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 170 [PL II. 25]. A second and 
similar specimen is Mionnet, Supjjl., vii. 393 
(Demeter 1.). 

9. Obv. — Philippus I. 

Bev. — IG PAflOAeiTQ N above. Demeter standing 1. 

in biga of winged serpents, holding torches in 
uplifted r. and lowered 1. hand. Border of 
dots. 

Inv. Wadd., 6172 [PI. II. 26] ; cf. El. M., 36. 

Below the plateau on which Hierapolis is built lies 
the plain of the Lykos valley, the fertility of which 
renders it particularly adapted for the cultivation of 
cereals. 


X. DIONYSOS. 

1. Obv . — Bust of city-goddess, with turreted crown; 
shoulders draped. 

Bev . — [!6PAn]OA €ITON Dionysos, naked except for 
chlamys hanging over his arm, standing 1., 
kantharos in r. hand, and 1. on thyrsos ; at his 
feet a panther L, looking back (upwards 9). 

Hunter, 2 = Mionnet, Sujppl. 9 vii. 371. 
Variant of B. M., 48 (reverses of the two from 
the same die?). 



22 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


2. Obv . — Head of Dionysos, crowned with ivy, thyrsos in 
front. Border of dots. 

Itev. — lGPAnOA 6ITDN : Dionysos, naked except for 
chlamys, to front, head 1., kantharos in r. over 
panther at his feet, 1. hand on thyrsos. Border 
of dots. 

B. M., 48. This type of Dionysos is frequent 
on Phrygian coins ; cf. B. M. Index. The thyrsos 
alone, with taenia around it, is found on a coin 
of Hierapolis, B. M., 12.6 (obv. Agrippina). 
The volcanic soil of Hierapolis must have been 
peculiarly suited for viniculture. 

8. Obv.— AVT. A1AIOC. ANTflNGINOC. Tete lauree d’Anto- 
nin le pieux. 

Rev, — €m .... IGPAnOAGITQN Bacchus nu et debout, 
le cantharum d’une main, le thyrse de lhi litre. 

Mionnet, iv. 621 (Cab. de M. Cousinery). 

4. Obv. — AVTKM AV P 1., ANTON 61 NOCCGB r. Bust of 
Caracalla, with cuirass and palud amentum. 

Rev . — IGPAnOAGIT 1., 0NN60K r., in field 1. OP ON 
Dionysos, naked except for cloak hanging from 
his shoulders, standing L, kantharos in lowered 
r. hand, 1. on thyrsos. Border of dots. 

Imhoof (present collection) [PI. II. 27] ; 
Mionnet, Supply vii. 396. 


XT. DOUBLE AXE. 


1. Obv . — ^ABIOZ r., MA-IM02 1., in straight lines; head 
of Fabius Maximus (pro-consul under Augustus, 
5 B.C.). 


r> ZO21M0Z « , . 

Mev. ^ | /yon ATP l£ r-1 111 stral S' ht lmes > 
1 . “ ■“ 


lEPOnOAEITON 

- XAPAH 

Double axe, the handle bound “with taenia. 


B. M., 93 (PI. xxxi. 1), 94 ; Berlin, 106 (with 
duplicate); Copenhagen, 55; Munich, 19; also 
Paris, 582 (but with obv. Augustus : otherwise 
Xdptres, p. 486). 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


23 


2. Obv . — Nero. 

■ Rev ~AHT\OXO'E V '’ in stl ' ai S llt lines, lEPAflOMTQN 1. 
Double axe with serpent twined round handle. 

B. M., 117 ; Berlin, 14S = Pinder und Pried- 
lander, i. 83 ; Paris, 592 = Mionnet, iv. 616 ; 
Vienna, 32912; Imhoof (present collection). 
The legend on the reverse is confirmed by the 
Berlin and Paris specimens. 

3. Obv. — Augustus. 

BeV '~AW A MCMOY V ’’ in strai S hfc liries = lEPAflOAlTON 
1. Double axe with serpent twined round 
handle, surmounted by head of Lairbenos r., 
radiate. 

B. M., 106 (PI. xxxi. 7) ; Berlin, 116 = Arch. 
Zeit., 1847, 125 ; Berlin, 117=157. 31., 22 ; Inv. 
Wadd., 6140 ; Munich. 

4. Obv. — NEPDN 1., KAIZAP r. Bust of Nero. Border of 

dots. 

N.B. — The obverse of the Hague specimen is 
countennarked with the head of Lairbenos. 

Bev.— lEPAnOAEiTON 1., in straight lines 

OF1TOMOZ ° 

r. Cornucopiae, with fruits and fillet, double 
axe in field behind. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 150 = K1.3L, 28 ; Berlin, 149 [PI. II. 
28] = Gr. 31., 739, 697 ; Vienna, 19874 = 1ST. Z, 
iv. 239 ; Hague. On types 1-4, cf. Plvilolog ., 
lxix. 192. 


XII. HEKATE. 

Obv . — Elagabalus. 

Bev . — lePAnOAEIT; in field, QN 1.; NGOK[OPQN] r. 

Hekate triformis, with torches in hands. Border 
of dots. 

Gotha = Mionnet, iv. 632 = Sestini, Lettere, 
tom. ix. p. 63. 



24 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


XIII. HERAKLES. 

1. Obv. — IGPAflOAIC r. Bust of city-goddess with turreted 

crown ; shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev . — Xo legend. Bearded Rerakles standing naked 
to r.j r. hand at back, 1. resting on club covered 
by lion’s skin. Border of dots. 

Imhoof-Blumer (present collection) = do., Z. 
g> tech. u. rom. Munzlc p. 152, 4, PI. vi. 15 

[PI. II. 30]. 

2. Obv . — Xo legend. Bust of city-goddess with turreted 

crown; shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPAno L, AGITHN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 24 = Kl. AT., 7. The above example 
shows that the identification of the obverse type 
as Tyche, given there, is erroneous. 

3. Obv. — (BOVAH), 

Rev . — IGPAflO 1., AGITCtN r. Herakles, as before ; the 
lion’s skin is not well defined. Border of dots. 
Inv . Wadd., 6124. 

4. Obv . — Xo legend. Bust of city-goddess with turreted 

crown; shoulders draped. 

Rev . — IGPAno 1., AGITHN r. Bearded Herakles 
standing 1. naked, 1. hand on club covered by 
lion’s skin. Border of dots. 

Gotha [PI. II. 31]. 

5. Obv. — AV. K. M. AVP. ANTQNGINOC. CG. Buste de 

Caracalla laur4, avec une cuirasse sur la 
poitrine. 

Rev . — IGPAnOAGITQN. NGQKOPQN. Temple octostyle, 
dans l’entr4e duquel est Hercule debout, la 
main droite posee sur sa massue. 

Mionnet, Suppl., vii. 395, from Pell., Supp i, 
p. 37, PL ii. Xo. 6. 

Herakles was worshipped in Hierapolis as _ the patron 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


25 


deity of athletes ; in this capacity he was called Kpars- 
po<j>pojv (laser., 46). Special games were instituted in 
his honour. The gymnasia, of which the town had two, 
were dedicated to him. Statues of the god are mentioned 
(laser., 27). 


XIV. HERO (Standing). 

1. Obv. — APXHTe 1 \, THC 1. Bust of young Apollo- 

Lairbenos radiate ; shoulders draped. Border 
of dots. 

Bev. — IGPAn r., OAGIT ON 1. Young Hero standing 1., 
with cuirass or short chiton, branch, or wreath 
in outstretched r. hand, double axe and chlamys 
in 1. Border of dots. 

B. M., 23 (PI. xxix. 8) ; Berlin, 34 ; Paris, 
565 = Mionnet, iv. 585; Vienna, 33264. 

2. Obv. — Similar. 

Bev. — l€PAn x\, OAGITQ N 1. Similar. Border of dots. 
Berlin, 35. 

3. Obv. — Similar. 

Bev.—iePAHO r., A€IT ON 1. Similar. Border of dots. 
Berlin, 33. 

4. Obv. — Similar. 

Bev. — lePAnO r., AGITON 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 36. Xos. 2-4 are variants of B. M., 23. 
The obverses of all four are from the same die. 

5. Obv. — X€VC L, TPOIOC r. Head of Zeus Troios bound 

with taenia. Border of dots. 

Bev. — IGPAPIO r., AG1TH N 1. Young Hero, standing 
1., with cuirass ; branch in r., in 1. chlamys 
and double axe. Border of dots. 

Ini ?. Wadd., 6090 (PI. xvi. 17 [PL II. 32]), 
Variant of B. M., 41. Coin of about the time 



26 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


of Hadrian (e£. KL M., 12). The Hero is 
represented as beardless on this coin, while 
lie is bearded on the following coins. Whether 
we ought to recognize in Nos. 5-7 the repre- 
sentation of an Emperor, as Irahoof supposes 
(cf. Kl Jf., 11, 12), is doubtful. On the obverse 
die, cf. under XXXII. 

6. Obv. — NeVCTPO r., IOC 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev.— lePAno AG 1., I TONNGQ r., XOP/ON in field 1. 
and r. Similar. Border of dots. 

B. M., 4-7 (PI. xxx. 4:); Berlin, 99 = Kl. 3/., 
12. The obverse from the same die as the 
obverse of KL M., 13 (cf. above, I. 2). 

7. Obv.— IGPACV L, NKAHTOC r. Youthful bust of Senate, 

bareheaded; shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev.— IGPAnO AG 1., I TQNNGQr., KOP/QN infield 1. 
and r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 100 = KL M., 11. Variant of B. M., 
84. The reverse from the same die as No. 6. 
The coins of types Nos. 6 and 7 belong to the 
third century (cf. Kl. JIT., 10). 

8. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAn OAGI 1., T HNNGOK r., OP Q/N in field 1. 
and r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Inv . Wadd., 6130; Munich, 14. A second 
variant of B. M., 84. 

9. Obv. — (AH MOC). 

Rev. — IGPAIIO r., AGIT UN 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd., 6121. 

9 a. Obv. — AH MOC r. Bust of young Demos, bareheaded; 

shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAnO r., AG1TQ N 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Vienna, 33413. Variant of the preceding 

type. 



THE COINS OF HIEHAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


27 


10. Obv. — Augustus. 

Rev . — MENI2KOE/AIOIAOY r., I EPAflOAITQN 1., infield 
r. T, 1. • T- Naked Hero standing L, cloak 
over back, in r. hand a phiale, in 1. double 
axe. 

Berlin, 118 = Kl. M., 23 ; Paris, 586 = 
Mionnet, iv. 607 ; Inv. TVadJ., 6133 ; Copen- 
hagen, 34 ; Vienna, 29945, 32390. 


11. Obv . — Antoninus Pius. 

Rev . — lEPAno r., A6ITF1 N 1. Young Hero standing 
L, with short chiton or cuirass and shoes, 
holding branch in r. hand, in 1. double axe 
and chlamys. 

Copenhagen, 41. Variant of B. M., 133. 


12. Obv. — Elagabalus. 

Rev . — lePAnOAGITQ 1., NNEQKO r., PHN in field 1. 

Naked Hero standing 1., cloak on back ; in r. 
hand fruits (?), and in 1. double axe. Border 
of dots. 

Berlin, 176; Paris, 604. Cf. also under 
Dionysos. 


13. Obv . — Otacilia Sever a. 

Rev. — iGPAn o ]., AEITQN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd ., 6180 [PI. II. 33].. Is the 
type on a unique coin of Hierapolis in the 
B. M. (149, obv. Philip I) connected with this 
Hero ? : two naked (T) figures standing face to 
face, each with mantle hanging behind him, 
holding spear in 1. and phiale in r. over 
lighted altar between them. Cf. Rhilolog ., 
lxix. 190. 



28 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE* 


XV. HERO (Riding). 

1. Obv. — XGVC 1., BON IOC r. Head of Zeus Bozios bound 

with taenia (?). Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPA below, nOAGIT 1., O above, N r. Young 
Hero, riding to r., with fluttering chlamys, 
double axe on shoulder. Border of dots. 

B. M., 42 (PI. xxx. 2) ; Inv. Wadd. f 6088 (PI. 
xvi. 16) ; Copenhagen, 2 ; Dresden; cf. Mionnet, 
Sujppl ., vii. 375. 

2. Obv . — Similar. 

Rev. — IGPAflOAGIT below and 1., Q above, N r. Similar. 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 15 = M. Gr ., 401, 106 ; Munich, 7 
[PL II. 34]; Vienna, 32809. Variant of 
B. M., 42. The obverses of both types are from 
the same die. Cf. Imhoof-Blumer, on M. Gr., 
401, 106; PMlolog lxix. 236. 

3. Obv . — AHMOC r. Head of young Demos, laureate. 

Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAn 1., O above, AGITI1N r. Similar. Border 
of dots. 

Berlin, 89 ; Vienna, 28725. Variant of 
B. M., 69. 

4. Obv . — (A HMO C). 

Rev. — I € PAIIOAGITQ N r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd 6117 [PL III. 35]. Variant of 
B. M., 69. Eor a further representation of this 
Hero, with Demos on the obverse, cf. Museo 
Xazionale (Naples), i. 8615. 

5. Obv. — BOVAH r. Bust of Boule, veiled and laureate. 

Border of dots. 

Rev. — IG PAnOAGlTON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 11; Inv. Wadd., 6123 (Pl. xvi. 
23) ; Vienna, 30838, 30910 ; Copenhagen, 14 
( = Ramus, 2 = Mionnet, Stijgjl., vii. 374). The 
reverses from the same die ; cf. B. M., 77, 78 
(Pl. xxx. 8) ; time of Caracalla. 



THE COINS OF HIEKAPOLIS IN PHHYGTA. 


29 


6. Obv. — repo 1., VCl A r. Bust of Gerousia, veiled and 

laureate. Border of dots. 

Rev. — 1EPA 1., nOAGIT r., O.N below. Similar. Border 
of dots. 

Copenhagen, 13. Variant of B. M., 79 (PI. 
xxx. 9), 80. 

7. Obv . — rG L, POVCIA r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev. — 1GPA 1., -nOAGIT r., ON below. Similar, Border 
of dots. 

Berlin, 82 [Pl. III. 36]; Gotha (rev.). 
Variant of B. M,, 79, 80. 

8. Obv . — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev . — lGPAn L, O AGITQ N r. Similar. Border of 
dots. 

Berlin, 83, 84 ; Vienna, 30835, 19864 ; Paris, 
573 (rev.) = Mionnet, iv. 592. Variant of 
B. M., 81. Bor further representations of this 
Hero with Gerousia on obverse, cf. Museo Na- 
zionale (Naples), i. 8616; Leake, p. 66; Supply 
p. 58. 

The same Hero (riding) is frequently found on coins 
of the earlier Imperial period which also have magis- 
trates’ names. As these have already been collected 
in XctpLTEg , pp. 485 £f, I shall only briefly detail the 
specimens concerned here again. 

Obv. — Augustus. Rev . — XAPfiniAHZ ZOZTPATOY. 
Obv. — Claudius. Rev. — M. ZVIAAIOZ ANTIOXOZ TPA. 
Obv. — Claudius. Rev. — M. ZVIAAIOZ ANTIOXOZ. 

Obv. — Nero. Rev.—X APHZ B riAniAZ. 

Obv. — Nero. Rev.— nEPEITAZ * B * TP. 

Obv. — Nero. Rev . — Tl < AlONYZIOZ. 



30 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


9. Obv. — M. Aurelius Caesar. 

Bev . — l€PAnOA€IT ON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 158 [PL III. 37]. Variant of 

B. M., 137 (PI. xxxii. 1). 

10. Obv. — Similar. 

Bev . — IGPAriOAGIT r. and below, ON 1. Similar. 
Border of dots. 

Paris, 598 = Mionnet, iv- 622; Berlin, 159. 
Variant of B. M., 137 (PI. xxxii. 1). In older 
descriptions ( e.g . Mionnet, Leake, Inv. Wad cl., 
Jic.), this riding Hero is wrongly described as 
an Amazon : cf. Bhiiolog ., Ixix. 236. 

Leo Weber. 


(To be continued.) 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGrE FIND. 

(See Plates V., VI.) 

In a recent number of the Numismatic Chronicle (see 
Ser. Ill, Vol. XII, pp. 265 ff.), Mr. H. H. E. Craster has 
given a full account of the large hoard of Roman Im- 
perial gold coins (aurei) which were unearthed at Cor- 
bridge, in Northumberland, during the excavations carried 
out there in the season of 1911. Illustrations of all the 
coins, duplicates excepted, have been supplied ; so that 
we possess a complete record of this find, the most 
remarkable of its class that has ever taken place in 
England. The coins numbered 160 specimens in all, 
and extended from the reign of Nero to that of M. 
Aurelius, covering a period of very close on one hundred 
years (circ. 64-160 a.d.). Previously in 1908 another 
hoard of Roman gold coins had been unearthed on 
the same site, though not in precisely the same spot ; 
but these belong to a considerably later period of the 
Roman occupation of Britain. This hoard consisted 
of solidi, forty-eight in number, ranging from Valen- 
tinian I to Magnus Maximus, and extends only over 
about twenty years or a little more (circ. 364-385 
a.d.). In the Report of the Corbridge Committee for 
1908-1909, 1 Mr. Craster dealt with this hoard also ; but 
he described the coins in a very general way, devoting 


3 See Archaeologia Aeliana , 3rd ser., vol. v. pp. 47-56. 



32 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


his remarks chiefly to the history of the period, in order 
to account for their burial at a particular time. He has 
supplemented this account with a more minute descrip- 
tion of the coins as an appendix to the Second Corbridge 
Find on the ground, as he states, that no description of 
these had as yet been given in the Numismatic Chronicle. 
I venture to think, however, that in this instance Mr. 
Craster has not done full justice to the hoard ; for in de- 
scribing the more common type as “ two Emperors seated 
facing, holding a globe, between them a palm-branch,” 
&c., he has certainly missed its historical value. 

I purpose, therefore, first of all, to describe the coins 
fully, and with more than usual minuteness, for reasons 
which I think will be appreciated, and then briefly 
to discuss the types, pointing out their historical im- 
portance. I think it will then be seen that this find will 
help us very considerably to arrive at the sequence of 
the issues of more than one Emperor who is represented 
in it. The circumstances connected with the discovery 
of the hoard have already been detailed by Mr. Craster, 
and I need only add that under an arrangement with 
H.M. Treasury both hoards in their entirety are now in 
the National Collection, and that they are kept separate 
from the rest of the series. 

Valentinian I. 

364-375 a.d. 

Borne. 

1. Qbv. — DN VALENTIN I ANVSPFAVG Bust of Yalen- 
tinian r., diademed, and wearing paluda- 
mentum and cuirass. 

Bev. — RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE Emperor stand- 
ing front, head turned to r. • he is laureate 
and wears paludamentum, cuirass and 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


33 


boots (calcei ) ; in r. hand he holds the 
labarum, and on 1. a globe surmounted by 
Victory;- in the exergue, RT ( 'Tertid ). 

AL 0-85. Wt. 69*0 grs. [PI. V. 1.] 

2. Similar; but in the exergue on the reverse, RQ 3 
(Quartet). 

A r . 0*85. Wt. 69 '4 grs. (Rev. double 
struck.) [Pl. V. 2.] 


Treves . 

3-4. Obv , — Similar. 

Rev . — VICTOR IAAVGG The Emperors, Valentinian 
I and Valens, 4 seated facing on throne and 
supporting on their r. hands a globe ; be- 
tween them a palm-branch; behind the 
throne is seen the half-length figure of 
Victory facing ; the back of the throne on 
one of the specimens is ornamented, X ; in 
the exergue, TROBC 5 (Tertia). 

V. 0-8. Wt. 68*8 (2) grs. [Pl. V. 3.] 


2 Solidi of this type only were struck by Valentinian I at Rome. 

3 This letter is a little doubtful, its form being peculiar. On the 
whole, on comparison with the silver and copper coins struck at Rome 
during this reign, I am of opinion that it is intended for the letter Q» 
denoting the 4th offiema. On some of the copper coins of Valentinian I 
struck at Rome one meets with the full word QVARTA; and both on 
the silver and copper this is abbreviated into Q. Numbers, not 
letters, appear to have been employed at Rome at this time to mark the 
officinae. 

4 For the identification of these figures, see below, p. 46 f. 

5 These two coins, though of the same type and weight, were struck 
from different dies, both obverse and reverse. For this issue at Treves 
there appear to have been used two series of letters to mark the 
officinae; one alphabetical, A, B, C, &c. ; the other numerical, as 
P ( Prima ), S (Sacunda), T ( Teitia ), &c. Symbols, stars, pellets, &c., 
were also used. 


VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 


D 



34 


NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 


Yalens. 

364-378 a.d. 

Treves. 

5. Obv . — DNVALENS PFAVG Bust of Yalens r., 

diademed, wearing paludamentum and 
cuirass. 

Bev. — VICTOR IAAVGG The Emperors, Yalens and 
YalentinianI, seated facing, holding globe, 
&c., 6 as on No. 3 ; the back of the throne 
is ornamented, X ; in the exergue, TROBT 7 
( Tertia ). 

N. 0-8. Wt. 68*4 grs. 

6. Similar ; but on the reverse the back of the throne 

is ornamented, in the exergue, TROBC 
(Tertia). 

N. 0*85. Wt. 68-8 grs. [Pl. V. 4.] 


Gratian. 

Augustus, 367 a.d. ; succ. 375 a.d. ; died 383 a.d. 

Constantinople. 

7. Obv . — DNGRATIA NVS PFAVG Youthful bust of 

Gratian r., wearing diadem formed of 
pearls with jewel at top of head, paluda- 
mentum and cuirass. 

Bev . — PR1NCIPIVM IVVENTVTIS Gratian standing 
r., nimbate, wearing paludamentum, cuirass, 
and boots ( calcei ); he holds spear in r. 


0 The figures on the reverse are the same as those shown on similar 
coins of Valentinian I. There are other coins of Valens of the same 
type, which show the seated figure on the right much smaller in 
stature than the one on the left. This smaller figure I would identify 
as of Gratian, and would place the issue of such pieces after the death 
of Valentinian I, whereas the above pieces were struck before his death. 

7 This and the next coin illustrate the two methods of numbering 
the officinae ; one by means of a numeral, the other alphabetical. 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


35 


hand and globe in 1. 


( Con t tantinoj/ol /s) 
wreath on r. 

Y. 0-85. Wt. 82-2 


in the exergue, CONS 
between star on 1. and 


grs. 8 [PL V. 5.] 


Treves . 

8. Obv. — Similar to the preceding ; head larger. 

Rev. — VICTOR IAAVGG. The Emperors, Valenti- 
nian I and Valens, seated facing on throne, 
and supporting on their r. hands a globe ; 
between them a palm-branch ; behind the 
throne is seen the half-length figure of 
Victory facing, wings spread ; the back 
of the throne is ornamented, X ; in the 
exergue, TROBS 9 ( Secunda ). 

V. 0*8. Wt. 69-2 grs. [Pl. V. 6.] 

9. Obv.- — Similar ; same portrait. 

Rev. — Similar ; but the two seated figures are those 
of Gratian 10 and his brother Yalentinian 
II, who is represented as a youth ; same 
ornamentation to throne ; in the exergue, 
TROBT (Tertia). 

Y. 0*85. Wt. 69*4 grs. [Pl. V. 7.] 

10-12. Similar; but the ornamentation of the throne, *X ; 
same mint-mai’ks. 11 

V. 0-85. Wts. 69*6, 69*4, 68*7 grs. 

13. Similar; 12 with same ornamentation of throne and 
same mint-marks. 

Y. 0*85. Wt. 69*8 grs. 


8 This coin considerably exceeds the prescribed weight (see below, 
jo. 42). See also p. 47 for comment on this type. 

0 The same marks for the officmae were used at Treves during the 
reign of Gratian as under Valens. 

10 For identification of these figures on Nos. 8-15, see below, p. 48 f. 

11 Nos. 10 and 11 are struck from the same dies, both obverse and 
reverse ; the reverse of No. 12 is also from the same die, but not the 
obverse. 

12 Both obverse and reverse are struck from other dies than the 
three preceding pieces. 

D 2 



36 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


14-15. Similar ; 13 with same mint-marks ; ornamentation of 
throne, X. 

N. 0*85. Wts. 69*6, 69*4 grs. 

16. Obv. — Similar; but the portrait of Gratian is some- 

what older. 

Bev . — Similar ; but the seated figures are those of 
Gratian and Theodosius I, 1,1 both being of 
equal height ; ornamentation of throne, -X* ■ 
in the exergue, TROBC (i.e. Tertia). 

W 0*85. Wt. 6 8 *4. grs. [PI. V. 8.] 

17. Obv. — Similar; but the portrait of Gratian shows- 

signs of increasing age, and the diadem 
consists of a jewel at the top of the head 
and a rosette at the side between four 
pellets, two above and two below. 

Bev . — Similar ; same seated figures ; throne orna- 
mented, X*; intheexergue, TROBS ( Secunda ). 
N. 0*9. Wt. 69*4 grs. [PI. V. 10.] 

18. Similar; with same portrait, mint-marks, &c. ; back 

of throne ornamented, X ; the globe held 
by the emperors is ornamented with a large 
star surrounded by pellets. 

W. 0*85. Wt. 68*4 grs. [PL V. 9.] 

19. Similar; with same portrait; throne ornamented, 

% ; in the exergue, TROBC (Tertia). 

M. 0*8. Wt. 69*0 grs. 

20. Similar ; with same portrait and same mint-marks ; 

throne ornamented, -X-. 

N. 0*8. Wt. 68*3 grs. 

21. 14 Obv . — DNGRATIANSPFAVG Bust of Gratian v. r 
similar to ISTo. 16, wearing diadem com- 
posed of pearls and single jewel at top of 
head. 

Both obverse and reverse of these two pieces vary. 

For remarks on this identification, see below, p. 50. 

14 This is a contemporaLw barbarous copy. It belongs to the same 
issue as No. 16, i.e. before the form of the diadem was changed. The 
figures on the reverse are therefore those of Gratian and Theodosius. 
In the mint-mark the S has been reversed. 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


37 


Rev. — Similar ; but of coarse workmanship ; the 
throne is ornamented with XXX ; in the 
exergue, TROS ( Secunda ). 

,V\ 0*9. Wt. 67-3 grs. [PI. V. 11.] 


RomeP 

22. Obv.—D NGRATIA NVSPFAVG Bust of Gratian r., 
wearing diadem of pearls with ornament 
at top of head ; paludamentum and cuirass ; 
similar to No. 16. 


15 The identification of this com as being struck at Rome has been so 
thoroughly discussed that it would have been scarcely necessary to 
draw attention to it but that a now interpretation has recently been put 
on the letters COM. In the Num. Citron., 1861, p. 176, Madden says, 
in an article on the Coins of Theodosias I and II : “ After the death of 
Theodosius I the Empire is divided between his sons Arcadius and 
Honorius, and the forms COMOB for the Western and CONOB for the 
Eastern Empire become the adopted cxergual mint-marks.” Also in 
an article on llunuin Coins struck in LnUnn , communicated to the 
Archaeological Institute in July, 1866 (see Pioceedings ), Count de Salis 
confirmed Madden’s view ; since he remarks “ COM and CO MOB belong 
to Rome, when not accompanied in the field of the reverse by the 
initials TR, LD, AR, MD, AQ, RV, or SM, &c.” These marks, used in 
the mints of the Western Empire, have been interpreted to mean 
“ [money] struck according to the standard of the mint of Constanti- 
nople.” The inscription in full would be Consta?itinojpolis Moneta 
OBryzcuta , or Constantinojpolis Moneta only (cf. Babelon, TraiU, vol. i. 
pp. 997, 1007, 1037, 1039). Mr. Craster, in the Report of the 1908 
excavations at Corstopitum (see Aich. Ael. t 1909, p. 353 n.), and again 
in his paper in the Num. Chron , Yol. XII. (1912), p. 310, n. 76, how- 
ever, remarks : “ The mark COM, an abbreviation for Comes Sacrarum 
Largitionum , is the stamp of the chief financial minister, and does not, 
when unaccompanied by other marks, assist in locating the mint.” 
Mr. Craster’ s interpretation is supported to a certain degree by Dr. 
Willers in Num. Zeit., xxxi. pp. 45 ff., who, however, identifies the 
legend with the Comes auri , a sub-officer of the Comes Sacrarum Lar- 
gitionum , whose office is referred to in Cod. Theod., 9, 21, 7. This is 
a question which cannot be discussed in a footnote, but I am inclined 
to pause before accepting either Mr. Craster's or Dr. Willers’ view ; as 
it seems to me unlikely that on the coinage either of these officers would 
sign himself by the first three letters of his title Comes only, which 
would convey so little to the public mind ; as was not the case with 
the legends CONOB, TESOB, &c. At all events, it is to the Roman 
mint that all coins with COM or COMOB only are to be assigned. 



38 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Rev. —VICTOR IAAVGG The Emperors, Gratian 
and Valentinian II, 16 seated facing on 
throne, supporting globe, etc. ; similar to 
No. 8, but both figures are nimbate * in the 
exergue, COM. 

N. 0*85. Wt. 69*4 grs. [PL V. 12.] 

Valentinian II. 

375-392 a.d. 

Treves . 

23. Obv. — DNVALENTINI ANVSIVNPFAVG Youthful bust 
of Valentinian II r., wearing diadem com- 
posed of pearls only, paludamentum and 
cuirass. 

Rev . — VICTOR IAAVGG The Emperors, Valens and 
Gratian, 17 seated facing on throne and sup- 
porting on r. hands a globe ; between them 
a palm-branch ; behind the throne is seen 
the half -figure of Victory facing, wings 
spread ; the back of the throne is orna- 
mented, -X ; in the exergue, TROBC 
( Tertia ). 

N. 0*85. Wt. 68-6 grs. [PI. VI. 1.] 

24-26. Obv. — Similar; the portrait is somewhat older and 
a jewel is attached to the diadem at the 
top of the head. 

Rev. — Similar ; the seated figures are those of 
Gratian and his young brother Valentinian 
who is represented as a youth; on the 
globe is a star or cross, and the back of the 
throne is ornamented, X; in the exergue, 
TROBT (Tertia). 

N. 0*85. Wts. 70*0, 69*6, and 69*0 grs. 

[PI. VI. 2.] 

These three pieces are all struck from the same 
obverse and reverse dies. 

16 For remarks on this identification, see below, p. 4.9. 

17 For particulars of these figures and those on the following coins 
of Valentinian II, see below, p. 51. 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


39 


27. Similar. 

iV. 0*9. Wt. 69*4 grs. 

28-29. Similar. 

N. 0-85. Wts. 69*0, 68*6 grs. 

These two coins are also struck from the same obverse 
and reverse dies. 

30. Similar. 

m N. 0*9. Wt. 68-7 grs. 


Theodosius I. 

379-395 a.d. 

Treves. 

31. Obv . — DNTHEODO SIVSPFAVG Bust of Theo- 

dosius I r., wearing diadem of pearls with 
jewel at top of head, paludamentum and 
cuirass. 

Bev . — VICTOR IAAVGG The Emperors, G-ratian and 
Theodosius I, 18 seated facing on throne and 
supporting a globe on their r. hands, &c., 
similar to No. 16 ; the back of the throne 
is ornamented, X ; in the exergue, TROBC 
( Tertia ). 

iV. 0-85. Wt. 68*2 grs. [PI. VI. 3.] 

32. Similar ; the globe on the reverse bears a star and 

the back of the throne is ornamented, *X; 
in the exergue, TROBC {Tertia). 

N. 0-85. Wt. 68*4 grs. [PI. VI. 4.] 

33. Similar ; back of throne ornamented, X ; in the 

exergue, TROBC {Tertia). 

iV. 0*85. Wt. 69*4 grs. 

The reverse shows carelessness of execution on the 
part of the engravers of the die. 


18 See below, p. 49 f, for the identification of these figures. 



40 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

34. Similar ; like the preceding this coin is. also of 

inferior design ; the figure of Victory is 
meagre and her wings are represented by a 
single feather to each; in the exergue, 
TROBC ( Tertia ). 

V. 09. Wt. 69 ‘6 grs. [PL VI. 5.] 
Borne. 

35. Obv . — Similar to No. 31. 

Bev . — Similar to No. 31; but both Emperors are 
nimbate ; the globe is not decorated with 
a star, and the back of the throne is orna- 
mented, X ; in the exergue, COM. 10 
V. 0-85. Wt. 70*0 grs. [Pl. VI. 6.] 


Magnus Maximus. 

383-388 a.d. 

Treves. 

36-37. Obv . — DN MAGMA XIMVSPFAVG Bust of Magnus 
Maximus i\, wearing diadem consisting of 
a rosette between four pearls, two above 
and two below, 20 and jewel at top of head, 
paludamentum and cuirass. 

Bev . — RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE The Emperor, 
standing front, head to r., hoi ding with r. 
hand the labarum and on 1. a globe sur- 
mounted by Victory ; he wears diadem and 
paludamentum which falls over 1. arm in 
a single fold, 21 cuirass and boots ( calcei ) ; 


19 For remarks on this mint-mark, see above, p. 37. As on coins of 
Gratian struck at Borne (see No. 22), both Emperors on tho reverse are 
nimbate. 

20 The diadem is composed of the same ornaments as that on the 
later coins of Gratian (see No. 17). 

21 The paludamentum as it falls over the left arm of the Emperor 
shows a series of four varieties in form : in Nos. 36-38 it falls in a 
single fold ; in Nos. 39-41 the fold is double the whole length from the 
arm ; in Nos. 42-44 it ends in a long narrow loop ; and in Nos. 45-47 
the loop is near the bottom and is wider. These variations may not 
quite prove the order of the issues, but they help to divide up the 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


41 


in the held on 1. star; in the exergue, 
SMTR. 

.V. 0-85. ms. 68*6, 68*0 grs. 22 

[PL VI. 7.] 

38. Similar ; but the form of the diadem is varied ; 

there being three pearls above the rosette 
and two below. 24 

N. 0*85. Wt. 68*8 grs. [Pl. VI. 8.] 

39 24 ~41. Similar ; ‘the diadem is as on Nos. 36-37, but the 
paludamentum on the reverse falls in two 
folds separate from the arm. 

N. 0*85. ms. 70-4, 69-6, 68*5 grs. 

[Pl. VI. 9.] 

42-44. 25 Similar ; but the paludamentum ends in a long 
narrow loop. 

N. 0*85. ms. 69-5, 69-2, 68*8 grs. 

[Pl. VI. 10.] 


45-47. Similar ; but the paludamentum ends in a shorter 
but somewhat wider loop. 2,i 

N. 0*85. Wts. 69*0, 67*7, 69-2 grs. 

[Pl. VI. 11.] 

48. Obv. — Similar. 


Rev. — VICTOR IAAVGG The emperors, Magnus 
Maximus and Theodosius I, 27 seated facing 
on throne and supporting a globe on their 
r. hands, <fcc., similar to No. 23 ; on the 
globe is a star and the back of the throne 
is ornamented, X ; in the exergue, TROB. 

M. 0-85. Wt. 68-0 grs. [Pl. VI. 12.] 


coins into separate series, which show probably the work of different 
ojuiLinat. 

22 These two coins are struck from the same reverse die. 

23 This form is exceptional and does not occur on any other coin in 
the hoard. 

21 Nos. 39, 40 are struck from the same obverse and reverse dies. 

25 Nos. 43, 44 are also struck from the same reverse die. 

3(J Nos. 45, 46 are also struck from the same reverse die. 

27 For the identification of these figures, see below, p. 54. 



42 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Before discussing the types of these solidi, which, as 
will have been seen, are very limited in number, we may 
draw attention to a few points connected with the issue 
of the coins. 

First of all, as to the weight. In his original report 
of the Find Mr. Chaster commented on the light weight 
of these coins, which he puts at an average of 64 grains 
or 4*20 grammes. Upon my weighing each coin care- 
fully I found that Mr. Craster had underestimated their 
weight, and that in fact they practically come up to the 
standard established by the Edict of Constantine the 
Great in 312 a.d., and revived by Yalentinian I in 
365 a.d. By this enactment the solidus was to weigh 
4*55 grammes or 70*22 grs. The coins in the hoard show 
an unusual amount of accuracy in this respect, as four 
specimens are of full weight, one, in fact, No. 7, exceed- 
ing it, being 82*2 grs. (the only piece representing the 
Constantinople Mint), twenty-three exceed 69 grs., nine- 
teen 68 grs., and two only come slightly below 68 grs., 
or throughout an average of 69*4 grs. This speaks well 
for the honesty of the mints in such uncertain times. 
We may take this average as a fair test, as the coins 
throughout are practically in mint condition. 

The only mints represented are those of Borne, Con- 
stantinople, and Treves, and their respective numbers are 
four, one, and forty-three. At first it might seem a cause 
for regret that so few mint-names occur, and that of two, 
Borne and Constantinople, there are only five pieces out 
of the forty-eight ; but after a careful examination of the 
coins the preponderance of those of Treves has provided 
the means of throwing considerable light on the succes- 
sion of the issues, not only of this particular mint, but 
also of the others (for what affects the one affects also 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


43 


the others, as the same types practically exist at all), 
and also on the identification of the various personages 
represented on the reverses. For though the type may 
not be changed, yet the individuals represented vary 
according to the period of the issue of the coins. 

Like the mints, the types are only three in number. 
With the exception of the single specimen of Gratian, 
having on the reverse the young Augustus holding spear 
and globe as “ Princeps Juventutis,” the reverse designs 
are limited to those showing the Emperor as “ Eestitutor 
Eeipublicae,” holding the labarum and Victory on a 
globe and two Emperors seated and guarded by an angel 
or Victory, and with the legend “ Victoria Augg ” (var.). 
Of the former there are thirteen specimens, and of the 
latter thirty-three. These two types appear for the first 
time under Valentinian I, so that in each case we possess 
in the hoard probably the first examples. The legend 
“ PrinGipium Juventutis,” is so exceptional that the coin 
of Gratian is the only one on which it occurs [PI. V. 5]. 
The type which accompanies it, the Emperor holding 
spear and globe, is not unusual, and is met with in many 
previous instances. 

In order that we may follow more easily the order of 
the types and the sequence of the issues as illustrated 
by coins in the hoard, a brief summary of the chief 
events connected with the succession of the Emperors, 
whose coins are described, may be useful. It is not 
necessary to enter into a general history of the period, 
for at this time the types of the coins are very limited, 
and have lost much of their historical character. 

364 a.d. Jovian dies January 17, and Valentinian, the 
son of Count Gratian, a native of Cibalae (Lower Pannonia), 
is elected his successor on the 26th of the same month. Thirty 



44 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


clays after his own elevation Yalentinian bestows the title of 
Augustus on his brother Yalens ; and they proceed to divide 
up the Roman Empire between themselves ; Yalens accepting 
as his share the praefecture of the East from the Lower 
Danube to the confines of Persia ; whilst Yalentinian reserves 
for himself the Western portion, which includes the praefecture 
of Illyricum, Italy, and Gaul from the extremity of Greece to 
the Caledonian rampart and from the rampart of Caledonia 
to the foot of Mount Atlas. 28 

367 a.d. Gratian, son of Yalentinian I and Severa, born 
359 a.d., receives from his father the title of Augustus, and 
his name is added to those of Yalentinian and Yalens in all 
legal transactions of the Roman Government. His chief 
residence is at Treves. 

375 a.d. Yalentinian I dies November 17, and is succeeded 
in the government of the West by his elder son Gratian, who 
six days after his father’s death confers the title of Augustus 
on his young brother Yalentinian II, son of Yalentinian I 
and Justina, he being only four years old. The government 
of the Roman world is now exercised in the united names of 
Yalens and his two nephews. Yalentinian II takes up his 
residence in Milan, but on account of his extreme youth does 
not actually participate in the government. 

378 a.d. Yalens, wounded at the battle of Hadrianople 
(Thrace), August 9, perishes by fire in a cottage near the 
battlefield. The Goths now hold the Eastern Empire from 
Macedonia to Asia. 

378-9 a.d. Gratian marches to the relief of Yalens, is 
informed of the latter’s defeat, and appoints Theodosius as 
his colleague, and invests him with the Empire of the East, 
January 19, 379. 

383 a.d. Magnus Maximus raises the standard of rebellion 
in Britain and marches into Gaul to attack Gratian, who is 
assassinated at Lyons, August 25. Theodosius marches to 
the relief of Gratian, but on receiving notice of his death 
enters into a treaty with Maximus, who is allotted the 
possession of the countries beyond the Alps. Yalentinian II 

28 Gibbon, Roman Empire (Milinan, ed. Smith), 1862, vol. iii. pp. 236, 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


45 


is confirmed and secured in the sovereignty of Italy, Africa, 
and W estern Illyricum. Maximus confers the title of Augustus 
on his son Flavius Victor. 

387- 8 a.d. Maximus invades Italy in the month of August 
(387 a.d.) and compels Valentinian II and Justina, his 
mother, to leave the country and to take refuge in Thessa- 
lonica. Theodosius takes up arms in the cause of Valentinian, 
defeats Maximus on the Save (Siscia), and pursues him to 
Aquileia, where he is assassinated (June-August, 388 a.d.). 

388- 391 a.d. Theodosius remains in Italy, restores order, 
and reaffirms Valentinian in the provinces from which he had 
been driven by Maximus. 

Let us now turn to the coins themselves, and see how 
far the types illustrate the history of the time. Being 
few in number, much is not to be expected. The four 
coins of Valentinian I supply two types (two specimens 
of each), and it is of interest that both had their origin 
in the reigns of Valentinian I and Valens. It is 
difficult to say which of the two types should be placed 
first, but I am rather of opinion that preference may well 
be given to that of “ Bestitutor Beipublicae ” [Pl. V. 1]. 

The death of Julian had left the affairs of the Empire 
in a very doubtful and dangerous state, and not the least 
baneful element was the religious strife which pervaded 
all classes. The short reign of Jovian saw but little 
improvement; but at his accession Valentinian at once 
set about a reform of the administration. His first step 
was to associate with him in the purple his brother 
Valens, who, however, had little knowledge of govern- 
ment, never having been trained to any employment, 
military or civil; but he had one good quality, which 
was gratitude and loyalty to his brother . 29 We have 


20 Gibbon, op. tit., vol. iii. p. 236. 



46 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


already mentioned how the two Emperors divided 
amongst themselves the provinces. It is no doubt in 
connexion with these events that we must identify the 
issue of the coins which bear the legend “ Restitutor 
Reipublicae,” and which show the Emperor holding the 
labarum and Victory. This type is met with at all the 
mints, east and west, in the name of Valens as well as 
of Valentinian. As the revolt of Procopins began in the 
September of 365 A.D., these coins were probably issued 
at some time between that date and June of the previous 
year, when Valentinian and Valens carried out their 
division of the Roman Empire. The presence of the 
labarum points to the religious tolerance, which had 
been revived by Jovian after the death of Julian, and 
which had been affirmed by his two successors. Both 
coins in the hoard are of the Roman mint. 

The other reverse type of Valentinian is that which 
shows the two Emperors seated facing, holding between 
them a globe, and with an angel or Victory behind them. 
This is also the only type of the coins of Valens in the 
hoard [PL V. 3, 4], It was repeated throughout their joint 
reigns, and, as we shall see, it was continued by Valens 
after his brother’s death. The general style of these 
coins in the hoard, all of which belong to the mint of 
Treves, and the portraits of the Emperors, which assume 
a more fixed character, point to a somewhat later issue 
than those of the “ Restitutor Reipublicae ” type. 

Cohen 30 has identified the figures on the reverse of the 
coins of Valentinian as those of that Emperor and his son 
(Gratian); but on other pieces of the same type, on 
which that Emperor associates with him his son, the 


30 Monn. de VEmjp. rom. t vol. viii. p. 93, 43. 



THE FIEST COEBEIDGE FIND. 


47 


latter is represented as of smaller stature. This is also 
the case with the coins of Valens, in honour of his 
nephew. As the figures on the coins of Valentinian and 
Yalens in the hoard are of equal size and stature, they 
appear to represent those Emperors only. 

We may now pass on to the coins of G-ratiau. Here 
again we have only two main types. As we have already 
seen, it was in 367 a.d. that Gratian, at the age of eight 
years, received the title of Augustus, and was associated 
wiftr-his,^ father, Yalentinian I, and his uncle, Yalens, in 
all legal transactions. In 375 a.d., on the death of his 
father, he succeeded to the government of the West, and 
conferred the title of Augustus on his young brother, 
Valentinian II, then only four years old. As in his own 
case some years previously this title did not at first 
carry with it any administrative power, so that in the 
January of 379 A.D., on the death of Yalens, he chose as 
his colleague in the Empire the successful and warlike 
general, Theodosius, who had distinguished himself in 
Britain and Africa, and more recently in the campaign 
against the Sarmatians. To Theodosius was assigned 
'the Eastern portion of the Empire. 

The earlier of the two types of Gratian’s coins in the 
hoard is that which shows his youthful bust on the 
obverse, and on the reverse his full-length figure, head 
nimbate, standing and holding a spear and a globe, with 
the legend PRINCIPIVM IVVENTVTIS [PI. V. 5]. This type 
is frequently met with throughout the Roman imperial 
series, but the legend occurs on this issue only ; and so 
far as I am aware it was limited to the mints of Constan- 
tinople, Treves, and Nicomedia. The nearest approach to 
this legend occurs on solidi of Crispus, which show him in 
the same attitude, but without the nimbus, and on which 



48 


NUMISMATIC CHBONICLE. 


the legend is principia ivventvtis. On this one Eck- 
hel 31 remarks, “ I shall not seem, perhaps, to go wide of 
the mark, if I suppose it to be understood of the first 
years of the early manhood (principia juventnti of 
Crispus spent in camp, as illustrated by the military 
figure on the reverse.” The application of this epigraph 
to Crispus was more appropriate than to Gratian, who, 
at the time that this coin was struck, had probably not 
reached his tenth year, as shown by the very youthful 
portrait on the obverse. It is much younger than that 
connected with any other type of this reign. 

The second type is but a repetition of that issued by . 
Yalentinian and Yalens, i.e. the two seated figures hold- 
ing a globe and accompanied by Victory, &c. Of this 
type there were fifteen examples in the hoard, and four- 
teen of these (if we include the barbarous piece, Ho. 21) 
bear the initials of the Treves mint. It may have been at 
first sight a cause for regret that only the mints of Treves 
and Home are included, but the large number of pieces 
of the former place enable us to establish the sequence 
of the issues during the reign of Gratian. Had these 
coins been more evenly distributed over the various^ 
Roman mints this result could not hay© been obtained. 

In his description of the coins of Gratian of this type 
and with the legend VICTORIA AVGG (var.), Cohen 32 
identifies the two figures on the reverse as of Gratian 
and Yalentinian the younger. Though they vary in size 
he does not make any distinction. If, however, through- 
out we take this reverse type in conjunction with that on 
the obverse, we appear to have a record of the succession 


31 Doct. ISfum. Vet., viii. p. 101. 
33 Op. ctt., vol. viii. p. 130, 38. 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


49 


of the August! at this time. On No. 8 [PL V. 6] the 
figures on the reverse are equal in stature, and as the 
obverse portrait is youthful I have no hesitation in 
identifying them as of Valentinian and Yalens. This 
coin would therefore have been struck at some time 
between 367-375 a.d. The occurrence of only one 
specimen in the hoard must be considered as merely 
fortuitous, as also th^ absence of the other types of this 
reign, for it is by no means rare. In the National 
Collection there are already three specimens struck at 
Treves, which proportionately is quite the average of 
those of other types. 

On the reverses of Nos. 9-15 [PI. V. 7] we have 
certainly other figures represented. One of them is 
intended to represent a man of fairly mature age ; the 
other quite a youth, as it is much smaller in size. 
These figures I would identify as of Gratian and his 
young brother, Valentinian, whom he raised to the 
purple soon after his accession. The disparity in the 
size of the figures must have been intentional and for 
a distinct purpose, and so this identification seems to 
receive all the confirmation that is necessary ; especially 
as, so far as I have been able to ascertain, it occurs 
only on the money of the Western mints. It is quite 
easy also to trace a difference in the age of Gratian 
from the- portraits on the obverse, though he wears a 
diadem consisting of an ornament on the top with two 
rows of pearls at the sides. A little later we shall 
notice a change in this respect. 

This coinage appears to have lasted from 375-379 a.d., 
when, on the association of Theodosius in the govern- 
ment of the Empire, another change takes place, and we 
.again have on the reverse two seated figures equal in size 

VOL. XIII , SERIES IV. E 



50 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


and height (see Nos. 16-22, PI. V. 8-11). These I would 
identify as of G-ratian and Theodosius, and this identifi- 
cation is borne out by the obverse type, where we have 
an older portrait than on the coins with the seated G-ratian 
and Yalentinian II, and the diadem which encircles the 
Emperor’s head is of a more regal character. It consists 
of a large ornament at the top of the head, and at the 
side a rosette between four pearls, .two above and two 
below. To these there are two exceptions (Nos. 16 and 
22), on which are the same figures, but the head on the 
obverse wears the simpler diadem ; the portrait, however, 
is older than that on the first issue of this type under 
Gratian. These two coins, one struck at Treves, the 
other at Eome, are the connecting link between the two 
issues. 

The coinage of Gratian, as illustrated by this find, 
clearly indicates four series, which can be arranged in 
the following chronological order: (1) Where he is 
represented on the reverse alone as Princess Juveutntib ; 
(2) where he is shown with his father and uncle, 
Yalentinian I and Yalens; (3) where he occurs with his 
young brother, Yalentinian II ; and (4) with his colleague 
Theodosius. There are other types of this reign which 
may be classed to various dates as referring to special 
events, but with these we do not propose to deal at 
present. It seems, however, that the one with the 
seated figures was continuous from 367-383 a.d. ; that 
is, from the time of Gratian receiving the title of 
Augustus until his death. 

The eight coins of Yalentinian II in the hoard, though 
all of one type— two seated figures and Victory— also 
supply some dates for the classification of his money, 
though perhaps in a somewhat less degree than those of 



THE FIKST COEBEIDGE FIND. 


51 


G-ratian. They are all of the Treves mint, and on all he 
is styled D. N. VALENTINIANVS IVN. P. F. AVG., which shows 
that they were struck early in his reign, and probably 
before his brother’s death. He appears to have retained 
the title “Junior” to distinguish him from his father 
until circ. 383 a.d., the date of the usurpation of 
Maximus, for on his coins struck at Rome with the 
reverse type of Roma seated holding spear and globe* 
&c., and the legend concordia avggg, which no doubt 
records the peace with Maximus in 383 a.d., he is 
Styled D. N. VALENTINIANVS IVN. P. F. AVG or D. N. VALEN- 
TINIANVS p. F. AVG. The title “Junior” must have 
been dropped at this time. This is confirmed by his 
still later coins : those struck after the death of Maximus, 
when he and Theodosius alone represented the sovereignty 
of the Empire. This dating of the coins from the obverse 
legend is borne out by a variation in the type of the 
reverse. No. 23 [PL VI. 1], which certainly presents us 
with the youngest portrait of Valentinian, shows on the 
reverse two seated figures of the same height. These can 
only be of his brother Gratian and his uncle Valens, and 
it must have been issued certainly not later than 378 A.D. 
The other coins in the hoard, on which the portrait is 
certainly older and the bust larger, have the usual figures 
on the reverse, but one is much smaller than the other. 
These may be identified as of Valentinian himself and 
his elder brother Gratian. These coins were, therefore, 
issued between 378-383 a.d.; not necessarily over the 
whole period, since at that time Valentinian took no 
active part in the government, the administration of his 
portion of the Empire being in charge of his brother. 
From these details we may safely conclude that there 
were no coins of Valentinian in the hoard which were 

E 2 



52 


NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 


issued after 383 a.d. In each case Cohen 33 has identified 
the figures as of Gratian and Yalentinian II. All the 
coins of Yalentinian II in the hoard, as already men- 
tioned, are of the Treves mint. 

If we assume, therefore, that none of the preceding 
coins could have been struck after 383 A.D., the figures on 
the reverses of those of Theodosius must be of himself 
and Gratian and would be contemporaneous with the last 
coinage of the latter. These coins belong to the early 
years of his reign. His later issues of solidi with the 
reverse legend Concordia avggg (Roma or Constanti- 
nopolis seated) or victoria avggg (Emperor holding 
labarum and Victory) have an older portrait; and 
besides that some of them show innovations, such as the 
occurrence of the initials of the mints in the field, which 
also suggest a later date. The CONCORDIA avggg type 
was probably introduced when Theodosius accepted 
Magnus Maximus as an associate in the Empire, and 
when Maximus boldly offered him the choice of peace or 
war. 34 This type may have been in use till nearly the 
death of Yalentinian II, for with it we have three 
distinct busts of Theodosius : one wearing a diadem 
consisting of pearls only; a second, with a diadem of 
pearls and jewel-ornaments alternately ; and a third with 
the helmeted bust facing, holding spear and shield, which 
is the first occurrence of this form of the imperial 
portrait. This new type was not much used in the West, 
but in the East, especially with the early Byzantine 
Emperors, Anastasius- Justinian, it found a good deal of 
favour. Also, though it may not be of much account, the 
legends sometimes end avgggg, i.e. with four G’s ; from 

33 Monn de VEmp. rom vol. viii. p. 143, 36. 

34 Gibbon, op cit. } vol. in. p. 361. 



THE FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND. 


53 


which it may be interpreted that Theodosius included 
his infant son Arcadius, who was declared Augustus in 
383 a.d., at the time of the death of Gratian. 

When Gratian had reached his twentieth year, 379 a.d., 
his fame was equal to that of the most celebrated princes. 
His recent victory over the Alamanni at Colmar, which 
secured the peace of Gaul and delivered the West from a 
formidable invasion, .was one of the greatest military 
successes of the age, and earned for him the esteem and 
devotion of his army. On his return to Gaul, and when 
he had settled down in Paris, he changed his mode of 
life and abandoned the camp for the chase. This neglect 
of his duties as an Emperor was the cause of great dis- 
content amongst his soldiery, so that when Magnus 
Maximus raised the standard of revolt in Britain, the 
latter took advantage of this unrest and invaded Gaul, 
where he was joyfully received by a large portion of 
Gratian’s army. The Emperor of the West fled towards 
Lugdunum, where he was assassinated, August 25, 383 a.d. 
As it was impossible for Theodosius to come to the relief 
of Gratian, who had always been his benefactor, he was 
obliged to consent to an arrangement with Maximus 
under which, as we have seen, he assigned to him the 
portion of the Empire which lay beyond the Alps, 
reserving for Yalentinian II the sovereignty of Italy, 
Africa, and the Western Illyricum, and retaining for 
himself the East. 35 In these circumstances it is not 
surprising that Maximus selected for the reverse type 
of the first issue of his coinage that showing himself 
holding the labarum and Victory with the legend 
RESTITVTOR reipvblicae [Pl. VI. 7], one which had 


35 Gibbon, op. tit., vol. iii. p. 356 ft 



54 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


under somewhat similar circumstances been adopted by 
his predecessors, Valentinian I, Valens, and Gratian. 
Of the thirteen coins of Maximus in the hoard twelve 
are of this type : the other specimen is of the usual 
VICTORIA AVGG type, showing the two Emperors, Maximus 
and Theodosius, seated. The RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE 
pieces vary but very slightly, and only in the folds of 
the drapery of the obverse and the- jewel which attaches 
it on the shoulder, and in the long mantle on the 
reverse which falls in a single or a double fold from his 
shoulders. They are also apparently from the same 
cfficinae at Treves. Though some of the coins of Maximus 
may be assigned from their fabric to Gaul, yet his only 
other certain mint is that of London, which then received 
the name of “ Augusta/’ The figures on the reverse of 
the victoria AVGG type [PI. VI. 12] I have identified 
as Maximus and Theodosius, but Cohen 36 says “ Maximus 
and Victor.” In this case I would use the same argu- 
ment as in that of Gratian. The coins of this type 
of Elavius Victor, who was proclaimed Augustus by his 
father soon after the peace with Theodosius, have the 
figures of different sizes, the son being represented 
much smaller in stature. They were no doubt struck 
by order of Maximus, and if he had intended to repre- 
sent the son on his own coins he would certainly have 
adopted the same design; but so far as I am aware 
there are none at present known ; at least none are in 
the National Collection nor have- 1 come across any in 
recent sales. It is possible that that type is a little 
later in date than the “ Eestitutor Reipublicae ” one, 
yet not much, since a specimen was in the hoard. The 


J0 llunn. de I'Emj). rom., vol. viii. 



THE FIRST CORBEIDGE FIND. 


55 


legend AVGG would rather lead us to infer that Maximus 
only wished to acknowledge Theodosius as his colleague, 
and that at first he was disposed to treat Yalentinian II 
as of little or no account. In his only other type 
of the solidus, that of Roma seated and the legend 
CONCORDIA AVGGG, Maximus appears to have included 
Yalentinian also; unless the third G refers to Flavius 
Yictor, which I would very much question. 

Mr. Chaster in his notes on this hoard has placed its 
burial at some time between 385-7 a.d. I am, however, 
disposed to assign it to a slightly earlier date, 384-5 
a.d., on account of the absence of the later gold types of 
Theodosius and because there were no coins of Valen- 
tinian II without the title “ Junior; ” which, as we have 
shown above (p. 51), he must have abandoned soon after 
the association of Maximus. 

There seems to be no difficulty in accounting for the 
large number of coins of Maximus in the hoard ; for no 
doubt so soon as he had come to terms with Theodosius 
he sent back his troops, which he had withdrawn from 
Britain in order that they might protect the northern 
districts against the attacks of the marauders of the 
North. Before their departure these troops would have 
been well rewarded for their faithful service, the reward 
consisting of money, and much of it in gold, as being 
more easily portable. 

In his description of the Second Corbridge Find, which 
was much larger, M^. Craster has suggested that it con- 
sisted of the property of several owners in succession. 
This view cannot well be applied to the first find, for it 
is clearly the hoardings of a single individual which he 
amassed gradually during a period of about twenty years. 
Ho ’was, however, of a fastidious turn of mind as he only 



56 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


set aside such pieces as were in fine condition. This 
seems the only explanation of the fact that all the coins 
from the earliest to the latest are in mint condition, 
showing absolutely no signs of wear. This would cer- 
tainly not haye been the case if all the coins had been 
collected at one time, i.e. in 384 or 385 a.d. 

H. A. Grueber. 



III. 


TWO HOAKDS OP EDWAED PENNIES 
EEOENTLY POUND IN SCOTLAND. 

(Plates VII., VIII., IX.) 

In the course of the year 1911 two comparatively large 
hoards of silver coins, consisting for the most part of 
pennies of the Edwards, came to light in different parts 
of Scotland. Both hoards passed through my hands, 
and in view of the possibility that their contents might 
throw some light on vexed questions of chronological 
arrangement, I endeavoured to examine them as 
thoroughly as the time at my disposal permitted. My 
notes would have been fuller and more informing, at all 
events as regards the earlier issues, had the second 
instalment of Messrs.. Fox’s very important and valuable 
Numismatic Histonj of the Reigns of Erf inn cl I, If and III 1 
been available for guidance while I had the first of the 
two finds under observation. Unfortunately it was not 
then in type. The authors most kindly sent it me in 
proof when I was working at the second find, so that I 
was able to profit to some extent by the wealth of 
illuminating material it contains. If I had been in a 
position to consult it sooner, I should probably have 
adopted the system of classification it lays down, for I 
doubt whether a nearer approach to finality is ever likely 


1 See vol. vii. of the Butihli Journal. 



58 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


to be attained. Before the proof reached me, however, 
my own basis of arrangement was already settled, and 
the first hoard had passed beyond my ken. In all the 
circumstances it seemed better to adhere to the lines 
originally mapped out. In so far, therefore, as my 
results tally with those of Messrs. Fox — and it will be 
seen that they differ from them mainly in being less 
detailed — they may be serviceable in the way of confir- 
mation. 2 It should be added that my arrangement owes 
much to the pioneer work of Edward Bums. Although 
his classification is less complete and less exhaustive 
than he himself believed it to be, it unquestionably 
contains the root of the matter on all essential points. 
The more closely one studies the few pages he devoted 
to the subject in his Coinage of Scotland , 3 the more 
warmly does one come to admire his powers of accurate 
observation and his wonderful acumen. If only his 
exposition had been less hard to follow, his merits would 
certainly have obtained much wider recognition. It will 
be convenient to begin with a general account of each 
of the two hoards. 

The first was turned up by the plough on April 11, 
1911, on the farm of Blackhills in the parish of Parton, 
Kirkcudbrightshire. According to information kindly 
furnished me by Mr. John Whitby, the tenant, it appears 
that the discovery was made at a spot about 400 yards 
from the river Urr, and about 700 yards from the site 
of Corsock Tower. Here, between two oblong arable 


2 Messrs. Fox were also good enough to give me their opinion regard- 
ing the precise place of some difficult pieces, of which I was able to 
send them casts. In all cases thear verdict agreed with my own/so 
far as initial differences of arrangement permitted. 

3 Vol. i. pp. 186 ft. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 59 

hills, there is a stretch of meadow ground, the soil of 
which is a sort of black moss or loam — not peat con- 
taining much rotted hazel scrub. Its condition to-day 
suggests that it may at one time have been a swampy 
bog. In ordinary seasons it is very soft in wet weather ; 
a pole can be pushed six feet down and pulled out again 
without difficulty. So far as Mr. Whitby is aware, no 
attempt had ever been made to plough it before. But 
in 1911 the abnormally dry spring seemed to offer a 
good opportunity for getting it levelled, so that the hay 
might be more easily cut. 

The coins had been concealed in a wooden bowl or 
‘brose-cap,’ which lay only some six inches below the 
surface, and which was consequently broken into frag- 
ments when it was struck by the coulter. There is 
reason to believe that through the efforts of Mr. Whitby 
and his ploughman, Charles Clark, reinforced by the zeal 
of subsequent searchers, practically the entire contents of 
the vessel were recovered. The total number of pieces 
handed over to the Crown authorities, and passed on by 
the Exchequer to the National Museum in Edinburgh 
for report, was 2067. The detailed analysis which I pro- 
pose to give presently, will show that the hoard must 
have been deposited about 1320 a.d. The following 
summary will make its general character clear : — 


Scottish Single-Long-Cross Pennies. 

Alexander III . . . . . 29 4 

John Balliol ....... 8 

Robert Bruce ...... 6 


4 Including a curious remnant of a plated coin, for which see injiti, 
p. 113. 



60 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Pennies of Edward I and II. 
(a) English, 


London • 1020 

Canterbury . . . • ■ • .491 

Durham (Ecclesiastical) . . - .1/5 

Durham (Ordinary) . . . • .49 

Berwick . . . . . - . .69 

Bury St. Edmunds (Robert de Hadelie) . . 4 

Bury St. Edmunds (Ordinary) ... 49 

Bristol ..... . . 44 

York (Ecclesiastical) ..... 6 

York (Ordinary) .... . .36 

Newcastle ....... IS 

Lincoln ........ 9 

Hull . . 7 

Chester 3 

Exeter ........ 2 

(b) Irish. 

Dublin ...... .19 

Waterford ....... 9 


Eo reign Sterling^. 

Various mints . . . . . .12 

Halfpenny of Edward I. 

Berwick ........ 1 

Earthing of Edward I or IT. 

London ........ 1 

The second hoard came from near Kelso in Roxburgh- 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OR EDWARD PENNIES. 61 

shire, the precise locality of the discovery being the 
farm of Mellendean, which lies on the south of the 
Tweed, close to the junction of the North British and 
North Eastern Railway lines. One day in the latter half 
of October, 1911, a lad named John Aikman was engaged 
ploughing the field known as the Horse Field when he 
noticed several coins that appeared to be lying loose in 
the soil. Thinking there might be more, he procured a 
spade and made a thorough search, with the result that 
he discovered a large number about two feet below the 
surface. On the following morning he renewed his 
search and found several others. During the next few 
days, after rain had washed the furrows, a good many 
additional specimens were picked up by different persons 
who had heard of Aikman’s good fortune and came to try 
their own luck. As no trace of any vessel was observ- 
able, it may be supposed that the treasure had originally 
been contained in a bag made of cloth or of some other 
material which had rotted away entirely. The field had 
been in grass for a long time, and the ploughing was 
rather deeper than usual. The coins which passed into 
the hands of the Crown authorities, and which were 
subsequently forwarded to the National Museum for a 
report, numbered 532 in all. These, however, as I learned 
incidentally, represented only a portion of the hoard. 
And at a later date, thanks mainly to the zeal and tact 
of Mr. J. Avery, stationmaster at Sprouston, who took an 
immense amount of personal trouble in the matter, I was 
afforded an opportunity of examining as many as 364 
others, collected from fourteen different persons. Mr. 
Avery believes that the 896 pieces which I saw con- 
stituted virtually the whole find. Internal evidence 
pointed plainly to circa 1296 a.d. as the probable date 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


of burial. The following is a summary of the 
contents : — 

Scottish Single-Long-Cross Pennies. 

Alexander III . . . . . .63 

John Balliol ....... 2 


Pennies of Edward I. 

(a) English. 

London ........ 381 

Canterbury . . . . . . .147 

Durham (Ecclesiastical) ..... 6 

Durham (Ordinary) . . . . .29 

York (Ecclesiastical) 4 

York (Ordinary) ...... 41 

Bristol 65 

Bury St. Edmunds (Robert de Hadelie) . . 8 

Lincoln . . . . . . .15 

Newcastle 5 

Chester ........ 3 

( h ) Irish. 

Dublin ........ 8 

Waterford .10 

Foreign Sterlings. 

Various Mints 108 


It will be noted that, as is usual in Scottish hoards of 
the period, Scottish coins formed in both cases a rela- 
tively small part of the whole. At Mellendean they 
numbered 65 out of 896, a percentage considerably above 
the average; at Blackhills, 43 out of 2067, a figure 
somewhat below the normal. Attention may also be 
directed to the large representation of foreign sterlings 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 63 

at Mellendean — 108 out of 896, or slightly over 12 per 
cent. At Blackhills the corresponding proportion was 
only about J per cent. In giving a detailed analysis of 
the two finds, space will he saved and comparison 
facilitated by treating them together, C B. 5 being used 
to indicate Blackhills and M.’ as an abbreviation for 
Mellendean. As already mentioned, the groups under 
which I propose to classify the coins were decided upon 
before Messrs. Fox’s paper was in type. In some respects 
I could not but feel them to be tentative and unsatisfac- 
tory, but on the whole they appeared to fit, in at least a 
H rough-and-ready way, the facts that had to be dealt with. 
They were based mainly on the variations in the shape 
gof particular letters in the inscription, and they took 
* much less account than Burns had done of differences in 
g the bust that constitutes the obverse type. The latter 
test, though occasionally very useful, is often apt to 
prove elusive and fanciful, a defect that cannot be re- 
garded as at all surprising, in view of what we now know 
regarding the processes of die-making in the twelfth 
century. 5 In discussing the various groups I shall, of 
course, endeavour to take advantage of the results of 
Messrs. Fox’s most fruitful researches, so far as these 
have yet been made public. 

GROUP I. 

London. 

Variety a. 

Obv. — GDWRGXANGL’DNShYB') 

Rev.— CIVI TES LON DON ) 


M. B. 
5 2 


5 See particularly the paper by Mr. Shirley Fox in vol. vi. of the 
British Numismatic Journal. 



64 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Variety ft. 

Obv.—e DWRGXXWGL’DWShYB| 
Bev.— CIVI TAS LOU DOW ) ‘ 

Variety y. 

Obv. — €DWR6X.ftWGL’DWS*lYYB| 
Bev . — CIVI TES LOU DOW ) 

Variety 8. 

Obv. — GDWR€X70TGL’Dn,ShYB| 
Bev. — CIVI TAS LOW DOW \ 

[PI. VIII. 1.] 

Mules . 

OZw. — As a I 
Bev . — As ft) 

Obv . — As ft) 

Bev . — As a) 

Abnormal and Blundered Varieties . 
Obv.—e DWRGXENGL’DWShYB^ 
Bev . — CIVI TAS LON DON j ’ 

Obv . — CDWRGXftWGL’DWShYEn 
Bev . — CIVI TAS LON DOW ) ’ 

Obv. — €DWR€XGX£n,DWShYBl 
Bev.— CIVI TRS LON DOW $ 


M. B. 
2 5 


1 2 


1 1 


1 2 


3 


1 

1 


1 


I had occasion to discuss this interesting group of 
pieces in the pages of the Chronicle some years ago, in 
connexion with the Lochmaben Hoard . 6 The opinion 
there expressed as to their early date is absolutely con- 
firmed now by the evidence from Mellendean. Burns 
had already recognized them as representing the first 


G Num. Chron., 1905, pp. 63 ff. In writing that paper I quite inex- 
cusably and unaccountably omitted to consult Burns. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 65 


issue of tlie new coinage of Edward. I, and in this view 
Messrs. Fox concur, adducing documentary and other 
evidence to prove that they were minted in 1279. It is 
perhaps worth remarking that the details of the obverse 
type vary much more than Burns was prepared to allow. 
It is not, for instance, the rule for the crown to have 
“ round pellets on the spaces between the lis.” There 
were only two of the twenty-eight specimens recorded 
above of which this could be definitely asserted. Usually 
there was an arrow-point in the space to the left and a 
pellet in the space to the right. 

It will be convenient to ment : idle 

set of pieces which were represe^^ ^ lean 

and at Blackhills, but which I do not 'a -member to have 
seen noticed elsewhere. They were as follows : — 

Variety a. 

J M. B. 

Obv. — €DWR6ftNGL’DNShYB j 3 2 

Bjev. — Cl VI TftS LON DON ) 

[PI. VIII. 2.] 

Abnormal and Blundered Varieties. 

Obv. — eDWR€ANGL’DNShYB| 2 

Bev. — Cl VI TES LON DOM > 

Obv. — GDWRGANGNDIShYB ^ 

Bev— CIVI TftS LVN DON ) 

While the length of the inscription links these coins 
with Group I., the style of the lettering rather associates 
them with the groups that follow. The bust approxi- 
mates to Burns A9 or occasionally to A5. The lys at 

7 The three examples show varieties of blundering in the obverse 
legend. 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. F 



66 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 


the sides of the crown are trifoliate, and the ornaments 
between them are arrow-points. On the first of the two 
abnormal varieties the E is very oddly formed, a circum- 
stance which points — like the blundered legends on the 
second — to the probability of their being imitations. 
The probability becomes a certainty when one has regard 
to the weights. All seemed light. Those I weighed 
turned the scale at 17*4, 17*2, 16 6* 16, and 14*8 grains 
respectively. The whole set thus appears to belong to 
a homogeneous and fairly extensive group of forgeries, 
struck probably in or about 1280. 


GROUP II. 
London. 

Obv. — €DWR , £WGL’DMShYB'j 
Bev. — C1VI TfiS LOU DOM ) 

[PL VII. 1.] 


M. B. 
16 12 


The bust of the King on this group approximates 
sometimes to Burns A3 and sometimes to A4, while 
occasionally it does not agree with any of the represen- 
tations illustrated by him at all. The crown has always 
two arrow-points in the spaces between the lys, never two 
pellets. A peculiar feature of the lettering is a slight 
notch which is almost invariably found in the tail of the 
R. One of the Mellendean coins had Dew on the obverse. 
Messrs. Pox are doubtless right in regarding Group II. 
as part of the issue of 1279. 


GROUP III. 

The following miscellaneous pieces, which all exhibit 
a certain amount of variation in the form of N, bear a 
general resemblance to one another and to the coins in 



TWO SCOTTISH HOABDS OF EDWAED PENNIES. 67 


-Group II., of which they should perhaps be regarded as 
abnormal varieties. The busts resemble Burns A3 or 
A4, but the ornaments on the crown are sometimes 
pellets, sometimes an arrow-point and a pellet, rarely 
two arrow-points. 


London. 

Obv.— GDWR’AI/ldL’DNShYB) 
JSav. — C1VI TAS LON DON 5 

[Pl. VIII. 3.] 

Obv . — eDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 
JSav. — CIVI TAS LON DOH > 

Obv.—e DWR’AWGL’DHShYB} 
Rev . — CIVI TAS LON DOH ) 

Obv.— GDWR’AUGL’DHShYBj 
Rev . — CIVI TAS LON DON j 

[Pl. VII. 2.] 

Obv . — GDWR’ANGL’Dl/IShYB) 
Rev . — CIVI TAS LOU DOH 5 

Obv.—e DWR’AUGL’DI/IShYBj 
Rev.— CIVI TAS LOII DOII ) 

Obv . — GDWR’AI/IGL’DNShYB ) 
Rev . — CIVI TAS LOU DOII ) 

[Pl. VII. 3.] 


M, 


B. 


1 


1 


2 1 


1 


1 

1 

1 


GROUP IV. 
London. 

Obv.—e DWR’AWGL’Dl/IShYBj 
Rev . — CIVI TAS LOl/l DOH ) 

[PL VIII. 4.] 


M. B. 
13 19 


F 2 



68 


NUMISMATJC CHRONICLE. 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — GDWR’AWGL’Dl/IShYB) 
CIVI TAS CAM TOR I 


M. B. 
2 1 


One of the two Mellendean pieces has CAM TVR. 


York. 

Obv . — GDWR’AMGL’DWShYB’) 
Bev.— CIVI TAS GBO RACI ) 

Bristol. 

Obv . — GDWR’Al/IGL’DMShYB) 
Bev.— VILL ABR ISTO LLIG) 

Durham. 

Obv . — GDWR’AMGL’DMShYB} 
Bev . — CIVI TAS DVR GMG 5 


M. B. 
6 6 

M. B. 
16 6 

M. 

3 


This is Bums A5. The type is easily recognized by 
the characteristic feature of a specially long neck, which 
gives the King the appearance of wearing a high collar. 
The chief change in the lettering is in the R, the part 
above the notch having grown larger and the part below 
it smaller, while the latter is often brought down to 
touch the circle of dots beneath. Burns rightly identi- 
fied Group IY. with the issue referred to in an indenture 
of December, 1279. Messrs. Fox show that the actual 
date of the series is January, 1280. 


GROUP Y. 
London. 

Obv . — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB - ) 
Bev . — CIVI TAS LON DON J 
[PL VIII. 5.] 


M. B. 
3 2 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 69 


This is Burns A6. The type cannot be mistaken, 
marked as it is by having the drapery arranged round 
the King’s neck in the form of a continuous elliptical 
band. The crown has two pellets for ornaments. Messrs. 
Fox date the issue circa July, 1280, 


MULES with Group Y. 
London. 

Obv . — As Group Y. 1 
Rev . — As Group IV.) * 

Obv . — As Group II. j 
Rev . — As Group V.) 

Obv . — As Group IV.) 

Rev . — As Group Y. 3 


M. B. 
3 


1 

1 


GROUP YI. 
London. 

Yariety a. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYB^ 

Rev . — C1VI TAS LON DON ) 

Yariety /3. 

Obv . — eCDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 

Rev . — CIV! TAS LON DON ) 

[PI. VIII. 6.] 

York. 

Obv . — eDWR’ANGL’DNShYB^ 

Rev . — Cl V I TAS €BO RACI j 
[Pl. VII. 4.] 


M. B. 

2 5 


2 


M. 

7 


B. 

3 



70 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Bristol. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGUDNShYB) 
Bev . — VILL ABR ISTO LL1G) 


B. 


9 


Durham. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYB') 
Bev.— Cl VI TAS DVR €M€ 5 


M. 

1 


Variety a of the London coins and at least six out of the 
ten from York approximate to Burns A7, while two of the 
remaining York pieces have more resemblance to A9. 
Variety j3 of London is identical with Burns A8. The 
closed e(, formed as it is of three pieces, should be spe- 
cially noticed ; one of the two examples — that here illus- 
trated [PI. VIII. 6] — shows the transverse stroke doubled. 
The solitary Durham coin is likewise reminiscent of A8, 
but I failed to find on Burns's Plate A any close analogy 
to the Bristol pennies. The common element that binds 
the whole together is the drapery round the King’s 
neck. Although it has no longer the elliptical shape so 
characteristic of Group V., it still presents the appear- 
ance of a continuous band. The ornaments between the 
lys at the sides of the crown are usually pellets, but this 
was not in all instances quite certain. The lettering is 
very much as on the immediately preceding groups. 
But N is always regular, and there is a slight tendency — 
already observable in Group V. — towards change, parti- 
cularly in R and 6, where the wedges used in the stamp- 
ing of the die are shorter, while the apostrophes are 
indicated by crescents. The group plainly belongs to 
the “ enormous output” which (as Messrs. Pox have 
pointed out) “was needed to replace the long cross 
coinage, which was finally demonetised in August, 1280.” 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 71 


MULES with Group VI. 
London. 

Obv . — As Group II. j 
Rev . — As Group VI. 3 
Obv . — As Group IV. ) 

Rev . — As Group VI. 3 

Obv . — As Group ’VI.) 

Rev . — As Group IV J 


M. B. 

1 

1 

3 


GROUP VII. 

London. 

Obv . — CDWR’^NGL’DNShYEO 
Rev . — CIVI TAS LON DON 3 

[PL VII. 5 and PI. VIII. 7.] 


M. B. 

63 43 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — €DWR’ANGL’DNShYB| 
Rev . — CIVI TAS CAN TOR 3 
[PL VIII. 8.] 

Bristol. 

Obv . — €DWR’ANGL’DNShYB| 
Rev.— VILL ABR ISTO LLI€) 


M. B. 

20 9 


M. B. 

18 17 


York. 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYBI 
Rev . — CIVI TAS €BO RACI 3 
[Pl. VII. 6.] 


M. B. 

11 6 


8 On one of these the second N of the obverse has the form H. 



72 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Lincoln. 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB I 
Bev. — CIVI TAS LIN COL’ j 
[PL VII. 7.] 


Durham. 

Obv . — €DWR’ANGL’ DNShYBI 
Bev. — CIVI TAS DVR 0*l€ 3 


M. B. 
9 2 


M. B. 
2 1 


Robert de Hadelie (Bury St. Edmunds). 

M. 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB I l 

Bev. — ROBC RTDG hADE L€IG$ 


Speaking generally, one may say that the coins in 
this group correspond either to Burns All and 12, or to 
A14 and 15. They form part of the same “ enormous 
output” as Group VI., and were probably struck in the 
latter half of 1280. The distinguishing characteristic of 
the obverse type is an angular dip in the upper line of 
the drapery, suggesting that it is divided. As a rule, 
the ornaments on the crown are arrow-points, but in 
one or two exceptional cases \e.g. PL VII. 6] pellets were 
noted. The letter S has a singularly c wasp-waisted ’ 
form, having evidently been stamped on the dies with 
two small crescents and two short triangular wedges, 
thus — S. There is a good deal of variation in some of 
the other letters, more particularly R, the tail of which 
is frequently long. A is narrow, with the cross-line 
rather low down, and € tends to become more open owing 
to the relatively small size of the triangular wedges used 
in stamping it. The apostrophes are often crescentic. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 73 


MULES with Group VII. 
London. 

Obv . — As Group VII. j 
Bev . — As Group II. 5 


B. 


4 


The lettering of the obverse here is as on Group VII. 
The bust, however, does not show the same correspond- 
ence. In two cases it is strikingly like Burns A4. 


GROUP VIII. 

York (Ordinary Mint). 

M. B. 

Obv . — GDWR’ftNGL’ DNShYB") g 

Bev . — CIVI TSS EBO RAC1 ) 

In two cases N presents the peculiarity of having a 
pellet in the centre of the transverse stroke — N. 


Newcastle. 

Obv . — GDWR’KNGL’DNShYBI 
Bev . — VI LL A NO VICK STRlJ 


M. B. 

5 5 


In two cases N on the obverse has a dot or pellet in 
the centre of the transverse stroke, the reverse being as 
usual. 


York (Archiepiseopal Mint). 

Variety a (quatrefoil on King’s breast, and also in centre 
of reverse). 

M. B. 

Obv. — EDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 1 ^ 

Bev . — CIVI TAS GBO R£Cl 3 



74 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Variety f3 (quatrefoi] in centre of reverse only), 

M. B. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 3 

Rev.— CIVI TAS GBO RACI j 

[PI. VII. 8.] 

One of the coins of Variety /3 has a dot or pellet in 
the centre of the transverse stroke of N. 


Durham. 

Obv . — GD WR' ANGL’D NS hYBl 
Rev. — CIVI TAS DVR 0<I£ 3 


M B. 

9 3 


Three of these pieces have a dot or pellet in the centre 
of the transverse stroke of N. 

This group, which corresponds exactly to Burns A13, 
is very closely related to Group VII. There are, how- 
ever, some peculiar features in the lettering, the most 
distinctive being the long, upturned foot of L, thus — Id* 
Messrs. Fox have shown convincingly that the date of 
issue was the latter half of 1280. They explain the dot 
or pellet, occasionally found on the transverse stroke of 
the N, as a private mark of the master-moneyer, Peter 
de Turnemire. 


GROUP IX. 
London. 

Obv . — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 

Rev. — CIV! TAS LON DON 1 

[PI. VIII. 9.] 


Canterbury. 

Obv— GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 
Rev. — CIVI TAS CAN TOR ) 

[PI. VII. 9.] 


M. B. 

25 18 


M. 

4 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 75 


Bristol. 

Obv.— GDWR’ftNGL’DNShYB) 
Rev.—' VILL EBR ISTO LLieJ 

Lincoln. 

Obv.—e DWR’ftNGL'DNShYB} 
.Rev.— Cl VI TftS UN COL 1 ) 
[PL VII. 10.] 

Chester. 

Obv.—€ DWR’ENGL'DNShYB) 
Eev.— CIVI T£S CES TRIG j 
[PL VII. 11.] 


M. B. 
24: 2 


M. B. 
4 5 


M. B. 
3 3 


Bobert de Hadelie (Bury St. Edmunds). 

M. 


Obv . — EDWR’ANGL’DNShYB | 
.Rev. — ROBG RTD6 hXDE LGIG) ' 


Durham. 

OBw.— € DW R’ANGL’DNShYB^ 
Rev. — CIVI TAS DVR 6ME 9 J 


M. 

1 


The coins in Group IX. have been brought together 
because (to judge from the lettering) they appear to 
form a link between Group VIII. and Group X. The 
characteristic is a transitional form of S — neither * wasp- 
waisted 5 nor tf full-bodied 9 — which occurs sometimes on 
the obverse, sometimes on the reverse, sometimes on 
both. The remaining S’s approximate to the c wasp- 
waisted’ or to the c full-bodied 5 variety, but there are 
very few, if any, clear instances of either. The bust on 


® The exact form of the M here was uncertain. 



76 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


the obverse is either Burns A16 or A17. The latter 
usually predominates, but all the Chester coins are A16. 
These are the earliest pennies struck at Chester, and 
this serves to date the group, for Messrs. Fox show that 
the Chester mint was opened early in 1281. 


MULES involving Group IX. 
London. 

Obv . — As Group VII.) 

Rev . — As Group IX. ) 

Obv . — As Group IX. ) 

Rev . — As Group VII.) 

Canterbury. 

Obv . — As Group IX. ) 

Rev . — As Group VII.) 

Lincoln. 

Obv . — As Group VII.) 

Rev . — As Group IX. ) 


M. 

2 

1 


M. 

1 


M. 

1 


GROUP X. 
London. 

€DWR 5 £NGL ; DNShYB) 
Rev .— CIVI TAS LON DON ) 

[PL VII. 12.] 


M. B. 
103 70 


In one case the bar of the ft is omitted both on obverse 
and on reverse, 



TWO SCOTTISH HOAEDS OF EDWAED PENNIES. 77 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — CDWR’ANGL’ DNShYBl 
Bev.— C1VI TAS CAN TOR 5 
[PL VII. 13.] 


M. B. 

56 31 


In one case the bar of the £ is omitted on the reverse ; 
in another it is omitted both on obverse and on re- 
verse. 


Bristol. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 
Bev. — VI LL KBR ISTO LLiei 
[Pl. VIII. 10.] 

Lincoln. 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYBl 
Bev. — CIVI TAS LIN COL’ ) 


M. B. 

7 6 


M. B. 
2 1 


Robert de Hadelie (Bury St. Edmunds). 

M B. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYB 1 9 

Bev . — ROBG RTD6 hADG L€l€) 


The R here has its tail formed of a simple and rather 
short wedge. On the reverse of one of the coins the bar 
of the A is not visible. 


Durham. 

(1) With Ordinary Mint-mark. 
Obv . — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB j 

Bev . — civi tas dur erne J 


M. B. 

10 5 


As a rule, the R has a well-marked notch in the tail. 



78 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


( 2 ) With Mint-mark of Bishop Beck ( 1 283 — 131 0 ). 

M. 

Obv. — €DWR’ftNGL’DNShYB j 
JRev. — CIV1 T£S DVR €1*1 € j 

A perusal of Messrs. Fox’s paper has convinced me 
that this large group was capable of further sub-divi- 
sion. The Bristol and Lincoln pennies, as well as a 
certain proportion of the rest, must be earlier than the 
autumn of 1281, when the whole of ‘the royal provincial 
mints, except Canterbury, were closed. On the other 
hand, "Variety (2) of Durham, which bears the mint-mark 
of Bishop Beck — a cross-moline in the first quarter of 
the reverse — cannot have been struck before 1283. 
The common element that binds all the group together 
is the * full-bodied 5 form of S. But its heterogeneous 
character was evident from the fact that it included 
several varieties of busts — notably Burns A19 and A22ff. 
Occasionally, especially at London and Bristol, L has 
the long, upturned foot that has already been remarked 
upon in connexion with Group VIII. 


MULES involving Group X. 
London. 

Obv . — As Group VII. 1 
Bev . — As Group X. ) 

Obv . — As Group X. j 
Bev . — As Group VII.) 

Obv . — As Group X. } 

Bev . — As Group IX. ) 

Canterbury. 

Obv . — As Group X. ) 

Bev . — As Group IX.) 


M. B. 

2 

2 2 

7 4 

B. 

1 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OP EDWARD PENNIES. 79 
Bristol. 

Obv . — As Group X. j 

Rev .— As Group IX. 5 ' ... 1 


Lincoln. 

Obv . — As Group X. ) 

Rev . — As Group VII.) 

Durham. 

Obv . — As Group X. 1 
Rev . — As Group IX. 3 


B. 

1 


M. 

1 


GROUP XI. 
London. 

Obv . — EDWR’ANGL’ DNShYB) 
Rev.— C1V1 TAS LON DON 3 


M. B. 
16 10 


Canterbury. 

M. B. 

Obv . — EDWR’ANGL’DNShYB"} 

Rev.— GIVI TAS CAN TOR j * 9 10 

[PL VIII. 11.] 


Robert de Hadelie (Bury St. Edmunds). 

M. B. 

Obv. — EDWR’ANGL’DNShYB } 

{ . 19 

Be?;.— ROBE RTVS DEh ADL’) 


Durham. 

06?;. — EDWR’ANGL’DNShYB') 
Be?;.— Cl VI TAS DVR EWIE 3 


M. B. 
1 1 


Lor the most part this group corresponds to Burns 
A20 and 21. The characteristic feature is “ the manner 



80 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


in which the long semi-crescent, or comma, after R con- 
nects itself with the tail of that letter, forming with 
it a continuous line completely intersecting the legend- 
ary circle” (Burns, Coinage of Scotland, i. pp. 19of.). 
But the bust occasionally varies somewhat from the 
normal A.20 and 21 type, notably at Canterbury and on 
the Mellendean example of the Durham penny. In 
point of date these pieces may well be as early as, or 
possibly earlier than, some of the later members of the 
group immediately preceding. The absence of coins 
struck at any of the (royal) provincial mints, save 
Canterbury, indicates the autumn of 12S1 as the 
terminus post qiilih. On the other hand, the continued 
appearance of Robert de Hadelie’s name points to some 
year not later than 1287. 

GROUP XII. 

London. 

Variety a. 

Obv. — 'GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB') 

Rev.— ' CIVI TftS LON DON ) 

[Pl. VII. 14.] 

Variety /3. 

Obv. — 'GDWR’TXNGL’DNShYB) 

Bev — 'CIVI T1\S LON DON ) 

Canterbury. 

Variety a. 

Obv . — 'GDWR’ANGL’DNShYEn 
Bev . — 'CIVI TffS CRN TOR ) 

Variety /3. 

Obv. — *£DWR , 7XNGL’DNShYB') 

Bev. — 'CIVI T7XS CftN TOR ) 


M. B. 
24 5 

42 24 

M. B. 
12 5 

28 10 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 81 


The characteristic mark of Group XII. is the dot 
which appears before the legend both on obverse and on 
reverse. Two different busts occur — Burns A24 and 
A26. The s is 4 full-bodied/ and the majority of the 
other letters are as before. The one conspicuous excep- 
tion is ft. In the case of Variety a, the place of the 
bar on that letter is supplied by a jagged-looking 
projection which, leayes the inner side of the left leg 
at a point fairly low down, while the inner side of the 
right leg not infrequently presents a broken line also. 
In the case of Variety j3, the bar is dispensed with 
altogether, the inner side of the legs being, as a rule, 
perfectly smooth. 


MULES involving Group XII. 
London. 

Obv . — As Variety a. \ 

Rev . — As Variety ySJ 

Obv . — As Variety f3-\ 

Rev . — As Variety a.) 


M. B. 


1 


1 5 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — As Variety a. ) 

Rev . — As Group XI. 3 


M. 

1 


GROUP XIII. 


(Single Rellet on King’s Breast.) 
London. 

Obv . — €DWR’ftNGL’DNShYB} 

Bev.—C\V\ TftS LON DON ) 

[PI. VIII. 12.] 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 


M. B. 
8 4 


G 



82 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Canterbury. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYB^ 
Bev . — CIV1 TAS CAN TOR ) 


M. B. 


2 2 


Small as is the number of examples of Group XIII., 
two or three different varieties of bust occurred, Burns 
A29 and A30 being both represented. Bums makes 
this the latest of the large-letter series of pennies, 
placing it immediately before the c rose-on-breast 5 
issue (Group XVII.) on the ground of certain resem- 
blances in the crown and in the eyes of the obverse 
type. Messrs. Fox agree, at all events in so far as they 
regard it as subsequent in date to Group XIV. This 
view may well be correct. My original classification 
was based on the use of the barred A. 


GROUP XIV. 


( Three Pellets on King’s Breast .) 
London. 

Obv . — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 

Bev. — CIVI TAS -LON DON! 

[PL VIII. 13.] 


M. B. 
17 11 


Canterbury. 

Variety a. 

Obv . — GDWR’ANGL'DNShYB') 

Bev . — CIVI TAS CAN -TOR j * ' * 5 5 

Variety /3. 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 

Bev . — CIVI .TAS CAN TOR) ’ 

Variety y. 

Obv . — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB ) 

Bev . — CIVI -TAS CAN -TOR) •■*11 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 83 


In this group the bust usually, though not invariably, 
corresponds to Bums A27. 


MULES involving Group XIV. 


London. 

Obv . — As Group XIV. j 
Bev . — As Group XII. ft.) 

Obv . — As Group XII. fi.\ 
Bev .~ As Group XIV. ) 

Obv . — As Group XIV. j 
Bev . — As Group XIII.) 


M. B. 

1 4 

1 

2 


Canterbury. 

Obv — As Group XII. ft. ) 

Bev . — As Group XIV. a .£ 


B. 

1 


GROUP XV. 

Durham. 

With Mint-mark of Bishop Beck (1283-1310). 

M. B. 

Obv . — GDWR’ftNGL’ DNShYB) 4 1 

Bev . — c iv itss dvr ei«ie 5 


The mint-mark, a cross-moline, is placed immediately 
before the legend both on obverse and on reverse. This 
small group, which cannot, of course, be earlier than 
1283, has a bust resembling Burns A25. The letter £ 
shows some variation. In one instance it is distinctly 
and firmly barred. In another there is no bar at all, 
while in the remaining three cases the bar is produced 
as on Group XII., Variety a. 

a 2 



84: 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


GROUP XVI. 

London. 

Variety a. 

M. 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 

Bev.— CIVI TAS LON DON ) 

The bust here does not exactly 'correspond to any of 
Burns’s varieties. 


Variety j3. 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYBI 
Bev. — CIVI TAS LON DON ) 

[PL VIII. 14.] 

The bust here resembles Burns A28. 


Canterbury. 


M. 


Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 

} ... 2 \ 

Bev . — CIVI TAS CAN TOR ) \ 

Here again Burns A28 presents the closest anajogy. 
The form of the N differs slightly from that fouryd on 
other coins of this group. 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

Obv . — GDWR'A NGL'DNShYB| 

Bev .—' VIL LAS GDI 1 1 VDI j 


B. 


1 


As the name of Robert de Hadelie has disappeared, 
this coin can hardly be earlier than the autumn of 1287. 
The type again resembles Burns A28. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 85 


Durham. 

With Mini-mark of Bishop Beck ( 1283 - 1310 ). 

Variety a. 

M. 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB) 
j Rev . — CIV IT7XS DVR 6I1IG ) 

[PI. VII. 15.] 

Variety ft. 

Obv.— GDWR’ftNGL’DNShYB) 

Bev. — CIV IT7IS DVR GMG } 

In both cases the bust resembles Burns A28, and in both 
cases there is a cross-moline before the legend both on 
obverse and on reverse. On Variety a, however, the 
ends of the cross-moline are curiously formed of 
annulets. 


MULES involving Group XVI. 
London. 

Obv .— As Group XIV. j 
Bev . — As Group XVI. 5 ' 


B. 

I 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — As Group XII. ft.} 

Bev . — As Group XVI. i 

Obv . — As Group XVI. j 
Bev . — As Group XIV. ft.) 

Durham. 

Obv . — As Group XVI. <x.| 

Bev . — As Group XV. ; 


M. 


B. 

1 


1 


B. 

1 


But for a mule to be described presently (see infra , 



86 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


p. 87), this brings us to the end of the representatives 
of the ‘ large-letter ’ series. Before we pass on to the 
‘ small-letter ’ groups, mention should be made of three 
‘large-letter’ imitations, over and above the set with 
6DWR6, which has already been recorded (see supra, 
p. 65). All three were in the Mellendean hoard, and 
two of them bore the name of the London mint, blundered, 
while the third bore the name of the Durham mint, also 
blundered. 


GROUP XVII. 

( Bose on King’s Breast.) 

London. 

™ M. B. 

Olv . — BDWR’ANGLDNStiYB) 

Bev . — CIVI TAS LONDON 5 ' 1 4 

[PI. VIII. 15.] 

The ‘rose-on-breast’ pennies are Burns A31. Note 
the doubling of the transverse stroke of the N, pecu- 
liarly characteristic of this group. Henceforward c is 
usually closed, being formed of a crescent with a tall 
upright stroke in front of it, although the place of the 
upright stroke is sometimes taken by two triangular 
wedges arranged so that their points almost meet A 
tendency towards closing also betrays itself in 6. 
Messrs. Fox place these coins not later than 1294. 


GROUP XVIII. 
London. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYB’) 
Bev— C(IVI TAS LON DON 5 ' 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 87 

Group XVIII., from which, the rose has already dis- 
appeared, is Burns A32. Its distinctive features are 
(1) the apostrophe after hYB, and (2) the curved stems 
of the upright strokes in the legend. On the obverse 
of one of these three pieces A is used for A. 


GROUP XIX. 

* London. 

Obv.—e DWR’ANGL’DNShYBA 
j3 el? .__CXiVI TAS LON DON 5 
[Pl. VIII. 16.] 


M. B. 
1 23 


Durham. 

With Mint-mark of Bishop Beck (1283—1310). 

Obv. — EDWR’ANGL’DNShYB’) 

Bev—i XIVI TAS DVR 61 16 ) 


This group corresponds to Burns A33 and A34, and the 
contraction mark after hYB is characteristic. The letters 
are now distinctly smaller, c is nearly always closed, 
although on the two Durham coins it has the half-closed 
appearance described under Group XVII. s varies in 
shape, but is usually full-bodied with an egg-shaped 
swelling towards the centre. At Durham the cross- 
moline of Bishop Beck occupies the place of the mint- 
mark on the obverse. 


MULES involving Group XIX. 
London. 

Obv, — As Group XVI. a.j 
Rev . — As Group XIX. ) 

[PI. VII. 16.] 


M. 

1 



88 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


So far as the English pennies of Edward I are con- 
cerned, we have now exhausted the contents of the 
Mellendean hoard. This enables the date of deposit to 
be fixed within comparatively narrow limits. The whole 
of the foregoing coins are earlier than the great issue 
of 1300. The absence of any specimens of that issue is 
particularly significant. We may safely decide on circa 
1295-1299 as the approximate limits of which we are in 
search. The evidence supplied by the Foreign Sterlings 
has, as we shall see, a precisely similar bearing. 

B. 

Obv.—eD WR’ANGL’DNShYB’l 
Bev . — As Group XIX. 1 

[PL IX. 1.] 

While the obverse of this piece seems, on the whole, to 
belong to the ‘ large-letter 5 series, the bust shows no very 
marked likeness to any of the groups enumerated above. 


GROUP XX. 

London. 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). 

B. 

Obv.— GDWR’fiNGL’DNShYBI 
Bev.— aiVI T7VS LON DON ) 

[PL IX. 2.] 

In one case A is barred both on obverse and on reverse. 


Variety y (star on King’s breast). B 

Obv . — €DWR’7\llGL J DllShYB') 

Bev.— a IVI TfiS LOU DO 1 1 5 

Variety 8 (no star). 

Obv. — GDWR’TGIGL’DIIShYB j 

Bet 7.—CXIVI TAS LOU DOII j ° 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 89 


Canterbury. 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). 

Obv. — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB’') 

Bev.— aivi TrtS cmN TOR ) 

In one case the ft on the reverse is barred. 

Variety y (star on King’s breast). 

Obv.—e DWR’ftllGL’DIIShYB ) 

Bev.— CCIVI TftS anil TOR 3 

Bury St. Edmunds. 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). 

Obv . — GDWR’ftNGL’DNShYB) 

Bev . — VI LU Sai€ DNV ND1 S 

Variety ft (no star). 

Obv . — eDWR’ANGL’ DNShYB’I 
Bev . — VILL sale DNV ND1 3 

Durham. 

With Mint-mark of Bishop Beck (1283—1310). 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). 

Obv . — GDWR’RNGL’DNShYB’) 

Bev.— OCIVI T7IS DVR €1 IG ) 

The place of the usual mint-mark on the obverse is 
occupied by the cross-moline of Bishop Beck. 

This group is very closely related to that which 
follows. The use of apostrophes differentiates the two. 
The peculiar form of s is highly characteristic; it is 
‘ full-bodied 5 and has twisted ends. The apostrophe after 
hYB, though by no means constantly employed, is usual. 


B. 

2 


B. 

1 

1 


B. 

2 



90 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The bust generally corresponds to Burns A35 and A3 6. 
Variety a at Bury St. Edmunds and at Durham has, 
however, more affinity to A37, both in bust and in 
lettering. 


MULES within Group XX. 
London. 

Obv . — As Group XX. a. ) 

Bev . — As Group XX. y.5 


B. 

7 


In three cases the ft of the obverse is quite distinctly 
barred. 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — As Group XX. a.) 

Bev . — As Group XX. y S' 

Obv.— As Group XX. y.) 

Bev.— As Group XX. a.) ' 


B. 

1 

2 


GROUP XXI. 

London. 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). B. 

Obv . — €DWR7UIGLDlIShYB| 

Bev . — CXI VI TftS LOU DOU) • • • • 70 

One has N in DNS and also an apostrophe after hYB’. 

Variety ft (no star). 

Obv . — €DWR7UlGLDnShYB) 

Bev . — CUV! THS LOU DonJ 

[PI. IX. 3.] 


25 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 91 


Canterbury. 

Variety a (star on King's breast). 
Obv . — eDWRAUGLDHShYB} 
Bev.— at VI TAS dAll TOR ) 

One reads ocas for ccaii. 


B. 

15 


Variety (3 (no star). 

Obv . — eDWRAUQ-LDHShYB ) 
Bev— aivi TAS emu TOR ) 


13 


Newcastle. 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). 

Obv . — €DWRAllGLDtlShYBl 
Bev . — VILL TIOV C(AS TRI ) 

One of these [PI. IX. 4] reads VIL’ fox VILL. 

Variety (3 (no star). 

Obv . — €DWRAUGLDHShYBl 

Bev . — vill nov cias tri ) 

Bristol. 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). 

Obv.—E DWR7UlGLDnShYB| 

Bev . — VILL BRI STO Lie ) 

Variety j3 (no star). 

Obv . — GDWRAHGLDnShYBl 
B>ev. — VI LL BRI STO Lie ) 


B. 

2 


B. 

6 


York (Ordinary Mint). 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). 

Obv . — eDWRAUGLDUShYB) 

Bev.— aivi TAS eBO RACCl} 


B. 

9 



92 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Variety ft (no star). B. 

Obv. — GDWRAUGLDUShYBI 4 

Rev. — CXI VI TAS GBO RAC! 3 

Exeter. 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). B. 

Obv . — GDWRAUGLDHShYB) 3 

Rev . — CXI VI TAS GXO UIG ) 

In one case N appears, instead of n on the reverse. 
Kingston-on-H u ll . 

Variety ft (no star). B. 

Obv . — GDWRAUGLDUShYB^ 

Rev— VI L RYU GGS TOU J 

In one instance the obverse inscription has N for u, 
for which cf. Variety |3 of Group XX. 

York (Archiepiscopal Mint). 

Variety ft (no star). B, 

Obv . — GDWRAUGLDllShYB ) 

Rev.— C(l VI TAS GBO RACfli 

There is an open quatrefoil in the centre of the 
reverse. 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

Variety ft (no star) B. 

Obv . — GDWR°XlIG L’ DUS hYB’I 
Rev.—y ILL SaiG DHV UDI ) 

The presence of contraction marks, the barred A, and 
the peculiar form of M — a form which occurs also at 
Durham — all deserve notice. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 93 
Durham. 

(1) With Ordinary Mint- 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). 

Obv. — €DWR7UlGLDUShYB) 

Bev. — C(IVi TAS DVR €116) 

One of these has N on the obverse, 
another M tabes the form H. 

Variety /3 (no star). 

Obv—€ DWR ATTG L D IT S h Y B | 

Bev .— aivi TAS DVR 6HG ) 

In one case H is used for h. 

(2) With Mint-mark of Bishop Beck (1283-1310). 

Variety a (star on King’s breast). B. 

Ohv . — GDWRANGLDNShYBT 
Bev .— aiVI TAS DVR Gl l€ ) 

The cross-moline of Bishop Beck takes the place of 
the ordinary mint-mark on the obverse. The use of the 
form N is noticeable. 

Variety /3 (no star). 

Obv . — EDWRAllGLDnShYB 1 
Bev . — COVI TAS DVR €116) 

This again has the mint-mark of Beck on the obverse. 

The distinguishing features of Group XXI. are the 
smaller diameter of the coins, the smaller size of the 
letters, and the general absence of contraction marks, 
p ^Ts no longer quite the same shape as it had before ; 
the ends are, so to say, less aggressive, a is always 
closed. € is still open, although with an increasing 


B. 

1 


mark. 

B. 

7 

On the reverse of 

B. 

. 5 



94 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


tendency to close. The length of the turned-up foot of 
L is remarkable. The bust is Burns A37. As Burns 
pointed out, the list of mints proves beyond all doubt 
that this group represents the coinage of 1300, Group 
XX. can be little, if at all, earlier. 


MULES involving Group XXI. 
Canterbury. 

Obv. — As Group XXI. /?.) 

Rev. — As Group XX. a. 3 

Bury St. Edmunds. 

Obv. — As Group XXI. a.J 
Rev. — As Group XX. a. 3 


B. 




B. 

1 


GROUP XXII. 
London. 

Obv . — eDWARDR^NGUDNShYB 7 ') 

Rev.— aivi Tfts Lon don 3 


B. 


11 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — eDWKRDRANGL’DNShYB’^ 

Rev.— dm TKS OTN TOR 3 

[PL IX. 5.] 

In one case N on the reverse has the form II. 


B. 

H 


Newcastle. 

Obv.—e DWfiRDRANGL’DNShYB’} 
Rev . — VI LL NOVI CXftS TRI 3 

In one case the I of NOVI is omitted. 


B. 

3 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 95 


Durham. 

Obv. — GDWARDRTtNGL’DNShYB’ 
Rev. — CCI V I TAS DVR GHG 


B. 

4 


One of these appears to have hi for H on the reverse. 

The group just described inaugurates important 
changes. The time-honoured GDWR’ of the obverse legend 
is abandoned, and the lys at each side of the King’s 
crown are henceforward bifoliate. 10 The bust is usually 
Burns A38, although A39 occasionally occurs. The 
letters are slightly larger than on the coins of Group 
XXI., while the shape is often different. N, for instance, 
is [Nl, and a is closed in a rather different fashion, two 
tall triangular wedges being made to meet at the 
vertices. The contraction signs are inserted less 
regularly than would appear from the inscriptions as 
printed. Sometimes they are altogether omitted. 

The set of mules to be noted immediately proves 
clearly that, as Burns perceived, Group XXII. must 
have trodden pretty closely on the heels of Group XXI. 
Messrs. Fox place its issue circa 1302, and indicate that 
they mean to produce documentary evidence of date. 


MULES involving Group XXII. 


London. 

Obv .— As Group XXII. j 
Rev . — As Group XXI. 3 


B. 

31 


One coin reads DNShY. Another [Pl. IX. 6] shows two 
dots in the field of the obverse, one on either side of the 
King’s neck, as well as a third on his breast. 


10 For a single exception see iw/ra, p. 97 f. 



96 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Newcastle. 

Obv.— As Group XXI. 0.J 
Rev.— As Group XXII. ) ' 

One reads viu NOV QAS tri. 


B. 


5 


GROUP XXIII. 
London. 

Obv. — GDWR’R’ftNGL’DNShYB’') 
Rev.— aiVI TWS LON DON ) 


B. 

7 


In two cases the W is not interlinked, although the 
form of its component parts suggests that this is a mere 
accident [PL IX. 7]. In two others B is so peculiarly 
shaped as almost to resemble a D, thus — 0 — a feature 
which recurs as late as Group XXIX. 11 In one case 
there is a dot beneath the apostrophe after hYB. 


Canterbury. 

B. 

Obv . — eDWR’RTtNGL’DNShYB) 

Rev— cam T7YS QAN TOR j 

In one case the W is interlinked. On none of the 
three coins is an apostrophe visible after hYB. 

The letters on this little group have many points in 
common with those on Group XXII., notably the inter- 
linked W. Yet there are differences, the most striking 
being in the I. With the exception of one Canterbury 
coin, which has I, all the other members of the group 
have 2. The busts include examples both of Burns A38 
and of A39. 


11 Compare also Group A, Variety 0, of the Berwick coins, infra, p. 108. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 97 

From this point onwards the task of classification 
becomes much more difficult. I believe that, with 
greater leisure than I was able to command; a close 
study of such a mass of material as was recovered at 
Blackhills might have furnished valuable clues. As it 
was, I had to be content with a rough arrangement, 
based mainly on changes in the forms of the letters, 
and bound, therefore ; to be so far unsatisfactory, seeing 
that these changes occur and recur somewhat irregularly. 
The episcopal coins of Durham, with their distinctive 
mint-marks, of course provide the chronological key. 
Numismatists will await with keen anticipation the 
publication by the Messrs. Fox of the results of their 
researches in this portion of the wide field which they 
have set out to illuminate. 

It may be well to begin by describing certain coins 
■which connect the group that follows with the coinage 
of 1300 and so with XXII. and XXIII. 


LINKS between Groups XXL and XXIV. 


London. 

Obv . — As Group XXIV. j 
Bev . — As Group XXT. 5 


B. 


4 


The obverse is Burns A39, but the busts vary some- 
what. In one instance there is an apostrophe after hYB. 


Newcastle. 

B. 

Obv . — 6(DWARRANGLDNShYB} 1 

Bev.—V ILL NOVI C(AS TRI } 

The obverse here has many features in common with 
Burns A39. But the significant fact about it is that 
VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. H 



98 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


the fleurs-de-lys at the sides of the crown are trifoliate, 
as they were in Group XXI. and preceding groups, not 
bifoliate as they are from Group XXII. onwards. This 
means that the irons employed for stamping the crown 
on the dies of the older series were used to produce the 
corresponding part of the particular obverse die from 
which this piece was struck, the remaining parts being 
stamped from Group XXII. iron$. There were three 
similar coins in the Montrave hoard. That the mint of 
Newcastle at this period made its dies locally from 
irons supplied from London, is clear from evidence 
brought forward by Messrs. Fox in their hd rod act ton 
{p. 8). 12 Apart from the closed ec, which is henceforward 
universal, the most noteworthy letters are R, which is not 
joined at the waist but has the form R, and I, the sides 
of which are curved J. 


GROUP XXIV. 

Durham. 

With Mint-mark of Bishop Beck (1283-1310). 

B. 

Obv. — 6(DW7IRRKNGLDNShYB| 

Bev— CCIVI TAS DVR G(Me( j 

The cross-moline of Beck takes the place of the usual 
mint-mark on the obverse. One of these has two 
apostrophes — Qdwar’R’ [PI. IX. 8]. All of them have the 
open-waisted R, and one of them has the I with curving 
sides, both as described in connexion with the im- 
mediately preceding Newcastle penny. The remaining 
three have the straight-sided I of Group XXI. Through- 


12 See British Numismatic Jou)nal } vol. vi. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD RENNIES. 99 


out the whole of Group XXIV. 13 ec is usually rounded, 
thus — 0. Occasionally, however, the angular form 
occurs— <S). L is also typical— J a. The bust resembles 
Burns A39. 


London. 

01)V. — SDWARRANGLDNShYB-j 
Bev.— aiVI TAS RON DON ) 


B. 

26 


Four of these have an apostrophe after hYB’ [PI. IX. 9]. 
On all of them the I has curving sides. The remarks 
made above as to R, L, and e( apply here also. 


Canterbury 

Obv.—Q (DWA R RA N G LD N S hYB | 

Bev,— aiVI TAS CCAN TOR 5 

In one case there is an interlinked W. Otherwise the 
letters are as at London. These coins are hard to 
distinguish from Group XXIX. 


B. 

32 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

B. 

Obv. — eCDWARRANGLDNShYB j 
Bev . — VI LL SCIS DMV NDI ) 

The characteristic letters are as at London. In one 
case M appears as I I. 


13 These remarks on 6C apply to Beck’s money generally, and of 
.course to the contemporary issues of other mints. 



100 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


GROUP XXY. 

(1) With Mint-mark of BMu T Beck (1283-1310). 

Obv . — SDWARRANGLDNShYB 

Bev . — dl VI TAS DVR SMS 

The cross-moline of Beck takes the place of the 
usual mint-mark on the obverse. The characteristic 
letters are as on Group XXIV., except that R is now 
closed at the waist and has a short squat appearance. 

(2) With Ordinary Mutt- marie 

Obv. — SDWARRANGLDNShYB ) 

Rev. — 0(1 VI TAS DVR SMS 5 

The lettering is as on (1). 

GROUP XXVI. 

Durham. 

(1) With Mint-mark of Bishop Beck (1283-1310). 

B. 

Obv. — SDWARANGLDNShYB) 

_ > .... 48 

Bev . — CCI VI TAS DVR SMS 3 

The bust resembles Burns A40, &c. The lettering is 
as on Group XXV., except that in one or two cases R 
has the open-waisted form of Group XXIV. The cross- 
moline is in its usual place on the obverse. 

(2) With Ordinary Mint-mark. 

B. 

Obv. — SDWARANGLDNShYB - ) 

Bev .— CUVI TAS DVR SMS 3 ' ’ ' 

One of these has an apostrophe after hYB, while 
another has two pellets, one above another. 


B. 

1 




TWO SCOTTISH HOAEDS OF EDWABD PENNIES. 101 


London. 

Obv. — GCDWAR7\NGLDNShYB > 
Bev.—(X\V\ TAS LON DON ) 


B. 

330 


The characteristic letters are as at Durham. Two of 
the coins have hYB’, one [PI. IX. 10] has hYSBS, one hYBs, 
six hYBS, and one hYB: 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — G(DWAR7YNGLDNShYB| 
Bev. — cnvi ri\s am tor 5 


B. 

170 


The characteristic letters are as usual. Two of the 
coins have a comma after hYB, while one has two 
annulets, one above another, with a comma placed 
horizontally between them. 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

O&y.— 6(D Wfi RKNGLDNShYBl 
Bev—M ILL SCI6C DMV NDI ) 

The characteristic letters are as usual. 


B. 

12 


The numbeD of coins belonging to this group is very 
large. The majority were probably minted under 
Edward I. The later ones may fall into the reign of 
Edward II., which commenced in 1307. 


MULES involving Group XXVI. 
Canterbury. 

Obv.— As Group XXVI. j 
Bev .— As Group XXIV.) * 

There were many indications of ‘ muling 9 


B. 

. 7 

at London 



102 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


and at Durham between Group XXVI. and Group XXIV. 
But it proved impossible, in the time available, to sort 
out the specimens with the same confidence as at 
Canterbury. 


GROUP XXVII. 

Durham. 

(1) With Mint-mark of Bishop Beck (1283-1310). 

B. 

Obv . — GCDWARANGLDNShYB') 

Rev. — CCIVI TAS DVR SMS ) 

The characteristic letters are exactly as on Group 
XXVI. except that I now becomes straight-sided, I. In 
one instance hYB is followed by three pellets, placed one 
above another [PI. IX. 11]. The cross-moline is as usual. 

(2) With Ordinary Mint-mark. 

B 

Obv . — 8(DWARANGLDNShYB} 

Rev.— C(IVl TAS DVR UMU j ‘ 3 

Here the most noteworthy point is that one of the 
three coins has the large R which is characteristic of 
Bishop Kellow’s money. That it was struck under 
Bishop Beck is nevertheless shown by the form of the 
city name. This confirms what Burns says as to the large 
R having begun to appear “ previous to the close of the 
Beck period.” 


London. 

Obv . — e( D W A RANG LDNS hYB} 

Rev.— aiVl TAS LON DON J ' ' ^ 

The characteristic letters are as at Durham. hYB° occurs 
twice and hYB: once. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 103 


Canterbury. 

Obv. — 6(DWRR7INGLDNShYB') 
Bev.— CCIV1 T1S.S <XKN TOR 5 


B, 

42 


The characteristic letters are as above. In one case L 
has been accidentally omitted on the obverse. In another 
the transverse stroke of N on the reverse has not been filled 
in. Two of the coins have hYBo 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

Obv . — G(DWAR7YNGLDNShYB") 

Bev. — VI LL SCie( DMV NDI 5 

The characteristic letters are as above. 


B. 

8 


GROUP XXVIII. 

Durham. 

With MinUmarh of Bishop Kelloio (1311—1316). 

B. 

Obv. — SDWARANGLDNShYB^ gg 

Bev— aiVI TAS DVN 0LM 3 

This group includes Bums A44-46. The lettering 
is identical with that on Group XXVII., except that 
the R is larger and is frequently disjoined at the waist. 
The straight-sided I is very characteristic. At the end 
of the reverse inscription the upper part of the cross 
is bent to the left so as to form the head of a crozier 
— Kellow’s mint-mark. Note the change in the form of 
the city name. 



104 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


London. 

Obv. — GCDWARANGLDNShYB ) 
Bev.— aiVI TAS LON DON 3 


B. 

67 


The lettering is as at Durham, the large R — fre- 
quently disjoined — and the straight-sided I being 
specially worthy of note. 


Canterbury. 

Obv . — GtDWARANGLDNShYB) 
Bev— C(IV I TAS CAN TOR 3 


B. 


61 


Four of these pieces have two annulets, one above 
another, after hYB. One reads CCAN TOR ccan TOR on 
the reverse. As to the lettering generally, see under 
London. 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

B. 

Obv . — SDWARANGLDNShYB J 
Bev— WILL sen e( DMV NDI 3 

The lettering here is as at the other mints. 


MULES involving Group XXVIII. 
Canterbury. 

Obv . — As Group XXVIII.) 

Bev.— As Group XXVII. 3 

Obv .— As Group XXVII. ) 

Bev.— As Group XXVIII. 3 


1 



TWO SCOTTISH HOAEDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 105 


GROUP XXIX. 

Durham. 

(1) With Mint-mark of Bishop Kelloio (1311-1316). 

B. 

Ohv. — 6(DWARRANGLDNShYB| 

Bev — CXI VI TAS DVN G(LM i 

[PI. IX.. 12.] 

The bust here is chiefly Bums A46, and the mint- 
mark is a crozier at the end of the reverse inscription. 
For the most part the lettering is identical with that 
on Group XXVIII. The sides of the I, however, are no 
longer straight, while the letter itself tends to be short 
and dumpy-looking, w occasionally show signs of inter- 
linking. One of the coins has two pellets after TAS. 


(2) With Mint-marl: of Bishop Beaumont (1317-1333). 

B. 

Ohv . — UDWARRANGLDNShYB} ^ 

Bev . — CXIVI TAS DVN GCLM 5 

The usual bust is Burns A48. The lettering is as 
on (1), except that the tendency towards interlinking of 
the W is decidedly more pronounced. The place of the 
ordinary mint-mark on the obverse is occupied by a 
lion rampant left. In four out of the thirty-nine cases, 
there is a single fleur-de-lys in front of the lion; in 
twenty-two cases there is a single fleur-de-lys both in 
front and behind ; and in eleven cases there are two 
fleurs-de-lys in front, one above another. The surface 
of the two remaining coins is so much rubbed that the 
details of the mint-mark are obscure. 



106 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


( 3 ) With Ordinary Mint-marlc. 

Ohv . — eCDWARRANGLDNShYB| 

Rev . — 0(1 VI TAS DVN SLM 3 

The lettering is as on (1) and (2) 


B. 

3 


London. 

Ohv . — eCDWARRANGLDNShYB") 

JJ ew ._CCiVI TAS LON DON 3 

The lettering is as at Durham, including an occasional 
tendency to the interlinking of W [PL IX. 13]. The un~ 
usual height of the upturned foot of L is also worth 
noting, ec is sharply angular (see supra, p. 99). 


B. 

34 


Canterbury. 

Ohv.— HDWARRANGLDNShYB^ 
CXIV1 TAS (XAN TOR ) 


B. 

36 


The lettering is as at London. As was remarked 
above, this group is not easy to distinguish from Group 
XXIV. The angular ec is, perhaps, the best test as 
between the two. 


Bury St. Edmunds. 

B. 

Ohv . — G( D WA RRANGLDNShYB") 

Rev—' VILL SCieC DMV NDl j ' * * 13 

Two of these coins are somewhat unlike others of the 
group. One of them is reproduced here [PL IX. 14]. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 107 


MULES involving Group XXIX. 

Durham. 

With Mint-mark of Bishop Kelloiv (1311-1316). 

B. 

Obv . — As Group XXIX. } 

Rev .— As Group XXVIII.) • ■ ■ ■ 


. London. 

Obv . — As Group XXIX. ) 
Bev . — As Group XXYIIlJ 


B. 

6 


Canterbury. 

Obv.— As Group XXIX. ) 
Bev.—As Group XXYIII.5 


B. 

6 


Besides the English pennies described above, the 
Blackhills hoard contained thirteen which it was not 
possible to assign definitely to any of the foregoing 
groups. In one or two instances this was due to their poor 
condition. In the majority of cases it was because they 
were obvious imitations. Eight of the thirteen were, or 
purported to be, of the London mint. The rest were of 
Canterbury. One of the Canterbury coins, which com- 
bined a ‘ bifoliate * crown with the legend GDWR, is 
figured here [PI. IX. 15]. On it the 6C was slightly 
angular, R was disjoined at the waist, and I had curved 
sides. The weight was 19*8 grains. 

The solitary farthing found at Blackhills weighed 4*7 
grains. From the general character of the lettering I 
should be disposed to place it fairly early, perhaps as 
early as Group XII. It may be thus described — 

Obv.—e DWARDVSR6X ) l 

Bev. — CIVI TKS LON DON I 



108 


NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 


The coins struck at Berwick have been reserved for 
separate treatment. The mint there seems to have been 
fairly active from the date of Edward I’s capture of the 
town in 1296 down to its recovery by Robert the Bruce in 
1318. But it appears to have stood towards the central 
authority in a relation quite different from that occupied 
by the English provincial mints, whether royal or 
ecclesiastical. Hence its issues form a class by them- 
selves. The workmanship of many of the specimens is 
rough and careless to a degree. Some of the worst are 
probably imitations. The shapes of R, e, and N vary 
considerably, sometimes on the same coin. It is possible 
to distinguish two main groups, that which is placed 
first here being doubtless the earlier in time. 

GROUP A. 

With Trifoliate Lys at sides of Grown, 

Variety a. 

Obv. — GDWRANGLDNShYB j 
Rev.— VILL ABE REV ICI j 

Variety /3, 

Obv.—G DWRANGLDNShYD 14 } 

Rev. — VILL ABE REV ICI j 

Variety y. 

Obv . — GDWARANGLDNShYB| 

Rev. — VILL ABE REV VICI 

Variety 8. 

Obv. — EDWARANGLDNShYB') 

Rev . — VILL ABG RGW ICI $ 

Variety e. 

Obv. — €DWARANGLDNShYB| 

Rev. — VI L LAB GR€ VICI j 


B. 

3 


5 


14 


2 


1 


14 See supra, p. 96. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 109 


Variety £. B. 

Obv . — EDWARANGLDNShYB) 

Bev — WIL LAB ERE VICI 5 

Variety rj (pellet on Kang’s breast). 

Obv . — EDWARANGLDNShYB) H 

JK eWt _V!LL ABE REV VICI ) 


•GROUP B. 

With Bifoliate Lys at sides of Grown. 

Variety a (pellet on King’s breast). 

Obv . — EDWARANGLDNShYB) 

Bev . — VILL ABE REV VICI } 

Burns took special note of tbis variety, which is dis- 
tinguished by the thick rings, like spectacles, round the 
eyes. 


B. 

21 


Variety (3 (pellet on King’s breast). 

B. 

Obv . — EDWARANGI DUShYB j 

Bev. — VILL ABE REV VICI ) * * ' ' ° 

On the obverse of these pieces the L is not distinguish- 
able from I and the second N is Lombardic. 


Variety y. B. 

Obv . — EDWRANGL - DNS ■ hYB O 
Bev . — VILL ABE REV VICI > 

Variety S. 

Obv . — EDWRANGL - DNS ■ hYB O 

Bev . — VILL ABE REW ICI $ ... 1 

Variety e. 

Obv , — EDWARANGLDNShYB - ) 

Bev . — SVIL LAB ERE WYCI ) * ' * ' ° 



110 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Yariety £. B. 

Ohv . — GDWARRANGLDNShYB) 

Rev. — o VIL LAB GR€ WYC! ) 

[PL IX. 16.] 

The foregoing are all pennies. The following half- 
penny, which weighs 10 grains, has the ‘ trifoliate ’ 
type of crown, and is therefore contemporary with Group 
A, probably Yariety y : — 

B. 

Obv.—e DWARANGLDNShYB) 

Bev.—VILL ABE REV VICI ) * ' ' ‘ 1 


It will not have escaped observation that the whole 
of the Berwick coins came from the Blackhills find. 
The absence of any corresponding pieces at Mellendean 
is a highly significant circumstance, to which we shall 
have occasion to return. Meanwhile the record of the 
issues bearing the name of Edward has to be completed 
by a list of the Irish pennies in the two hoards. With 
a single exception, which will be noticed in its proper 
place, all of these have the bust, on the obverse, set in 
the triangular framework so characteristic of the Irish 
mints. The crown seems always to be of the c trifoliate ’ 
type. 


Dublin. 

Yariety a (three pellets on King’s breast). ^ 

Obv. GDW ■ R T - ANGL-’D NS-hYB) 

Rev . — Cl VI TAS DVBL INIG 5 • 1 H 

On this and the other varieties where they occur, the 
three pellets are arranged Occasionally the upper 
one is lost in the folds of the drapery, giving the im- 
pression of there being two only. Sometimes the dot 
after S is omitted. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD 

PENNIES 

. Ill 

Variety j3 (three pellets on King’s breast). 

Obv. 6DW • R’- ANGL-’D NS-hYBl 

Bev . — Cl VI TAS DVBL inie 3 

M. 

. 3 

B. 

Variety y (three pellets on King’s breast). 
Obv . — £.GDW-R’- ANGL-’D NS-hYB) 
Bev. — CIVI TAS DVBL HUG 3 

. 1 


Variety 8 (three pellets on King’s breast). 
Obv . — GDWR’ ANfiL’D NShYB’j 

Bev. — CIVI TAS DVBL IN IG 3 


2 

Variety e (one pellet on King’s breast). 
Obv . — GDWR’ ANGL’D NShYB’) 

Bev . — CIVI TAS DVBL INIG 3 


5 

Variety £ (no pellets). 

Obv — GDWR’ ANGL’D NShYB) 

Bev.— CIVI TAS DVBL INIG 3 


1 

Waterford. 

Variety a (no triangle on obv.). 

Obv . — GDWR’ANGL’DNShYB ) 

Bev.— CIVI TAS VATS RFOR 3 

M. 

. 1 

B. 

Variety /3 (three pellets on King’s breast). 

Obv. GDW-R’. ANGL-’D NS-hYB’I 

Bev . — CIVI TAS VAT€ RFOR 3 

. 3 

3 

Variety y (three pellets on King’s breast). 
Obv . — ■ GDW-R’. ANGL-’D NS • hYB’I 

Bev . — CIVI TAS WATG RFOR 3 

. 7 

6 

In the majority of these cases the dot 
obverse is omitted. 

after s 

on the 

In connexion with the Scottish single-long-cross pennies, 
which fall to be mentioned next, the salient features 



112 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


were the great preponderance of Alexander Ill’s issues, 
even at Blackhills, and the exceptionally good condition 
of many of the specimens of his money. In the latter 
respect they compared very favourably with the coins of 
Balliol and of Robert Bruce. 


ALEXANDER III. 

Ohv.—+ AL6XANDeRD€IGRA| 

Bev.— R€X SCO TOR VM+ 5 


M. B. 
63 28 


Some of the earlier examples — these included an 
example of Burns I. i. — had the A barred, but that was the 
exception. One, which had four five-pointed mullets on 
the reverse, had also a single pellet in the first quarter 
and a pellet on each side of the mullet in the third 
quarter. * 


JOHN BALLIOL. 

Variety a. M. B. 

Obv.—+ lOhANNGSDGIGR A | 

Bev. R R€ XSC OTO RVM) 

One of these has Ml A. 

Variety ft. 

Obv .— + lOhAMH€SD0GR j 9 1 

Bev. — + R€ XSC OTO RVM ) 

Variety y. 

Obv.— h IOhANN€SDeiGRA j 
Bev.— CIVI TAS SAN DRG J 

Variety 8. 

Obv. b lOhANN€SDGIGR j 

Bev . — CIVI TAS SAM DR6) 

This coin is of particularly coarse workmanship. 



TWO SCOTTISH HOAEDS OF EDWAED PENNIES. 113 


Mule. 

B. 

Obv . — As John Balliol (Variety a)| 

Rev. — As Alexander III S 

ROBERT BRUCE. 

B. 

Obv. +: ROB6RTVS ; D6I ; GRft „ 

. 6 

Rev . — SCO TOR VMR 6X+ j 

A curiosity in the Blackhills hoard was the thin skin 
of the reverse of what had evidently been a plated coin 
of Alexander III. It was well executed, and was com- 
plete save for a small hole in the centre. One could 
bend it as easily as paper. 

The Foreign Sterlings, so numerous at Mellendean, 
may be conveniently arranged on the basis adopted by 
Chautard, in his Monnaics cm type esterlin , and briefly 
described by reference to that useful work 

FLANDERS. 

G-ui de Dampierre (1280-1305). 

Mint of Namur . M. 

Chautard No. 1 . . . . .16 

All of these end with € on the reverse ; the c in 
Chautard appears to be a mere misprint, as his plate 
shows e. All have H, not N, on the obverse; and one has 
XR ligatured. 

M. B. 

Chautard No. 3 . . . . .1 

Mint of Alost. 

Chautard No. 9 .... 1 

Chautard No. 10 . . . .1 

The 6 point secret 5 on the latter of these is on H, not 
on L as in Chautard’s description. 

VOL. XIII., SEEIES IV. I 



114 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

M. B. 

Obv . — As Cbautard No. 10) 

Rev . — As Chautard No. 9 ) 

Robert de Bethune (1305-1322). 

Mint of Alost. 

Chautard No. 12 . 1 

Chautard No. 13 1 

HAINAUT. . 

Jean d’Avesnes (1280-1304). 

Mint of Valenciennes. M B_ 

Chautard No. 23 . . . .2 

Chautard No. 24 . . . .2 

One of the latter set has no dot after L. 

Chautard No. 26 . . . .5 

These have all the unbarred ft. 

Obv . — As Chautard No. 26) ^ 

Rev. — As Chautard No. 23) 

Obv . — As Chautard No. 24) 

Rev. — As Chautard No. 26 $ 

Mint of Mons. 

Chautard No. 29 . . . . .11 

Chautard No. 33 . 1 

Mint of Maubeuge. 

Chautard No. 37 . . . .2 % 

Chautard No. 38 . . . .2 

NAMUR. 

Gui de Dampierre (1263-1297). 

Mint of Namur. ]\j. 

Chautard No. 49 . . . .1 

Chautard No. 50 . . . .3 



TWO SCOTTISH HOAKDS OF EDWAKD PENNIES. 115 


BRABANT. 

Jean I (1261-1294). M. 

Chautard No. 95 . . . .12 

Note, however, that all of these have M, not N. 

M. 

Chautard No. 96 .9 

Chautard No. 101 ..... 1 


Here again \A is used, not N. 

LOOZ. 

Arnould VIII (1280-1328). M. 

Chautard No. 144 . . . . . 5 

Obv . — As Chautard No. 146) ^ 

Rev . — As Chautard No. 147 5 

Chautard No. 147 . . .7 

These correspond to Chautard’s plate more exactly 
than to his description, inasmuch as they show no 
annulets at the end of the obverse legend. 

M. 

Variety of preceding .... 2 

These last have a single annulet between the two words 
that form the obverse legend, and a single annulet at 
the end. 

M. 

Chautard No. 148 ..... 5 

No roses are, however, visible in the hair of the king 
on any of these specimens, or on the following : — 

M. 

Variety of preceding .... 1 

This has * at end of obverse legend, as well as between 
the two words that go to form it. 

i 2 



116 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


CAMBRAI. 

Guillaume de Hainaut (1292-1296). M. 

Chautard No. 209 . . ■ • *1 

This and the two following varieties have l/i, not N as 
given by Chautard. 

M. 

Chautard No. 210 . „ • -7 

Doubtful variety .... 1 


The stops between the words on the last specimen are 
obscure. 


PORCIEN. 

Gaucher de Chatillon (1303-1329). 

Mint of Yves. B. 

Chautard No. 241 ... . 4 

Mint of Neuf -chateau. 

Chautard No. 248 ...... 1 

The correspondence with Chautard is not exact, as the 
coin reads galcs, not GALS as given by him. 

Finally, this appears to be the best place to describe 
what seems to be an imitation — probably executed 
abroad — of the early Edward I penny of Waterford 
without the triangle on the obverse (Variety a, supra, 
p. 111). 

B. 

Ohv. — GDWAR7INGL’ DNShYBl 

Bev — CIVI T7XS VT€ ROP ) ' ’ 1 

A glance over the list of foreign sterlings will show 
that they add little to what we have already learned 



TWO SCOTTISH HOARDS OF EDWARD PENNIES. 117 


from the other coins as to the date of burial of the two 
hoards. Their value in this respect is corroborative 
merely. The time at which the Mellendean find was 
originally hidden can, I think, be determined almost 
exactly. The positive evidence suggested circa 1295- 
1300 (see p. 88). But the negative evidence 

carries us farther. There is every reason to believe that 
the mint at Berwick was opened almost immediately 
after Edward I gained possession of the town in 1296. 
Is it conceivable that, if Berwick pennies had been in 
circulation before the Mellendean owner hid his money, 
there would have been none of them in a cache so rich in 
pieces struck at distant centres like London, Canterbury, 
and Bristol ? The date for which we are in search 
cannot well be later than 1296. That, indeed, may 
have been the very year. After capturing Berwick, the 
“ hammer of the Scots ” marched northwards along the 
eastern side of Scotland, carrying destruction in his 
train, till he humbled Balliol once for all in the 
churchyard of Stracathro. What is more likely than 
that the motive of burial was the terror spread by the 
tidings of his advance ? The Blackhills find does not 
admit of being placed 9 in quite so precise a fashion. 
At the same time it is possible to be fairly definite here 
also. The relatively large proportion of Bishop Beau- 
mont’s coins makes it certain that two or three years 
must have elapsed between 1317 and the act of conceal- 
ment. This would bring us to circa 1320. And that 
cannot be very far wrong. In describing the Lochmaben 
hoard some years ago, I suggested as the date of deposit 
“three or four years on either side of 1325 a.d.” 15 The 


15 Num. Chi on., 1905, p. 82. 



118 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


two may have been hidden away contemporaneously. 
But the internal evidence contains some indications that 
point to the Blackhills find as being slightly earlier. 
John III of Brabant, for instance, is not represented in 
the latter, nor is John the Blind nor Henry YI, Duke of 
Lorraine, all of whom appeared at Lochmaben. I should 
say 1320, or within a year or two thereafter. The com- 
parative scarcity of Foreign Sterlings at Blackhills must 
be attributed, in some measure at least, to the success of 
the vigorous efforts made by Edward I, about the be- 
ginning of the century, to drive them out of circulation. 


George Macdonald. 



IV. 


ARE THE COINS OF CHARLES I BEARING 
THE LETTERS : sa : CORRECTLY ASSIGNED 
TO A MINT AT SALISBURY? 

The present attribution of these half-crowns was first 
put forward by Mr. J. B. Bergne in 1848 (Niuu. Chron 
XII. 58-62), but the reasons for this proposal are some- 
what nebulous, being chiefly based upon a passing visit 
by Charles to Salisbury in October, 1644. I observe 
that Hawkins does not refer at all to this attribution, and 
that the British Museum Handbook mentions it only in 
very general terms, omissions which suggest that the 
respective editors doubted the accuracy of Mr. Bergne’s 
allocation to the Wiltshire city. 

The history of the Civil War in that county affords 
little, if any, support to the theory that the course of 
events was such as to render probable the establishment 
of a mint during a Royalist or even during a Parlia- 
mentary occupation. On the contrary, Sir Richard C. 
Hoare in his Modern Wiltshire (1843) tells us that c£ to 
the open and unprotected state of the city the in- 
habitants may perhaps ascribe their exemption from the 
miseries of a siege with which so many other places were 
visited/’ Skirmishes of a more or less serious character 
were plentiful enough, but there was no prolonged 
defence by the troops of either party during the course 
of the war. 



120 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Nor does an examination of the coins furnish any link, 
as far as I can see, in the shape of a mint-mark derived 
from the charges on, or the supporters of, the armorial 
shield of the city, as was the case at Chester or Exeter 
or Worcester. Indeed, both the type and the fabric of 
all the examples are admittedly those of a coinage which 
has been identified with another town, viz. Weymouth. 
For these reasons it would appear that we must rely 
solely upon the presence of the letters s A if we seek to 
connect these pieces with Sarum or Salisbury, a some- 
what unsafe foundation upon which to build when other 
evidence is not forthcoming. 

If I can offer a more probable interpretation of the 
two letters, supported by collateral facts obtained from 
the coins themselves, I shall claim to have answered in 
the negative the question placed at the head of this note. 

I will here recall the circumstance that the attribution 
to Weymouth of certain half-crowns showing a W between 
the feet of the horse was first made by the Eev. T. F. 
Dymock in 1856, cf. Ghron ., N.S., Yol. I. p. 185 and 
PI. VIII. 

It is a matter of history that this Dorset town was 
occupied by the King’s forces from a day in the first 
week in August, 1643, until June 17, 1644, a period of 
ten months or so, during which the facilities for landing 
reinforcements and for maintaining a packet service 
with France, caused the place to be regarded as of 
“huge consequence to his Majesty’s affairs” (Dom. S P. 
Nov., 1643). 

In February, 1644-5, a portion of the town was 
recaptured by the Eoyalists, but this second occupation 
was so short-lived as to render it unlikely that any 
money was then struck. 



121 


“sa” HALF-CROWNS OF CHARLES I. 

Now, upon the edge of a sea cliff nearly one mile 
south of Weymouth stand the crumbling ruins of 
Sandsfoot Castle, a Tudor fortress which was held for the 
King in 1643 and surrendered to his enemies in June, 
1644, very shortly after the fall of the neighbouring 
town. As it was a royal castle, its governor had always 
been appointed by the Crown, and during the time when 
Charles’s troops were in possession of Weymouth the 
respective garrisons were under one command. 

To Sandsfoot Castle I propose to assign the SA half- 
crowns, relying for the most part upon the remarkable 
similarity between these coins and those of the same 
denomination with the letter W in the field of the 
obverse. As an instance of this affinity in type and 
fabric I would mention that one of the SA coins in the 
British Museum (classified by Hawkins, 3rd ed., among 
the “uncertain” half-crowns, Fig. 502) shows on the 
obverse the central type of Weymouth No. 4, and on 
the reverse the complete type of Weymouth No. 5. 
The points of resemblance between the SA and the w 
coins are not confined to the general type common to 
both classes, seeing that the mint-mark Helmet occurs 
on the reverses of each ; this mark is not found, as far as 
I am aware, on any issues of the period other than those 
of Weymouth and the SA group. For further details, 
such as the distinctive chain border round the shields, I 
must be content to refer to Hawkins, pp. 333, 337, and 
489. 

In the event of my alternative attribution being 
regarded as acceptable, the transfer from Salisbury to 
Sandsfoot would almost necessarily include some half- 
crowns and smaller pieces which, although not bearing 
the letters SA, have been given to Salisbury on account 



122 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


of their resemblance to what may be described as the 
parent type, viz. Hawkins, Fig. 502. One of the most 
noticeable of this class is a coin showing a doubtful 
object between the horse’s feet, which has been spoken 
of as a cannon ball, but the circular impression may be 
the result of an attempt to erase the SA from the die, as, 
indeed, was suggested by Mr. Bergne. The close 
proximity of the two fortified positions tells against the 
probability that there were two separate mints, but it is 
conceivable that the military situation required the 
withdrawal of the workmen from the site first chosen. 

After the surrender of Sandsfoot in June, 1644, Ool. 
Wm. Ashburnham, the governor, retired to Portland 
Castle, some two miles distant across the roadstead, 
having previously sent there “ the arms and other useful 
things.” It is, therefore, not altogether improbable that 
the Weymouth and, if I am correct, the Sandsfoot dies 
were used at Portland until that castle was in turn 
yielded to the Parliament in April, 1646. 

An incident which occurred at the capture of 
Weymouth is not without interest. When Prince 
Maurice took possession of the forts, harbour, and town 
in August, 1643, one of the vessels contained a quantity 
of silver plate, to a value exceeding £600, which was the 
property of the Government appointed by the Commons. 
Whether this bullion was eventually coined by the 
moneyers of the local mint remains, unfortunately, a 
very open question. 


Henry Symonds. 



COINS IN THE NAME OF A KING OF JINNS. 



Belief in the existence of Jinns or Genii is general 
amongst Moslems, and it is orthodox that it should he 
so for their Prophet Muhammad was a sincere believer 
in them. Chapter 72 of the Koran is called “ Surah of 
the Jinns,” and he tells of their creation from smokeless 
fire, of some tribes of them having been converted to the 
faith by his preaching, and makes other mentions of them. 



124 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The species is said to have been created some thousands 
of years before Adam. It consists, according to tradi- 
tion, of five orders or classes, viz. Jenin, who are the most 
powerful of all, Jinn, Sfontan, ‘ Efrlt , and Mo rid. The last 
three are very powerful evil spirits, but there are both 
good and bad Jann and Jinn. The word Jinn is, how- 
ever, commonly used for all the orders, including good 
and bad, and sometimes Shaitan and Efrlt are used for 
any evil ones, and good Jinns are often spoken of as 
Paris, though that term more often indicates females 
only. 

The Jinns are generally peaceable; they eat and drink 
and propagate their species sometimes in conjunction 
with human beings ; they are of various forms, such as 
snakes, lions, wolves, scorpions, &c., as well as the human 
form ; they can change their forms and make themselves 
visible or invisible at their pleasure. If they are good 
they are very handsome, if evil horridly hideous. Their 
chief abode is in a mountain called Ifcif, which is sup- 
posed to compass the whole earth ; they resort much to 
junctions of roads, rivers and seas, ruined houses, baths, 
wells, ovens, &c. Some are good Moslems, others infidels. 
By means of Talismans and certain invocations men are 
said to obtain the services of Jinns. No one ever had 
such absolute power over them as had King Solomon, 
son of David, who made them help him to build the 
Temple, and whose seal in the form of two interlaced 
triangles is now so much used as a charm. There are, 
it is said, forty troops of them, each troop consisting of 
500,000. Their great king is Malik Katshan, and the 
troops are ruled over by princes. 

But it is curious and somewhat of a novelty to find 
coins or medals struck in the name of a Prince of Jinns 



COINS IN THE NAME OF A KING- OF JINNS. 125 


as is the case in the three now described. No. 1 belongs 
to Mr. W. H. Valentine, who acquired it together with a 
lot of Oriental copper without knowledge of where it was 
collected. It has evidently been gilt at one time and is 
probably of Persian fabric. Nos. 2 and 3 are in the 
British Museum and both of copper. The readings of 
the legends have not been easy and are not yet quite 
satisfactory, but Sir ^Albert Houtum-Schindler and Dr. 
Denison Boss have both puzzled over them with me, and 
this is the best we have arrived at. 


No. 1. Obv. 

0 luW 6 

1 ^ wXX^J I 


Bev. 

rr a-' 


VAl 


Pour-leaved star and Zu-l-fakar sword below on reverse. 


Bev. 

<01 N) <*JU 

\J>^J 4.X)) ^)l 

j* Ua^c» AaXi aXM 
^^Xo- p | 


Six-leaved star after and conical umbrella above of 
^a*.3dt on obverse. 

A note in Burton’s translation of the Arabian Nights 
(vol. iii. p. 225) states — “Baktanus is Lord of three 
Moslem troops of Wandering Jinns, which number a 
total of twelve bands and extend from Sind to Europe.” 
In the Shaons al-Lnghat Dictionary the name is given as 


No. 2. Obv. 

ljj AXX^J 1 

^ a r 



126 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


that of “ a Pari of a timid or retiring disposition.” Per- 
haps this may he the reason for the use of the term 
“despairing of greatness/’ on No. 1, if there 
he any reason for it beyond the jingle of words to make 
up a poor couplet ending in and The 

religious phrases and Kalimah on No. 2 show that he is 
an orthodox Moslem. 


No. 3. Obv. 

JEtev. 

6 1 — Zi 

o 





V-r 



rr 


a . , * w 

Conical umbrella above ^ 

The general appearance and lettering of this coin are 
different to that of the previous ones, and the fabric is 
probably Indian. 

I have not yet been able to find a reference or to hear 
anything about Ajarus ; the termination of the name in 
“ us,” however, according to Burton, indicates that he is 
a Moslem Jinn. The reverse legend has been a good 
deal puzzled over, but the following reading by Mr. E. B. 
Whitehead seems to me to be right except that 
appears to be the word as on the other coin and not 

r r a*** j>j\ p ij 

Shah Ajarus Jinn Badshah of the Garden of Iram, Ceylon 
Isle and Fairyland’s Gardens. 

The dates on all the coins are fanciful (786-982 a.h.). 
The pieces are comparatively modern, not older probably 
than a hundred years or so, and the regnal years are also 



COINS IN THE NAME OP A KING OF JINNS. 127 

imaginary. The phrase on No. 1, w,**.*-* 

“ in the year of his tranquil prosperity/’ appears first on 
the coins of Aurangzib the Delhi Emperor, 1069-1108 
a.h. (1658-1696 a.d.), and is common on coins of his 
successors up to and including the E. I. C. It appears 
also on the coins of some of the Shahs of Persia after 
1725 a.d. 

The names of the places of issue or otherwise are of 
course fanciful. <c The Fort of Safety, the Fire Temple 
of the Worshippers 55 on No. 1, and “The Fort of the 
Sword ” on No. 2, seem to have no connexion with 
Fairyland, but that is not so with regard to No. 3, for 
the Bagh Iram is described in Johnson’s Persian , Arabic , 
and English Dictionary as “ celebrated but fabulous 
gardens, said to have been anciently made in Arabia 
Felix by a king named Shaddad bin Aad or Iram bin 
Omad. Frequent mention is made of these gardens by 
the Eastern poets, who describe them as a perfect model 
of the yoluptuous paradise which the Muhammadans are 
promised by their prophet.” Sangaldib, “ The Isle of 
Sangal or the Sangals,” I have not found as a word for 
Ceylon, but it seems not an improbable variant from 
the Persian S<(r<nulib and the Sanskrit Sinluiltdvljia, 
that island, together with Bagh Iram , being, as one 
might expect, the gardens of the Paris or Fairies. 

Sir A. Houtum-Schindler tells me that he has never 
seen such coins as these in Persia, but with reference to 
No. 1 says, “ Perhaps it has some connexion with the 
following story, a true one, which I have many times 
heard from the descendants of the Prince and others. 

“A son of Fath ’All Shah, Shaikh ’All Mirza, 1 


1 Shaikh ul-Muluk was born 1796 and died 1846. He had 60 sons 



128 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


surnamed Shaikh ul-Muluk and many years governor of 
Malayir , 2 was a great voluptuary and, probably in conse- 
quence of excesses, feeble minded. A clever adventurer 
took advantage of this fact and, presenting himself as an 
emissary and agent of the King of the fairies, promised to 
bring a daughter of that King if the Prince would send 
the customary presents. He, the emissary, would deliver 
the presents to the King. Prince Shaikh ul-Muluk did 
not quite believe this fairy-tale and asked for some proof 
of the existence of the King and his daughter, and also 
of the King’s willingness to give him the daughter in 
marriage. After an absence of some days the rascal 
brought a letter which he said the King of the fairies 
had written and some corns. In the letter the King con- 
firmed what the 6 agent ’ had said, and solemnly promised 
that his daughter would meet the Prince in a secluded 
valley in the neighbouring hills during the fourth night 
after the delivery of the specified number of gold coins 
and precious stones to his agent. The coins bore the 
name and titles of the King of the Jinns and were brought 
in order to show that he possessed the right of coinage, 
a prerogative of reigning kings. The Prince then be- 
lieved everything and gave the gold and jewels. During 
the appointed night he rode to the indicated valley and 
waited there until sunrise — in vain ; the girl did not 
appear. The Prince returned to his palace and was the 
laughing-stock of his people for many years after. Of 


and 52 daughters ; 26 of the former and 21 of the latter survived him. 
He was governor of Malayir 1809-1836. 

2 Malayir is a little province south of Hamadan. Its capital is 
Daulatabad, formerly called Ohumin. It received its new name in the 
beginning of the nineteenth century from Muhammad ’All Mirza, sur- 
named Daulat Shah (eldest son of Fath ’All Shah), who built a palace 
there and embellished the place with gardens, &c. 



COINS IN THE NAME OF A KING OF JINNS. 129 

course, the agent of the King of the Jinns was not seen 
again. The Prince was dismissed from his governorship 
soon after. Prince Iraj Mlrza, a brother of his, wrote 3 — 
4 he lost his locks over the affair of the daughter of the 
♦Shall of the Pairies ’ cAcnJ 

One cannot say that this piece was one of those given 
to the Prince, the gilding on it and the probable date of 
its making are in favour of its being so, but at any rate 
the story shows the use to which such fairy coins are put 
and a reason for their fabrication. 

Oliver Codpjngton. 


3 Private manuscript. 


VOL. XIII.3 SERIES IV. 


K 



MISCELLANEA. 


Cuuntermajkiung of Base Testoons. — I am indebted to 
Mr. Charles ffoulkes for the following extract from the 
Records of the Armourers’ Company (Armourers’ Company, 
Court Book, 2, fob 40, anno 1560): “ 1560, Hammermen 
from the Armourers’ Company were sent 2 to the Cloth- 
workers’ Hall, 2 to the Sessions Hall, Southwark, and 2 to 
the Merchant Tailors’ Hall, to strike and stamp with port- 
cullis and greyhound the several pieces of money called 
c Testons, 5 there to continue until the end of 14 days from 
the date of precept” (see 0. ffoulkes, The Armourer and his 
Graft , p. 123). This extract is an interesting supplement to 
the proclamation of October 9, 1560, ordering the portcullis 
and greyhound to be struck on the base testoons current at 
fourpence halfpenny and twopence farthing respectively (see 
Ruding’s Annals , 3rd ed,, vol. i. p. 337). 

G. C. B. 


NOTICE OF RECENT PUBLICATION. 

Manuel de Namiomaliqur Fnni'jitm.. A. Blanchct and A. 
Dieudonne, Vol. I. : Monnaies f rappees en Guide depnis 
les orujincs ju&qu’d Fugues Caqjet. A. Blanchet. 

Ix his brief introduction Monsieur Blanchet expresses tho 
hope that this volume will serve the double purpose of a 
useful handbook for more advanced students ( ceux qui savcvf 
dejd) and a primer for beginners (ceux qui vculent et tidier). 
This twofold object is borne in mind by the author throughout 
his work, and adds difficulty to the very difficult task of com- 
pressing into a volume of 400 pages a description of the 
coinage of his country in the pre-Roman, Roman, Merovingian, 
and Carolingian periods. The chief requirement of the be- 
ginner is lucid instruction in broad outlines of such of the 



NOTICE OF RECENT PUBLICATION. 


131 


more important features and difficulties as the origin of the 
coinages, the chronological or geographical meaning of their 
divergence from the originals in type and standard, the evi- 
dential value of the finds, &c. ; the more advanced student, 
on the contrary, will require detail in as condensed a form as- 
possible, in fact in tabular form for preference, which may 
act as a time-saving intermediary by means of reference to 
the more complete information to be found in the standard 
works, assuming that the subjects, as is here the case, are 
already more fully treated in trustworthy books. It is inte- 
resting to see how M. Blanche t prepares his volume to serve 
two masters of such contrary tastes. 

A very large portion of the small available space is occupied 
by tables, which afford excellent food for the student, but 
must be dry bones for the beginner. The first of these, the 
list of inscriptions on Gaulish coins, is the shortest ; it is, as 
one would expect, an abridgment of the excellent list in the 
same author’s Traite des Jtfonuaicb Gauloises , but as the 
abridgment takes the form of omitting the references which 
make that list so useful, its utility to the student is much 
impaired. In the Roman series he gives lists of (1) reverse 
inscriptions and (2) symbols on coins of the Roman Emperors 
in Gaul, (3) reverse inscriptions on coins from the reign of 
Aurelian to the end of the empire, under each of which are 
inserted the mint-marks found in combination with it, (4) a 
list of emperors whose coins bear Gallic mint-marks. The 
Merovingian period contains a combined list of names of 
places and moneyers and a list of moneyers of uncertain 
locality; in both of these additions are made to the lists 
previously published in the same author’s Niomismatique du 
Moyen Ago et Moderne ; the Carolingian mints which appeared 
in modern French form in the work just mentioned are now 
given in their original spellings, and additions are made to 
them and also to the alphabetical list of reverse inscriptions 
which is here reproduced. In the little space that is left the 
descriptive material is well illustrated with several good line- 
blocks in addition to three photographic plates at the end of 
the volume. Each period contains a brief account, so far as 
is necessary and possible, of the origin of the currency, the 
development of the types chronologically and locally, the 
debasement or variation of the metallic standard, the organiza- 
tions of mints, &c. The brevity of this portion of the work 
may be inferred from the fact that only 240 pages are left to 
it and these contain figures of 248 coins ; but ample references 
are supplied in footnotes, and the author shows excellent 
taste in the fair way in which he lays before the reader both 



132 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


sides of all disputable points, as for example in the doubtful 
question of the restoration of the imperial power in Gaul by 
Maurice Tiberius. Subject is given for the serious considera- 
tion of metrologists in the new evidence brought to bear on 
the question of the introduction of the pound of sixteen ounces 
by Charlemagne, which may well explain the diitk ulty of the 
apparent light weight of the deniers of his reign. A service- 
able index completes the volume. 

Though the use of this handbook is lessened foi the beginner 
by the authors devotion to the student, and for the student 
by the abridgment necessary in a work of this kind, there 
remains an intermediate class to whose requirements it seems 
to be excellently suited, namely the collector — that is, the 
collector who studies the subject from the point of view of 
collecting as opposed to the collector who, collecting from the 
point of view of studying the subject, is identical with the 
student; the collector requires just such a volume as this, 
comprising much in little space, and yet giving long tables 
that will greatly assist him in his work of identification. 

G. C. B. 



VI. 


THE COINS OE IIIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 

(Continued from p. 30.) 

XVI. HYGIEIA (cf. Asklepios). 

1. Obv . — AAIP L, BHNOC r. Bust of Lairbenos radiate; 
shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev . — I G PATIO AG I., IT ON r. Hygieia, wearing kala- 
thos, seated on throne L, holding in r. phiale 
towards serpent erect before her, and resting 
1. arm on round cushion; behind the goddess 
is Telesphoros to front on a stool or shelf. 
Border of dots. 

B. M., 57 (PL xxx. 6) ; Paris, 570; Vienna, 
19867 ; cf. also Mionnet, iv. 588-9, where the 
goddess is wrongly described as Kybele. On 
the distinguishing features in the representa- 
tions of Hygieia and Kybele, cf. Imhoof-Blumer, 
Kl. M., 8 ; Philology lxix* 199. 


2. Obv. — Similar. 

Rev . — 1GPATIOAGIT 1., ON r. Hygieia, with Telesphoros, 
as before. Border of dots. 

B. M., 58 ; Imhoof (present collection), Kl. M., 
8 (PI. vii. 31) [PL III. 38]. 


3. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPATIOA 1., GIT ON r. Similar. Border of dots. 
Paris, 571 ; Vienna, 27707. 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. L 



134 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


4. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAIIOAG 1., I TO N r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 67 ; Vienna, 19867 ; Gotha. The 
obverses of Nos. 1-4 are from the same die. 

5. Obv. — AAIP 1., BHNOC r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev. — IGPAIIO 1., A6ITON r. Hygieia with Telesphoros ; 

the throne has a low, barred back ; Teles- 
phoros standing in the air. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 76. The obverse is from the same die 
as the alliance coins, with the figure of Lair- 
benos ; cf. B. M., 59. The coin therefore 
belongs to the time of Philippus (cf. Journ. 
intern. (Tarche'ol. ntimism ., xiv. 1912, p. 100). The 
figure of Telesphoros added in a quite schematic 
manner (cf. also Kl. IT., 9, 10) also points to 
this late period. 

6. Obv. — Similar. 

Rev . — IGPAriO 1., AGITflN r. The same group as pre- 
ceding, but not from the same die. 

Berlin, 75 ; Paris, 571a ; Gotha. The coins 
of this type belong to the time of Philippus, as 
their obverse dies are identical with those of 5. 

7. Obv. — (AAIPBHNQC). 

Rev. — IG PAno 1., AG1TQN r. The same group; high 
back on the throne of Hygieia. Border of dots. 

Copenhagen, 62. Two other specimens with 
similar types are KL M 9, 10 (of the third 
century). The type of Lairbenos on their 
obverses allocates them to Hierapolis, and it is 
the only place in Phrygia where he is found. 
On the form IGPOIIOAIC, cf. PUlolog lxix. 
232. 


8. Obv . — IGPACY 1 ., NKAHTOC r. Bust of young Senate, 
bareheaded ; shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev. — 16 PAPIOA 1 ., GlTQNNGflK OP r. and below, QN 
in field 1. ; as before : Hygieia leaning 1. arm on 
a cushion. Border of dots. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHBYGIA. 135 


B. M., 86 ; Berlin, 74 ; Vienna, 27676. The 
coins belong to the third century, or, to be 
more exact, to the time of Philippus (cf, Kl. M., 
10). The alliance coins with the similar type 
of the Senate on the obverse (cf. Journ. intern . 
d'archeol wnnistu., xiv. 1912, p. 100) are also 
of this period : the two groups have common 
dies ( e.g . B. M. 83-89). So have Type II. 12; 
XIV. 7, 8, &c. 


9. Obv. — Similar. 

jBsfl—iePAnOAGl 1., TONNGn K r., OP in exergue, Cl N 
in field 1. : as before. Border of dots. 

Paris, 577 = Mionnet, iv. 597. 


10. Obv. — Similar. 

Rev . — 1€ PAIIOA 1., G1TQNN60.K r., OP in exergue, QN 
in field 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Copenhagen, 26. 


11. Obv . — Bust of Artemis, laureate ; quiver on shoulder ; 

branch before breast ; shoulders draped. 
Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPAriOA 1., eiTQ N r. : similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 59, 60 [PI. III. 39] ; Inv . Wadd., 
6101. 


12. Obv— APXHT6 r., THC 1. Bust of Apollo, lyre at 
breast ; shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev — 16PA r., [nOA£lT]ON 1. Hygieia seated 1. on 
high-backed throne, holding phiale to a serpent 
erect before her, and resting 1. elbow on round 
cushion. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd ., 6104 [PI. III. 40]. The 
obverse type, which occurs fairly frequently on 
the coins of the city, is always from the same 
die. Cf. B. M., 34 (46 is different) ; Inv. 
Wadd., 6103, &c. ; on another Archegetes 
type cf. XIV. 1-4. 



136 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


13, Obv . — Otacilia Severa. 

Bev.— IGP AnOA L, EITON r. : as before. Border of 
dots. 

B. M., 153 (Pl. xxxii. 4), 154 ; Paris, 607 = 
Mionnet, iv. 644 ; Berlin, 187 ; cf. Mionnet, iv. 
634 (obv. Elagabalus from Vaillant ,Num. Gr .), 
636 (obv. do.), 642 (obv. Philippus I?). 


14. Obv. — Similar. 

Bev . — 16 PAnO L, A6ITQN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Vienna, 33669. Variant of the preceding 
type. 

15. Obv . — Similar. 

Bev . — IGP 1., AnOAElT r., ON in exergue. Similar. 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 186. 


16. Obv. — Crispina. 

Bev . — IGPAnO r., A6ITON 1. Hygicia standing r., 
feeding a serpent. Border of dots. 

Paris, 600a [Pl. III. 41]. On Hygieia at 
Plierapolis, see under Asklepios, 


XVII. ISIS (cf. Saiiatis). 

Obv . — AH L, MOC r. Head of young Demos, with 
taenia. Border of dots. 

Bev . — I6PAI10 L, A6ITON r. Isis standing L, holding 
sistrum in uplifted r. hand and situla in 
lowered 1. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 87 [Pl. III. 42], 



THE COINS OE HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


137 


XVIII. KYBELE. 

1 . Obv. — Trajan. 

Bar.— lGPAn[0] 1 \, AGITON 1. Kybele seated 1. on 
throne, holding in r. phiale, leaning 1. arm on 
cushion ; lion at her feet. Border of dots. 

B. M., 131 j Berlin, 153; the B.M. Oat. de- 
scribes the object on which her 1. arm rests as 
a tympanum, but it is clearly a cushion. K. is 
represented as a goddess of healing, very like 
Hygieia, as the phiale also shows. The lion 
alone shows that it is Kybele who is here repre- 
sented. Cf. also Imhoof-Blumer, Kl . M ty 8. 

2. Obv. — Similar. 

Bev . — IGPA r., nOAGITON 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Copenhagen, 40. Variant of the preceding. 

3. Obv. — M. Aurelius f 

Bev . — lePAnO ]., AG1TQN r. Kybele standing, with 
kalathos, to front, with her hands on the heads 
of two lions lying at her feet. Border of dots. 

Museum Winterthur = Imhoof-Blumer* Z. 
gr. u. rom . Mdnzh ., p. 153, 8 (Pl. III. 43]. 
This Kybele type frequently appears on the 
coins of Asia Minor ; cf. Imhoof-Blumer, loc. cit. 

4. Obv. — Elagabalus. 

Bev. — l€POriO L, AGITQN r. Kybele, as on 1 and 2. 
Border of dots. 

Copenhagen, 57. For other coins with similar 
Kybele types, cf. BMlolog., lxix. 248. On 
coins of this class Kybele is represented as a 
goddess of healing, similar to Hygieia. 

5. Obv.— AVT KAI MA[P] 1., AV ANTONGIN/OC r. Bust of 

Caracalla, bearded, in cuirass and paludamentum. 

Bev . — l€POn L, OAGITO r., N in exergue. Kybele 
seated 1. between two lions, phiale in r., the 
fingers of the 1. hand on tympanum (more 
correctly, cushion). 



138 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Imhoof-Blumer (present collection) = Z. gr. 
u. rom. MiinzJc ., p. 153. The coin which is 
there ascribed to Hieropolis ought probably to 
be attributed to the town on the Lykos. 

6. Obv . — Severus Alexander. 

lePOnOAGlTON. Cybele assise entre deux lions, 

tenant dans la main droite une patere et dans 
la gauche le crotalum ? 

Mionnet, iv. 639 (from Vaillant, Nmn. graeca). 
The description is probably on the whole correct, 
as it is corroborated by a similar coin in Athens ; 
only it is a cushion rather than a tympanum 
(crotalum) on which the goddess rests her 3. 
arm. 


XIX. MEN. 

1 . Obv.— 5EYC 1., TPOIOC r. Head of Zeus Troios, bound 

with taenia. Border of dots. 

Bev.- lEPAriOA 1., EITON r. Men with Phrygian cap, 
chiton, and cloak, standing 1., placing the r. foot 
on a bull’s head ; in r. pine cone, 1. on sceptre. 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 16 [PI. III. 44]; Vienna, 19858. 
The type of the obverse differs from all other 
types of Zeus Troios. 

2. Obv. — IE PA L, BO YAH r. Bust of Boule, laureate and 

veiled. Border of dots. 

Bev. — lGPAnOA 1., EITON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

B. M., 90; Berlin, 95 [PL HI. 45], 96. 
The type of the reverse differs from that of the 
preceding coin. 

3. , Obv Similar. Border of dots. 

Bev. — IEPA no L, A EITON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

B. M., 91 ; Berlin, 17. The obverses of types 
2 and 3 are from the same die. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 139 

4. Obv . — NEO 1., KOPON r. Bust of city-goddess with 

turreted crown and veil. Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPAri O 1., AG I TON r. Similar. Border of dots. 
B. M., 92 ; Paris, 575. 

5. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 


Rev. — lGPAnOA 1., GITON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 98 ; Copenhagen, 22 ; Gotha ; Vienna, 
19861 = Mionnet, iv. 603. The obverses are 
from the same die as the two preceding coins, 
the reverses as the specimens of No. 1. 

5a. Obv. — AHMOC. T6te jeune diad&nee du Peuple. 

Rev. — lGPAnOAGlTON. Le dieu Lunus debout (i.e. } 
M§n), le pied gauche pose sur un r ocher, tenant 
dans la main gauche une pomme de pin, la 
droite appuyee sur la haste. 

Mionnet, iv. 594. The description is in- 
accurate, but this may be a distinct type. 

6. Obv. — Caracalla (?) Elagabalus (?). 

Rev.— IGPAH OA 1., G1TONNGO r., infield K/O 1., PON r. 
Similar. Border of dots. 

B. M., 143, 144; Berlin, 175; cf. also Leake, 
p. 67. 

7. Obv. — Elagabalus (?) Caracalla (?). 

Rev. — lGPAnO AGI L, TONNGOKO r., PON in field r 
Similar. Border of dots. 

Gotha. Variant of the preceding. 

On Men in Hierapolis, cf. Philolog., lxix. 193. 



140 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


XX. MOPSOS AND TORREBOS. 

Obv. — iGPAriO r., A€lTQN 1. Bust of Apollo with lyre 
at breast, shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Bev. — MO^POC 1., TOPPHBOC r. Mopsos and Torrebos 
standing face to face, youthful figures naked 
but for long mantle hanging down back. 
Mopsos to r., holding laurel branch in lowered 
i\, leans 1. on bow ; Torrebos to 1., holds on 
extended r. statue of a goddess (city-goddess 
with turret ed crown 2) and leans 1. arm on a 
lyre which stands on a basis behind him. 
Border of dots. 

B. M., 32 (PL xxix. 9) ; Berlin, 21 [PI. III. 
46] = Kl. M., 5 (PI. vii. 29) ; Inv. Wadd. , Cl 14. 
The specimen mentioned by Imhoof-Blumcr 
( [loc . cit.) as in the Labor de Coll, is probably 
identical with Inv . Wadd., G114. 

That all these coins axe from the same die may not only 
be assumed from the rarity of the type, but is confirmed 
by a comparison of the individual specimens. ImhooJ- 
Blumer read the name on the specimen formerly in li is 
collection and now in Berlin as topphpoc, but a more 
careful examination of a cast of this coin and of one of 
the Paris specimen (in spite of its poor preservation), 
shows that on these two specimens the name is written 
with B. In the light of this discovery we must correct 
the statement in Philologus , lxix. 195. The fourth 
specimen mentioned there (Head \ 565) is of course the 
British Museum specimen. A representation of the two 
heroes is not found anywhere else on Phrygian coins. 
Whether one of the two, more probably Torrebos, had 
some Special connexion with Hierapolis, cannot now be 
ascertained. For a “ Lydian” legend of Torrebos, the 
reader is referred to Philologus , lxix. 196. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 141 


XXI. NEMESIS. 

1. Obv. — Bast of Apollo-Lairbenos, radiate; shoulders 

draped. Border of dots. 

Bev.— SEPAnO I., AG1TQN r. Winged Nemesis standing 
]., with r. plucking chiton at breast, holding 
bridle in 1. Border of dots. 

B. M., 18; Berlin, 29, 30; Paris, 561 ; Inv. 
Wadd., 6105 ; Athens ; Copenhagen, 4; Vienna, 
30919 ; presumably also Leake, p. 66 (oZrr., 
youthful * radiate head to r. ; rev., winged 
female, standing to 1.). 

2. Obv. — Bust of Selene or Hekate, rising from crescent, 

with hair bound above and behind, and dress. 
Border of dots. 

Bev. — lCPAflOA 1., GITCN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

B. M., 19 (PI. xxix. 7); Berlin, 52; Inv. 
Wadd., 6099 (PI. xvi. 19); Copenhagen, 6; 
Vienna, 33667. 

3. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Bev. — IGPAnOAG 1., ITQN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 51 [PL III. 47]; Gotha; The 
Hague. Variant of the preceding type. 

4. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Bev. — IEPAP10 r., AGITON 1. Similar. Border of dots. 
Berlin, 53. 

5. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Bev.— lePAn r., OAGITON 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Copenhagen. The obverses of Nos. 2-5 from 
the same die. Cf. also Mionnet, Sujpjpl., vii. 364. 

6. Obv. — ICPAnO r., A1C 1. Bust of city-goddess with 

stephane ; shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Bev. — IGPAno 1., [A]GlTflN r. Winged Nemesis, stand- 
ing r., as above. Border of dots. 

B. M., 20 ; Inv . Wadd., 6116 (PL xvi. 22). 



142 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


7. Obih — Similar. Border of dots. 

Beu. — lGPAn L, OAG1THN r. Winged Nemesis, standing 
r., as above. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 9 [Pl. III. 48] = Gr. M., 738, 
692 (PI. xii. 18). The obverses of Nos. 6 and 
7 are from the same die. 


8. Obv . — Head of bearded Herakles. Border of dots. 

Bev . — lePAnO L, A6ITQN r. Winged Nemesis as in 
Nos. 1-5. Border of dots. 

Paris, 562 = Mionnet, iv. 581 ; Berlin, 27, 
28 ; Copenhagen, 3 = Bamus 4 (?) ; Vienna, 
31399 ; cf. Leake, Supply p. 58. 


9. AA1P 1., BHNOC r. Bust of Lairbenos radiate ; shoulders 
draped. Border of dots. 

Bev . — 1GPAHO 1., AGlTON r. Winged Nemesis, stand- 
ing 1., scales in r., in 1. cubit-rule, wheel behind 
her at feet. Border of dots. 

B. M., 62 ; Berlin, 68 [PI. III. 49] ; Vienna, 
19869. Time of Philippus ; cf. No. 11. 


10. Obv . — Otacilia Severa. 

Bev . — IGPAnOAG 1 #) ITON r. Nemesis, as on Nos. 
1-5. Border of dots. 

Munich. The reverse from the same die 
as type 3. 

11, Obv.— M10YA<J>IAirin0C • KAI. Bust of Philippus the 

younger, not laureate, with cuirass and 
paludamentum. Border of dots. 

Bev , — IGPAno 1., AGITHN r. From the same reverse 
die as No. 9. 

St, Petersburg 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 143 


XXII. NIKE 

1. Obv . — BOY r, AH 1. Bust of Boule, laureate and veiled. 
Border of dots. 

Rev — IGPAn O 1., AGITON r. Nike, advancing 1., in 1. 

palm, wreath in uplifted r. hand. Border of 
dots. 

B. M % 76; Inv. Wadd. } 6122; Munich, 11. 
Cf. also Mionnefc, iv. 602. 


2. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPAno 1., AEITON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 93 ; Vienna, 31394. A later specimen, 
of the time of Philip (Berlin, 92 : obv. counter- 
marked with a deity) has a similar reverse, 
which is not, however, from the same die. The 
obverses of both are from the same die. 


XXIII. PLUTO. 

1. Obv . — BOYAH in straight line r. Bust of Boule with 
stephane and veil. 

Rev . — 1GPAHO AG 1 TON r. Bape of Persephone by 
Pluto, driving to r. in quadriga with galloping 
horses. Border of dots. 

Vienna, 19873. The obverse from the same 
die as II. 13. 


2. Obv . — IGPAno r., AlC 1. Bust of city-goddess with long 
hair tied on top and behind ; shoulders draped. 

Rev. — iGPAHOA below, [GjlTON r. Bape of Persephone 
by Pluto, holding a sceptre in 1. and driving as 
before. 

Paris, 566 [Pl. III. 50]. 



144 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


3. Obv . — I6PAnOA€! r., TON 1. Head of young Dionysos/ 
bound with ivy. Border of dots. 

Rev . — Rape of Persephone by Pluto, in fluttering 
chlamys, with sceptre in L, driving as before. 
Border of dots. 

B. M., 38 (PI. xxix. 12) ; Berlin, 18, 19; 
Paris, 568 = Mionnet, iv. 586 = Supply vii. 368 ; 
Munich, 2 ; Copenhagen, 1 ( = Ramus, 5) ; 
Dresden ; University of Bologna [PI. III. 51]. 


4. Obv — IGPACV 1., NKAHTOC r. Bust of young male 

Senate, laureate ; shoulders draped. Border of 
dots. 

Rev, — IGPA l tj n OAE above, ITON r., N6OK0 in exergue, 

pjQ 

N in field r. Similar. Border of dots. 

B. M., 87 (PI. xxx. 10), 88 ; Berlin, 97. 

5. Obv. — Nero. 

Rev . — M. ZYIAAlOZ[ANTIOXOZ] below and r., [lEPAjTOAl 
above and 1., TQN in field. Similar, but Pluto 
in biga. 

Paris, 594. 


()bv . — NEPON 1., KAIZAP r. Head of young Nero. 


jRev . — 

/ 


lEPAflOAEl TQNAAEPTHZNEnTEPOZ. Similar. 
Imhoof-Blumer (present collection). The 
magistrate’s name is probably the same as that 
incompletely preserved on a coin of Agrippina 
(B. M., 127. Of. Xa>res, p. 489). ' 1 ‘ 


7. Obv. — Nero. 


Rev . — [y? EAOYJOZ (?}] OllTOMOZ lEPAflOAElT ON. 
Similar. 

Munich. 


1 Obv. — lEPAflOAEITON. Head of Apollo to r. 

Bev . — Pluto in quadriga to r., carrying off Persephone. 

Leake, A Supplement to Xu mis mat a Hellemca , p. 58. 
As this type has not been found elsewhere on coins of 
Hierapolis, Leake may have made a mistake. The head 
on the obverse is in all probability Dionysos. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 145 


8. Obv. — Caraoalla. 


Rev . — IG P 1., AflO above, [AG] r., 


ITnNNGQKO - 
PD.H 


ex- 


ergue. Rape of Persephone as above; below 
the horses are a serpent and an overturned 
basket. Border of dots. 


Berlin, 165 [Pl. IV. 52], 


9. Obv. — Caracalla. 

Rev.— IG P L, A nOAG above, [ITON] r., NGHKOPON in 
exergue. Rape of Persephone as above ; under 
the horses an overturned basket and serpent ; 
flowers in front. 

Copenhagen, 44 (= Ramus, 8 = Mionnet, 
Sujjpl ., vii. 394). 


10. Obv . — Otacilia Severa. 

Rev . — 1GPA above, n 0 r., AG ITON in exergue. Similar, 
but without serpent, &c. Border of dots. 

B. M., 155 ; Gotha. 


In Phrygia we only find the rape of Persephone at 
Hierapolis. Its frequent occurrence as a coin-type here 
cannot, therefore, be purely accidental, and is explained 
by the Charoneion in the centre of the old town, in 
which the cult of Kybele also was localized, and to 
which the town owes its origin. 


XXIV. POSEIDON. 

1. Obv . — AHMOC r. Head of Demos bearded, not laureate. 
Border of dots. 

Rev . — 1GPOPIO 1., AGITQN r. Poseidon naked r., with 1. 

foot on the prow of a ship (indistinct), and 
dolphin in lowered r. hand, the 1. holding trident. 
Border of clots. 

Copenhagen = Ramus, 7 (PI. vii. 9) = Mionnet, 
Suyjjl, vii. 372 [PL IV. 53]. 



146 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The spelling with o is not an argument against the 
attribution to Hierapolis (cf. Philolog ., lxix. 232). In 
support of this Ramus quotes the coin described in 
Raschius^'wppZ. Lex iei Ntnhimm' i, tom . ii.p. 1392,exMuseo 
Wakiano, which is identical with the specimen mentioned 
by Gessner (see below). He also refers to Eckhel, Doctr . 
Num. Vet,, tom. iii. p. 158, who calls attention to a coin of 
Julia in Phrygia, on which Poseidon is similarly repre- 
sented, and quotes Strabo’s statement (xii. 579) that 
Poseidon was worshipped in the Kara^Kav/ievr], which 
was particularly liable to be visited by earthquakes. 
Similar types are occasionally found on other Phrygian 
coins also ; e.g. Aezanis, B. M., 48, 49 ; Apameia, B. M., 
177. On the earthquake of the year 60 A.D., which 
totally destroyed Hierapolis along with Laodibeia and 
Kolossai, cf. Xdgtreg, p. 473. Poseidon is represented on 
the above coin of the town as the earth-shaker, although 
the type is a quite conventional one. 

2. Obv. — AAIPBHNOC. Tete de Bacchus (rather Lair- 

benos). 

Lev. — lEPAnOAEITHN. NEflKOPQN. ISTeptune debout, 
tenant un dauphin de la main droite et un 
trident de la gauche. 

Gessner, Numismata Graeca popul. et iirbium , 
p. 265 (ex museo Wakiano) = Mionnet, Suppl., 
vii. 376. On this coin and on the^ following 
one the name is written in the usual way. 

3. Obv. — Testa di Nettuno barbata e laureata a dr., con 

tridente sull’ omero ; sotto delfino. 

Bev. — I6PAF10A Biota. 

Catalogo del Museo Nazionale di Napoli, 
Collezione Santangelo, p. 119, No. 11420. On 
the reverse type, cf. under X. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 147 


XXV. ROMA. 

Obv . — l€PAnO r., AGITQN 1. Bust of Apollo, with long 
hair tied behind and on top, with cloak ; lyre 
at breast. Border of dots. 

Rev . — 0GA r., POMH 1. Roma, helmeted, seated 1. on a 
cuirass, against which leans a shield holding a 
statuette of Nike in outstretched r., 1. on para- 
zonium. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wbdd 6115 [Pl. IV. 54]. The obverse 
similar to that of the coin published in Xa pcres, 
p. 484. A similar type of Roma (probably not 
Athena) occurs on coins of Laodikeia ; cf. B. M,, 
213, 246-248. 


XXVI. SARAPIS. 

1. Obv. — Bust of bearded Sarapis, with modius ; shoulders 

draped. Border of dots. 

j Rev. — lePAnO r., A€IT ON ]. Zeus Laodikeios standing 
1., in long chiton and cloak ; eagle in r., 1. on 
sceptre. Border of dots. 

B. M., 27; Berlin, 40, 41 ; Paris, 558 = Mion- 
net, iv. 578 [PI. IV. 55]; Copenhagen, 10; 
Dresden; Vienna, 19857. 

2. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev — lePAnO r., A€l TUN 1. Similar. Border of dots. 
B. M., 28. 

3. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev . — l€PAn r., OAG1 TON 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Athens, 5906a; Hunter, 4 (l€PAnOA/6IT/ON), 
is a variant of the three preceding types. 

4. Obv. — Similar. 

Rev. — 16PAI10A 1., 6ITON r. Similar. 

Berlin, 42. 



148 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


5. Obv. — Similar. 

Bev,—\GP An L, OAGITQ r. Similar. Border of dots. 
N 

Copenhagen, 66. The obverses of Nos. 1-5 
are from the same die. The coin described by 
Leake, p. 66, belongs to one of these types. 


6. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev . — l€PAn 1., OAGiTQN r. Ilsis standing h, holding 
sistrum in uplifted r. hand, and situla in 
lowered 1. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 44; Paris, 559; Vienna, 32310; 
Gotha. Very similar to these, but not from the 
same reverse die, are the following coins which 
are from the same dies : Berlin, 43 ; Copenhagen, 
11; Athens, 755, 5906; cf. also B. M., 29-31. 
Mionnet, iv. 579, is a similar coin. 


7. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev . — l€PAnO 1., A6ITHN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 45 [PL IV. 56], 46 ; Copenhagen, 
12. The obverses of Nos. 6 and 7 are from the 
same die ; two other specimens are known, 
Vienna, 29118, 29266 (from the same die?). 


8. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev . — lEPAn O 1., AGITQN r. Similar. Border of 
dots. 

Paris, 560. 


9. Obv. — Similar. Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPA no 1., A6ITCN r. Similar. Border of 
dots. 

Berlin, 47 ; Vienna, 19859. The obverses of 
Nos. 8 and 9 are from the same die. — The coins 
described by Leake, p. 66, and Lavy, i. 232, 
belong to varieties 6-9. 



THE COINS OF HIERAFOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 149 


10. Obv. — Julia Maesa. 

Rev. — I GPOn O I., AG I r., NQT in exergue. Sarapis 
with modius, seated 1. on throne, r. hand on 
head of Cerberus at his feet, 1. on sceptre; 
before him Isis, standing r., holding a sistrum 
in uplifted 1., and situla in lowered r. Border 
of dots. 

Copenhagen, 45 ; Inv. Wadd 6195 [PL 
IV. 57]; cf. also Mionnet, iv. 633 (obv. 
Elagabalus ; rev. Sarapis) ; similarly repre- 
sented, but alone ; the description is hardly 
accurate. 

11. Obv. — Sarapis. From the same die as the obverses of 

Nos. 6 and 7. Border of dots. 

Rev. — I GPA 1., nOAGlTON r. Tyche, standing 1., cornu- 
copiae in 1., r. hand on rudder. Border of 
dots. 

Berlin, 48. 


12. Obv. — Sarapis. From the same die as the obverses 
of Nos. 1-5. Border of dots. 

Rev . — I GPAriDAG 1. and above, ITON i\, XPYCO/POAC 
in exergue. The bearded river-god Chrysoroas, 
upper part of body naked, seated 1. on ground, 
poppy in r. hand, leaning 1. arm on an over- 
turned urn, out of which water flows. Border 
of dots. 

Inv. Wctdd., 6091 [PI. IV. 58]; B. M. 
(acquired since Catalogue). 


XXVII. TWINS. 

1. Obv . — AH 1., MOC r. Head of young Demos, bound 
with taenia. Border of dots. 

Rev. I 1., GPA above, no r., AGITON below (around). 

Two naked children seated opposite one another 
on the ground, playing with astragali. Border 
of dots. 

VOL XIII., SERIES IV. 



150 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Berlin, 88 = Nomisma , vi. p. 6, No. 14 
[PI. IV. 69]. These are probably the same 
twins as are represented being suckled by a 
she-wolf on other coins of the city (cf. XXX. 
below). A similar group is found several times 
on the coins of the city of Hypaipa : two naked 
children sitting opposite one another, playing 
with astragali, behind them a cultus statue of 
Artemis Anaitis (B. M., Lydia, 59, 60, 65, 70 
(PI. xii. 11). 

2. Obv . — NGQKO 1., PON r. Bust of Sarapis with kalathos 
and robe. 

Rev . — KEflO/PA (sic), in two lines above, AEI r., TQN in 
exergue. Similar. 

Imhoof (present collection) == Nomibwa, vi. 
p. 6; No. 15 (PI. i. 15). 


XXVIII. TYCHE. 

1. Obv.— AH L, MOC r. Head of young Demos, bound 

with taenia, with hair falling down at neck. 
Border of dots. 

Rev. — I6PAPIOAEIT L, QNN6QKOPON r. Tyclie with 
kalathos, standing 1., r. arm on rudder and 
cornucopiae in 1. arm. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 94 (obv. counter-marked : Zeus Laodi- 
keios?); Munich, 10; Vienna, 33670. 

2. Obv.— (AH MOC). 

Rev . — IGPAn 1., O A€IT QN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wcidd., 6119; cf. also Mionnet, iv. 593. 

2a. Obv . — AH MOC r. Head of young Demos, bound with 
taenia, hair falling down over neck. Border of 
dots. 

Rev . — IGPAnO 1., A GITQN r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Vienna, 33415, a variant of the preceding 
coin. 



THE COINS OF HIEBAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 151 


3. Obv. — (AHMOG). 

Rev . — l€PAno 1., AG I TON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd ., 6120 ; Copenhagen, 20. The 
small coins of this type are quite different from 
the larger of the two preceding types. All 
three types ai’e variants of B. M., 73-75 ; B. M., 
46, is quite a different type of Tyche. 


4. Obv. — IGPACYN v. h KAHTOC 1. Bust of young male 

Senate, bareheaded, with shoulders draped. 
Border of dots. 

Rev . — IGPAPIO r., AGITON 1. Similar : fruits and ribbons 
hanging from the cornucopiae, in the bend of 
which sits a little Plutos Border of dots. 

Berlin, 101. 

5. Obv. — (IGPA CYN KAHTOC). Apparently from the same 

die as the preceding obverse. 

Rev. — IGPAno 1., AGITON r. Similar. Border of dots. 

Copenhagen, 24. The coins of types 4 and 
5 are variants of B. M., 83 ; their obverse type 
is rare on coins of Hierapolis. 

6. Obv . — (IGPA CYN KAHTOC). 

Rev . — IGPAno 1., AG I TON r. Similar, but with bunch 
of poppies in r. hand. Border of dots. 

Paris, 578 = Mionnet, iv. 598 [PI. IV. 61]. 
The obverse and reverse type differ remarkably 
from those of types 4 and 5. Leake, Supply p. 
58, is another specimen of types 4 to 6. 

7. Obv, — AAIP 1., BHNOC r. Bust of Lairbenos, radiate; 

shoulders draped. 

Rev. — l€PAnOA€ITO 1., N Ne ^ KOpn r . Tyche, with 

kalathos, standing 1., holding balance in r. hand 
and cornucopiae in 1. arm, in the bend of which 
sits a little Plutos. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd., 6108 [PL IV. 62]; Berlin, 69. 

M 2 



152 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


8. Obv . — Annia Faustina. 

Rev . — IGPAnOAGIT L, ^NNeOKOPO r Tyche, with 

kalathos, standing 1., holding phiale over 
lighted altar in r. hand, and cornucopiae in 1., 
with Pintos as before. Border of dots. 

Paris, 605. Variant of B. M., 146. 

9. Obv . — Similar. 

Rev . — l€PAriOA€IT 1., HNNenKOPO f Si mi]ar to the 

preceding, but not from the same die. Border 
of dots. 

Inv. Wcidd ., 6166 [PL IV. 63]. A second 
variant of B. M., 146. B. M., 147, is another 
type. 


10. Obv . — Caracalla (?), Elagabalus (?). 

Bev.— IGPAnOAGITn 1., N ■ NeQKOPON r. Tyche, with 
kalathos, standing 1., r. hand on rudder; in 1. 
cornucopiae as before. Border of dots. 

B. M.j 139; Berlin, 174 ; Vienna, 30284. 

11. Obv . — Caracalla (?), Elagabalus (*?). 

Rev.— iePAnOAeiTl., nNNe ^ KOPa r. Similar. Border 
of dots.- 

Inv. Wadd., 6164. Variant of B. M., 139. 

12. Obv . — MAY PAA€!EANAP0CKA1C. Bust of Alexander 

Severus. Border of dots. 

Bev . — lEPAnOAElTTlN 1., NE OKOPON 4 \ Similar. 
Border of dots. 

Vienna, 33672. 


13. Obv . — Philippus Junior. 

Rev. — lePAnOA 1., 6ITQN r. Tyche, with kalathos, 
standing 1 ., r. hand, holding two ears of com 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 153 


on rudder, in 1. cornucopiae as before. 
Border of dots. 

B. M., 159, 160; Paris, 613 = Mionnet, 
iv. 649 ; Copenhagen, 52; Vienna, 30631. 

14. Obv. — MAPK QTAKlAh, CEBHPA CEB. Bust of Otacilia 

Severa. 

Bev. — lePAno 1., AEITQN r. Tyche Panthea (Nike), 
standing, winged, with kalathos, facing r. with 
ears* of corn on rudder, and in 1. cornucopiae. 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 185 [PI. IV. 64] = Kl. M., 39 = 
Nomisma , vi. p. 19, No. IT (PI. ii. 15). On 
this type of Tyche, cf. Imhoof, op. cit 

15. Obv.— OYESnAElANOZ r., ZEBAZTOS 1. Laureate 

head of Vespasian. 

Bev. — lEPAnOAlTQN 1., MN AI1AOE r. Tyche, standing 
1., holding ears of corn and poppy in lowered 
r. hand, cornucopiae in 1. arm, serpent on 1. at 
her feet. 

Berlin, 151 = Kl. M., 29. Imhoof-Blumer 
identifies, with some hesitation, the goddess as 
Demeter. The type combines the characteristic 
attributes of both deities: the ears of corn, 
poppy, and cornucopiae point to Tyche, and 
the serpent to Demeter (for further details 
see under Demeter). We, therefore, have a 
confusion of two types here, but the Tyche 
predominates in a marked degree. 

16. Obv. — lEPAnOAE! r., TON 1. Head of young Dionysos, 

crowned with ivy. Border of dots. 

Bev. — €VBO L, CIA r. Eubosia, standing 1., r. hand on 
rudder, cornucopiae in 1. arm, with a little 
Plutos in its curve, grasping with his r. hand 
at the fruits hanging over the brim of the 
cornucopiae. 

Munich, 1 ; Athens, 59056 ; Berlin, 22 ; 
variant of B. M., 35-37 (PL xxix. 11); 



154 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Berlin, 23 (= M. Or ., 401, 110). On the 
reverse of the latter the legend is GVno/ClA. 
Cf. also Museo Nazionale (Naples), i. 8619. 

N.B. — Another type of this goddess is found on a coin of Isinda in 
PihJm ( Kl . M., p. 374, 5) ; in her light hand she holds a phiale, in left 
arm a cornucopiae, in which lies the infant Pintos (cf . Imhoof-Blumer, 
ibid.). 

The goddess Euiroaia is mentioned in an inscription of Hiorapolis 
(No. 26). Cf. Alta) turner von Ilierapolis, pp. 76, 44. On the goddeva 
and the various forms of her name, cf. Imhoof-Blumer, M. Or., loc. 
cit., and also his Lijditche SUuVm., pp. 1(3S, 1S2; Waser, in Pauly- 
Wissowa, s.v. “Eubu.ia”; Philolog lxix. 237. In spite of the 
various forms of the name, there can be no doubt that she is one and 
the same goddess. She closely resembles Tyche in her nature. 

17. Obv.~ N6 ]., HKOPON r. Head of bearded Hcraldes. 
Border of dots. 

Rev — I e 1., PA above, nOA r., 6ITO in exergue, N 
above. Winged griffin r., wheel below. Border 
of dots. 

Paris, 580a [PL IV. 65] ; Gotha; Imhoof 
(present collection). That a reference to Tyche 
should be recognized in this type is shown by 
a coin of Hadrianopolis in Phrygia ( Kl . M., 
p. 233, 3 ; obv. Caracalla), on which a stand- 
ing Tyche (not Nemesis) is represented with 
a wheel at her feet, and a winged griffin in 
front of her. 


XXIX. VESSEL. 

Obv. — Agrippina. 

Rev . — [XJAPH2 ■ B • nAniAS- • I below and r., EPAflOAIT- 
[CIH]. Cup-shaped vessel on a high pillar, 
palm-branch on 1. and r. 

Berlin, 142 [PL II. 29]. The type, which 
I am unable to explain, occurs only on this one 
coin. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


155 


XXX. WOLF. 

L Obv. — AAIP 1., BHNOC r. Bust of Lairbenos, radiate ; 
shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev. — ICPAflOABlTON above, NGQKOPfl/N in exergue. 
She-wolf 1., suckling twins. 

Athens, 5905 b [PI. IV. 66]. 

•2. Obv. — Similar. 

Rev. — IGPAriOAGITlQ above, N in field above, N6QKOP/QN 
in exergue. Similar. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd ., 6109. The obverses of Nos. 1 
and 2 belong to the period before Philip, and 
are not from the same die as the obverse of the 
following coins, which belong to the time of 
Philip. 

3. Obv. — Similar ; cf. note to No. 2. 

Rev. — lEPAnOAGIT above, ON in exergue. Similar. 
Border of dots. 

B. M., 63, 64 ; Berlin, 77 ; Paris, 569 = Mion- 
net, iv. 587 ; Munich, 5 ; Vienna, 30849. The 
reverses are not all from the same die. 

4. Obv. — Aquillia Severa. 

Rev. — IGPAnOAGITO N above, NEQKOP/nN in exergue. 
Similar. Border of dots. 

Inv. Wadd., 6169. Variant of B. M., 145. 

5. Obv. — Otacilia Severa. 

Rev. — 16 PAriOAGlTQN above, N6HKOP/QN in exergue. 
Similar. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 188. 

6. Obv. — Similar. 

Rev. — IGPAIIOAGITQ above, N in exergue. Similar. 
Border of dots. 

Berlin, 189,190. 

The frequency of this type is explained by the fact 



156 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


that the Lykos flowed past Hierapolis and joined with 
the Maiandros a little below the town. While the type 
on the coins is influenced by the Roman legend, we find 
the Lykos and Kapros represented on the coins of the 
neighbouring city in the form of a wolf and a bear. 


XXX L ZEUS LAODIKEIOS. 

1. 01 ) V , — IGPAnO r., AIC 1., in straight lines. Bust of city- 

goddess with stephane ; shoulders draped. 
Border of dots. 

Rev. — iGPAnOAei r., TON 1., in straight lines. Zeus 
Laodikeios in long chiton and himation, 
standing 1., holding eagle in r. hand, and 
leaning 1. on sceptre. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 8 [Pl. IV. 67]. Does the coin 
described by Mionnet, Supply vii. 370, belong to 
this type ? 

2. Obv . — Bust of young Dionysos, crowned with ivy ; 

shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev. — lEPAno r., AGIT ON 1. Similar. Border of 
dots. 

B. M., 25, 26 ; Berlin, 20 [Pl. IV. 68] ; 
Copenhagen, 23 ; Athens, 5906& ; Gotha ; 
Vienna, 19680; cf. also Mionnet, Supply vii. 
366; Museo Xazionale (Naples), i. 8621. The 
coin described by Leake, p. 66, probably 
also belongs to this type. The obverse, which 
he describes as “ female head to r.,” really 
represents Dionysos. 


3. Obv . — Head of young Dionysos, crowned with ivy, 
thyrsos in front. Border of dots. 

Rev . — lEPAno r., AGIT ON 1. Similar. Border of dots. 

Paris, 563 = Mionnet, iv. 580. Both obverse 
and reverse differ from the preceding type. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 157 


4. Oi Vm — re 1., POYCIA r. Bust of Gerousia, laureate and 
veiled ; shoulders draped. Border of dots. 

Rev . — 1 6PAnO[A] 1., 6ITQN r. Similar. Border of 
dots. 

Vienna, 30852 ; Inv. Wadd., 6126. Variant 
of B. M., 82. 


5. Obv. — Nero. 



Similar. Border of dots. 


B. M., 123 (PI. xxxi. 10); Berlin, 143, 144 
(cf. Gr. M ., 739, 696) ; Gotha; Munich. The 
reverses of these specimens are not from the 
same die. The coin in the Munich collection 
has been erroneously ascribed to M. Aurelius, 
in Xaptrcs, p. 488. 


6. Obv. — <t> AY CT GINA r., CGBACTH 1. Bust of Faustina II. 

Rev . — 1GPA no 1., A61TON r. Similar. 

B. M., 138 ; Vienna, 19877 ; Berlin, 160 ; Inv . 
Wadd., 6157 ; Copenhagen, 43 ; Gotha. Berlin, 
161, is similar but not from the same dies; 
Hunter, 9, is an eighth specimen ; cf. also 
Mionnet, iv. 624. 


7. Obv. — Similar. 

Rev . — l€PAnOA€l r., TON 1. Similar. 

Vienna, 19876. Variant of the preceding 
type; cf. also Leake, p. 66; Sujopl., p. 58. 


8. 01 > V ' — Head of bearded Herakles, without club; Border 
of dots. 

Rev .— lGPAnO 1., A61THN r. Eagle, with outspread 
wings facing, head 1. Border of dots. 

Berlin, 26; Inv. Wadd ., 6096. Variant of 
B. M., 53. 



15S 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


XXXII. ZEUS TROIOS. 

Obv . — XGYC L, TPHIOC r. Head of Zeus Troios, bound 
with taenia. Border of dots. 

Bev. — iGPAn r., OAGtTflN L Apollo Kitlwoodos in 
long chiton and cloak, standing r., holding lyre 
in 1. hand and plektron in the r. hand. Border 
of dots. 

Berlin, 13 - Gr. M. 738, 693 (PI. xii. 22) 
= Z. /. N., ii. 107 j Inv.*Wuil<L, 6089; Vienna, 
32630 Variant of B. M., 39 (PL xxx. 1), 40 ; 
Berlin, 14 (with reverse 1GPAI10 r., AGITHN 1.). 
The obverses from the same die as XIV. 5. On 
the P, peculiar to the time of Hadrian, cf. Im- 
hoof-Blumer, op. clt. 


SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE. 

Herr Imhoof-Blumer had sent me casts of a coin in his 
present collection, which is of importance for this article. 

Obv . — AY . K • MAVPAN 1., TONGINOC r. Bust of the 
• Emperor Caracalla, laureate, wearing cuirass, aegis at 
breast, from which rise two serpents. Border of dots. 



Rev . — IGPAflO 1., AGITON r., N GO KOPO/N in exergue. Cara- 
calla, head radiate, standing r., in military dress, leaning 
1. hand on sceptre, in r. holding patera over a lighted 
altar ; opposite him is the city-goddess with mural crown, 
1. hand on sceptre, offering wreath to the Emperor with 
r. hand. Border of dots. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 


159 


The reverse is from the same die as the Paris coin 
(No. 601 = Mionnet, iv. 617), published by me in. Xaptres, 
p. 479. As Imhoof’s better preserved specimen shows, the 
goddess does not hold a palm in her left hand, but is leaning 
on a sceptre. 

I had already pointed out (ojo. cit.) that this medallion was 
struck on the occasion of Caracalla’s visit to Hierapolis, to 
express the gratitude of the city for the neokoria granted 
it on this occasion. The obverse of Imhoof-Blumer’s specimen, 
however, has the portrait of Caracalla and a different legend 
(cf. the figure above) from the Paris specimen (cf. op. cit., 
PL vii. 2). That it is a portrait of Caracalla is clear from 
a comparison with the obverse of the Berlin coin on PI. vii. 1 
(reverse, three temples) which is undoubtedly of this 
Emperor. The obverse of the Paris specimen cannot, there- 
fore, as I had supposed, represent Caracalla ; from its 
similarity to the obverse of Pl. vii. 4, I would rather suggest 
it represents Elagabalus. We thus have the same reverse 
type used under two Emperors (the Paris and Imhoof speci- 
mens are from the same reverse die). The reverse type might 
thus not be connected with the granting of neokoria to the 
town. But this type appears nowhere else on the coins of 
Hierapolis ; it is, therefore, certainly right to connect it with 
some event of importance to the city, and this can only be 
the granting of neokoria. The difficulty is, in my opinion, 
best cleared up by supposing that the neokoria, granted in 
the first place to the city by Caracalla, was again confirmed 
by Elagabalus, and that the latter was not in any way the 
granting of a new grade of neokoria. The coins actually show 
that Hierapolis only possessed a singular neokoria. 


INDEX OF TYPES. 

(* Indicates tLat the type is of local importance ) 
Aktia, I. 

Apollo Archegetes, hi, xiv, xvi. 

„ Kitharoedos, ii, xx, xxv, xxxii. 

? ,, Lairbenos, cf. Laiibenos. 



160 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Ares, iia. 

Artemis, in, vnr, xvr. 

Asklepios, iv. 

Athena, v. 

Boule, if, xiii, xv, xix, xxn, xxin. 

*Bull, vj, vir. 

Chrysoroas, v, Vlii, xxvi. 

City-goddess, iv, x, xiii, xix, xxi, xxm, xxxi, Suppl. note. 
*Cornucopiae, xi. 

Demeter, ix, xxvni. 

Demos, i, n, vm, xiv, xv, xvn, xix, xxiv, xxvn, xxvai. 
Dionysos, hi, iv , ix, x, xxm, xxrv, xxvni, xxxi. 

* Double-axe, xi. 

Eagle, xxx. 

Eubosia, xxvni. 

Gerousia, xv, xxxi. 

Griffin, xxvni. 

Hekate, xn, xxi. 

Herakles, iv, v, vn, xiii, xxi, xxvni, xxxi. 

Hermes, v. 

*Hero (riding), xv. 

* „ (standing), xiv. 

Hygieia, iv, xvi. 

Isis, xvii, xxvi. 

Kybele, xvm. 

'"'Lairbenos (Apollo Lairbenos), it, vi, vii, ix, xi, xvi, xxi, 
xxiv, xxviii, xxx. 

M6n, xix. 

*Mopsos, xx. 

Nemesis, iv, v, xxi. 

Nike, xxii. 

Persephone, xxm. 

Pluto, xxm. 

Poseidon, xxiv. 

Boma, xxv. 

Sarapis, xxvi, xxvii. 

Selene, xxi. 

Senate, 11, iia, v, vm, ix, xiv, xvi, xx, xxm, xxvni. 
Telesphoros, xvi. 

*Torrebos, xx. 



THE COINS OF HIERAPOLIS IN PHRYGIA. 161 


Twins, xxvii, xxx. 

Tyche, xxvi, xxviir. 

* Vessel, xxix. 

Wolf, xxx. 

Zeus, ii. 

*Zeus Bozios, xv. 

,, Laodikeios, v, xxvi, xxxi. 

„ Troios, i, xiv, xix, xxxii. 

Leo Weber. 


ERRATA. 

A certain number of errors have found tbeir way into the spacing of 
the inscriptions in the first portion of this article, viz. : — 

P. 3, 1. 1. Rev. Bead Q NNEfTKOP, &c. 

P. 5, 4. Rev. Bead I EPOnOAEI(!)[TON], &c. 

P. 7, 11. Rev., and p. 8, 14. Rev. Read A 6ITON r., &c. 

P. 11, IV. 1. Rev. Bead 1EPAI10AE I L, &c. 

,, „ 3. Rev. Bead IT QN r., &c. 

P. 14, 5. Rev. Bead IEPA no 1., &c. 

P. 17, VIII. 1. Rev. Bead l€PAnOAI(!)T C1U, &c. 

P. 21, 8. Rev. Bead IE PA n OAEI TON, &c. 

P. 28, 4. Rev. Bead I EPAflOAEITO N, &c. 



VII. 


CHRONOLOGY OF THE DANUBIAN WARS OF 
THE EMPEROR MARCUS ANTONINUS. 

The period from the Oriental triumph to the death of 
Veins forms a minor unity in itself. It comprises a 
series of operations serving as a prelude to the great 
Danubian wars which fill the remaining years of Marcus’ 
reign, and lends itself to treatment as a separate whole. 
The coinage for this period is singularly sparse, and 
affords very imperfect chronological indications. The 
method adopted in the previous essay (Nani. Ghrou ., 
1911, pp. 209-267), of examining the coins year by 
year and recording the results in annalistic form, offers 
under these fresh conditions little prospect of success. 
Abandoning this method, therefore, and taking the 
coinage of these years as a whole, I shall first attempt 
to ascertain the fixed points in the course of events, and 
endeavour so to construct an outline of the chronology 
of the war. 

The first question is that of the date at which the 
troubles on the Danube came to a head. It was no 
sudden outbreak. It was only with the greatest difficulty 

Note. — I n the articles dealing with the reign of Marcus Aurelius 
Antoninus, I wish to acknowledge my debt to my friend and former 
tutor, Mr. A. S. L. Farquharson, of University College, Oxford, who 
both helped with suggestions and kindly permitted me to draw upon 
the literary and epigraphic material collected for his forthcoming 
monograph on this emperor. — C.H. D, 



DANU13IAN WARS OP MARCUS ANTONINUS. 


163 


that the barbarians had been held in check during the 
Oriental campaigns. 1 But it is clear from the historians 
that at last, after some considerable period of resistance, 
the long threatened catastrophe could no longer be 
delayed, and the barbarians passed the frontier. But 
as to the date of the invasion, their accounts are very 
indefinite. Dio, or rather his epitomator Xiphilinus, 2 
appears to ignore any # fighting on the Danube before the 
death of Verus. His language is vague enough for any- 
thing. After relating Verus’ return from the East, he 
adds, \iytrcu juiET ft ravra . . . diacpOaprivaL. Yet so far as 
he gives any chronological indication at all, he would 
appear to make the beginning of the Danubian wars 
about contemporaneous with the appointment of Avidius 
Cassius to the governorship of Syria, i.e. about 166. 
Capitolinus 3 says with slightly less vagueness, “dim 
Parthicnm lelhm cjeriUr , natum est Marco mccmicum 
The expression “ natum est ” leaves a good margin of 
uncertainty as to what is actually meant, but it would 
seem naturally to apply rather to the “ brewing ” of the 
war, the working of its causes and predisposing 
conditions, than to the commencement of regular 
hostilities. We already knew that the barbarians were 
restless, at any rate since the last year of Pius. Probably, 
however, Capitolinus means to intimate, in a general 
way, that the troubles on the Northern frontier became 
acute before the Parthian War was fairly over^ and we 
may take him as dating the great invasion not later 
than 166, which is, as we have seen, the date vaguely 


1 Cf. H. A., iv. 12, § 13: “ ( helium ) Marcomanmcum , gitod diu eonim 
qxii ademnt arte suspension est” 

2 Epit. Dion . Cass. Ini. 2-3. 

3 £T. A., iv. 12, § 13. 



164 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


suggested by the account in Dio for the beginning of 
the war. Further than this the literary authorities do 
not take us, for Eutropius and Aurelius Victor ignore 
this little war completely. 

It is perhaps hardly to be expected that a definite 
date for such an event as a barbarian invasion should 
be given by the coins, and we find in fact that the 
coinage up to 166 is almost wholly devoted to Eastern 
affairs, so far as it has reference to military events at all. 
But I have already discussed in the preceding essay a 
type of Eome with the Palladium (Roma Aeterna), 4 
which, appearing on the coins of Marcus from about 
August, 165, persists throughout 166, and I have 
suggested reasons for attributing to it a reference to the 
danger on the Northern frontier. If such a reference 
may be assumed, the appearance of the type might 
perhaps be taken to date a fresh stage in the develop- 
ment of the German peril, and the vague temporal 
indication, “ dum Parihicum helium geritur ,” "would 
receive a more precise terminus post quern. But if the 
autumn of 165 was really marked by some fresh 
departure on the Danube — and it is quite probable that 
it was — this was certainly not the great irruption which 
finally precipitated the war ; for diplomat a 5 discovered 
in Raetia attest a discharge of veterans in that region in 
March, 166, while Verus was still in the East (for he is 
styled PROCOS.) ; and veterans would hardly have been 
discharged in one of the most exposed provinces if the 
invasions had already commenced. We must therefore 
conclude that the catastrophe occurred, at the last, 


See Cohen, III. M, A 481, and my remarks on pp. 31 sqq. of the 
preceding essay, Num. Gluon., Ser. IV. Vol. XI. 

5 See Eph, Epigr., ii. p. 460. 



LANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 165 


perhaps, suddenly and unexpectedly, between March, 166, 
and the close of the Parthian war in the late autumn of 
that year. 

The next point to be fixed is the date at which the 
emperors left Koine for the seat of war ; and in relation 
to this a piece of numismatic evidence is at once avail- 
able. There is extant a bronze medallion of Verus, 6 
which I describe from .an example at Berlin : 

Obv . — L. VERVS AVG. ARM. PARTH. MAX. Bust r., 
laureate, loricate, palwlamenlum on 1. shoulder. 

Rev , — TR. P. VIII. IMP. INI. COS. III. The emperors on 
horseback advancing r. ; apparently Marcus is 
in the foreground and slightly in advance, while 
Verus rides on his 1. and slightly in the rear; 
each holds a spear in the r. hand ; they are pre- 
ceded by a soldier in lorica advancing r., looking 
backwards, holding spear over r. shoulder and 
wearing shield on 1. arm. 

There is no difficulty in recognizing this type as a 
Profectio Angustomm, practically a repetition of that 
of 162. It is dated to 168. But we can date it roughly 
within the year. There occurs during 168 a change in 
the number of the imperatorial title. The proportions 
of coins before and after the change (taking as usual the 
Berlin collection as a standard) is as follows : — 


Coins of Marcus with IMP. 1 1 II. 

,, ,, ,, IMP. V. 

Coins of Verus with IMP. Nil. 

„ „ „ IMP. V. 


The mean proportion of the coins with IMP. ml. to the 
whole mint of the year is between -l and This would 
indicate a change somewhere about February-March, 168. 


6 Not given in Cohen. 
VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 


N 



166 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The Proftdlu medallion has IMP. III! It falls, therefore, 
between December 10, 167, and, say, the end of February, 
168 — that is, during the winter. But the Profectio itself 
can hardly have taken place in winter time. We may 
fairly regard the medal as a belated record of an event 
which actually took place in the autumn of the previous 
year. Such a delay would surprise us less in a medallion 
than in an ordinary coin. Provisionally, therefore, let 
the Profectio be dated as late as possible in 167. 

Turning now to the coins of the earlier year, we find a 
number with the obverse of Marcus and the following 
reverse : 7 

05 y. — TR. POT. XXI. IMP. Mil. COS. 111. S. C. The 
emperor, togate, with c nidus GaUnns, standing 
1., placing incense on tripod. 

Some examples of this type, given in Cohen, 8 have the 
explanatory legend VOTA. No doubt Eckhel 9 is right 
in referring the type to the various religious rites which 
are recorded in the Life 10 to have preceded the departure 
of the emperors from the city. The same passage in 
Capitolinus which records these vota relates also that the 
terrible events of the year long delayed the Profectio of 
the emperors for the seat of war. 10a This confirms the 
suspicion we have already formed that the Profectio took 
place late in the year 167. 

The next question concerns the assumption of the title 
IMP. v., which is the next fixed point in the progress of 
the war. We have already seen that the change of 
titulature upon the coins may be approximately dated to 


7 Cf. Cohen, III. M, A 817. 8 Cohen, III. M. A., 1019. 

0 Eckhel, yii. p. 53. ™ H. A., iv. 18. 

10a S.A., iy. 13, § 1, “ rctardaiusQiic a bellicajcnofcctionc .” 



DANUBIAN WANS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 167 


February, 168. But here a difficulty arises. Inscrip- 
tions show the new title already in use in 167, and one 
of them 11 is dated May 5, 167. After making all 
allowances for possible disorganization and delay at the 
mint, it seems unreasonable to suppose that an interval 
of nine months could be accounted for in any such way. 
That such disorganization prevailed is indeed probable 
from a consideration # of the general state of Rome in 
this year. The city was in the throes of plague and 
famine, and in all probability financial embarrassment 
accompanied the general distress. This state of things 
may be reflected in the unusually scanty coinage. The 
Berlin Collection possesses for this year only 15 coins of 
Marcus, as against 38 for 166, and 29 for 168. In the 
case of Verus the difference is not so great; there are 
17, as against 25 and 18 respectively ; but here 11 out of 
17 are of one type. It is evident, therefore, that there 
was some kind of dislocation at the mint during this 
year. We might have accounted on these lines for a 
shorter delay, but not, I think, for the postponement 
of a change in titulature from May to the following 
February. We must seek some other explanation. 

The scanty coinage of 167 shows a disproportionately 
large issue of coins of a single type, that of Victory 
bearing a garland and palm. lla This type appears on no 
less than 7 out of the 15 coins of Marcus’ twenty-first 
tribunician year, and 11 out of the 17 coins of Verus 5 
seventh tribunician year, in the Berlin Collection. The 
type is indeed common enough, but the fact that the 
victory -types of the preceding year do not include this 


C. 1. 1/., iii. p. 888, no. 46. 

Ua See Cohen, II. M. A., 815; cf. also the type of Mars bearing a 
trophy, ib. 794. 

N 2 



168 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


one, and that, on the other hand, it is so prominent among 
the coin-types of 167, seems to show conclusively that 
the victory in question is not one of the Oriental suc- 
cesses commemorated in 166, but a fresh event of 167. 
Such a victory can hardly have been won elsewhere than 
in the new seat of war on the Danube. The idea must 
at once occur that this unknown victory of 167 may 
have something to do with the appearance of IMP. V on 
the inscriptions of May, 167, and the following months. 
If, however, there was a victory in the Danube region at 
that time, it cannot have been one gained by the emperors 
in person, for, as we have seen, their jjrofcctio cannot veil 
be dated earlier than the autumn of this year. This 
suggests a victory won by legates in the affected 
provinces. A fragment of Dio Cassius preserved by 
Petrus Patricius 12 alludes to a victory won over the 
Langobardi by two of Marcus’ generals, Yindex and 
Candidus. The date of this victory is unknown, but it 
appears to have occurred before the emperor was at the 

12 Frag. 6, quoted by Mommsen, Ptovmzen, p. 209, note 2: Aayy 

(iapbcav Kal 'OjSiwv l|a«: icrj^AiW *T ffrpov rrepaioodivTcav r&v tt epl BiuBiKa hnrzmv 
e^XcuravTa)!/ Kal rcov ap.<f)l K avfiidov xe^oSy iirapdacduTcop ei? xayTe\7) <pvy^jj / 
oi fiapfiapot irpdirovro’ £<p’ oTs o&rcc TrpaxQe~<nv ey tiest Karaardvres e/c 
TTp&Trjs iTTix€ipr}<T6u>s oi fiapfiapoi irptirfieis xapa AXAiov Bacrcrov rfyv Tlaioytay 
dUnoyra (rreAAovtri Ba AAofidpiov re rbv fiacnAea. Ma pKo/advuv Kal erepovs Se/ca, 
Kar 1 edvos imA efc^ueyoi eya* /cat BpKOis t^v elpd]V7jv ol xpe<r,8eis mo-rcao-dpievoL 

o’LKade x^pov<riv. Mommsen observes that this incident must have hap- 
pened before the outbreak of the great war, from the position of the 
fragment, immediately before a quotation of Dio. LXXI. xi. The 
deduction is not, however, certain, though the fact is probable. 
Another possibility is suggested by the recent discovery at Koln of an 
altar s>cfc up by T. Flavius Const a,ns praef.praet., who is thought to have 
been the coUeague in that office of the Victorinus who died in 167-8. 
The presence of a praetorian prefect on the lower Rhine can only mean 
a special military expedition, and it is quite possible that in or about 
167 Constans won a victory over the Germans which warranted a 
salutaho. V. Domaszewski in Momisch-Germaniscfaes Cui i csjponJ.cn-- 
blatt , 1910, pp. 3-4. 



UANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 169 


front. It is just possible that this victory may be that 
of 167, which earned the fifth sain tat io from the troops. 
The identification, however, is quite conjectural, but in 
any case it is likely that we are dealing with some such 
situation. We have then to account for the non- 
appearance of the title upon the coins of this year. 

Dio 13 mentions in connexion with a later campaign 
that in one particular case Marcus accepted the title 
Imperator from the soldiers, Ka'nrep ovk tluiOcog, 7 rp)v rrjv 
j3 ov\r}v -Oca, roiovrov n Trpocr'iEcrQai. It was, there- 

fore, the custom of this emperor not to assume an 
addition to his imperatorial title until the Senate had 
given its consent ; if, therefore, we could suppose that in 
the present case the Senate did not confirm the mlutatio 
until some months after it had been given by the army, 
a sufficient explanation of the delay would be found. 
Inscriptions are habitually looser than coins in their 
usage of titles, and particularly in giving the emperor 
titles which did not formally belong to him at the time ; 
thus they frequently give the title of pontifex maxi mu s 
to Yerus; they retain in the style of Marcus the titles 
ARMENIACVS PARTHICVS long after he had dropped them 
from the coins, and add MAXIMVS to his germanicvs 
SARMATICVS. It is true that an imperatorial salutation 
is not quite on the same footing ; yet if there was any 
ground for doubt as to whether the new salutation could 
or could not properly be used, we might reasonably 
expect to find it inserted on inscriptions and omitted on 
coins. The salutation by the soldiers was, after all, 
valid, even without the Senate’s decree, except to the 
over-scrupulous. But why was the salutation not at 


13 Epit, Dion. Cass., lxxi. 10. 



170 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLK 


once confirmed in the ordinary course by the Senate ? 
One is inclined to say that the city was so demoralized 
by the plague that the Senate hardly met in the latter 
half of 167. But a more plausible reason may be sug- 
gested. We are dealing now with an emperor who was 
not a lover of high-sounding titles, who had the most 
scrupulous regard for propriety, and who was disposed to 
pay much deference to the Senate^in points of external 
etiquette, however little he was prepared to abate of his 
powers in more serious matters. It is now Marcus and 
not Yerus who is primarily responsible for the war. We 
shall have during his sole reign several instances of a 
year’s successful fighting commemorated by an issue of 
victory-coins, without any increase in the number of the 
imperatorial title, clearly because the campaign of the 
year in question was not decisive, but needed to be com- 
pleted by the following year’s operations. The same is 
the case in the present instance. The victory of the 
middle of 167, whatever its exact nature, was clearly not 
a decisive one. The r pvofectio of the emperors in person 
was none the less called for. The Victory-type which 
celebrates it is the one which has already been used 
during the Oriental campaigns to commemorate an 
incidental victory which fell short of deciding the result 
of the campaign, and was not 'followed by a fresh 
saint at io . It may well be, however, that the troops of 
Vindex and Candidus (if the victory is really theirs), 
anxious naturally to exalt their own achievement, 
acclaimed the emperor after the successful close of the 
fighting. This would suffice to account for the 
appearance of the IMP. V in inscriptions of the middle of 
167. But when the news of the salutation reached 
Rome, Marcus may have intimated to the Senate his 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 171 

desire tliat it should not be confirmed and officially 
adopted until further operations had rendered the 
victory decisive. On his appearance before Aquileia at 
the close of the year the barbarians retired and 
capitulated, and during the winter that he spent in that 
town he might fairly feel justified in sanctioning the, 
official adoption of the title imp. v. He was not able to 
prevent the soldiers fyom acclaiming him on the frontier, 
or the provincial governors from accepting the salutation 
as valid. But being present in the city when the news 
arrived, he could prevent the Senate from confirming it. 
If we assume he did so, we have a possible reconciliation 
of the discrepancy between the two sources of evidence. 

The coinage of this year, 168, exhibits other types 
beside the jirofrctio, which have some bearing upon the 
war. Among those of the earlier part of the year, with 
the inscription IMP. nil., the most interesting reverse is 
the following, which I describe from a bronze medallion 
of Marcus at Berlin : 14 

TR. P. XXII. IMP. Illl. COS. III. Jupiter, nude, stand- 
ing, facing the spectator, holding in r. hand fuhnen , 
in 1. hand sceptre ; his lifted arms oause the robe to 
spread widely behind ; at his feet on either side stand 
the emperors— Marcus to 1., togate, standing r.,_ hold- 
ing scroll in 1. hand ; Verus to r., togate, standing 1., 
holding scroll in 1. hand. 

There is no explanatory inscription, but the meaning 
of the type is clear; the emperors are under the pro- 
tection of the great god of the Capitol. A closely 
similar type occurs on coins of Commodus 15 for the year 
181, and there it is accompanied by the inscription 
1 VPPITER CONSERVATOR, which quite clearly expresses 

i* Cohen, II. M. A., 88 6 , 15 Ibid., Ill, Commode, 273-4. 



172 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


the nature of the present type. Our medallion in fact is 
intended as a recognition of the exj ected answer of the 
god to the yows and prayers of the preceding year. The 
simple type which commemorated these vows in 167 is 
elaborated into a complex composition representing a 
sacrificial scene, on a medallion of this year given by 
Cohen. 16 Similar in intention to the Jupiter Conservator 
coin, but simpler in conception _ and design, is the 
following coin representing one of his companions of 
the Capitol : 17 

M\ Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. ARM. PARTH. MAX. Head 
r., laureate. 

Bev. — TR. P. XXII. IMP. nil. COS. III. S. C. (in ex- 
ergue). Minerva in helmet and stand- 

ing 1., holding in r. hand ow], and laying 1. 
hand on shield ; spear rests on 1. arm. 

This type recalls the Minerva Pacifera of 164, but here 
the owl takes the place of the palm-branch. We have 
a simple representation of the goddess with her proper 
attributes, embodying merely an appeal to Minerva 
without reference to any special function. 

If we look among the coins with IMP. V. for anything 
to indicate the origin of the title we are disappointed. 
The characteristic type combined with the new inscrip- 
tion (in the proportions ^ for Marcus and ^ for Verus) 
is that of Fortuna Kedux. m The type is common, but 


16 Cohen, II. M. A ., 1029. It is worth remarking that we have here 
another instance of delay in the appearance of a special medal, which 
win help to justify the case of the Profectio - medal of this year. 

17 At Berlin ; cf. Cohen, IL.M. A., SS8. 

1711 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A ., 207 ; Eckhel, vii. p. 57; his remarks on the 
type are, I think, clearly wrong. He thinks it testifies to Marcus’ safe 
return; this can hardly be, as it occurs on coins before Verus’ death 
aud therefore also before Marcus’ return. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 173 

I think its prominence shows that it is intended as a 
special allusion to the events of the year. The older 
notion was that Fortuna Bedux always had reference to 
a return of an emperor to Borne. I have already, in the 
preceding essay, noticed one case where such an inter- 
pretation is untenable, and here again it is impossible, 
for we know from the historians that Marcus did not 
return to Eome until- after the death of Yerus, and all 
evidence shows that Yerus died in 169. The type 
should, I think, be interpreted according to its obvious 
signification, as referring to a return of good fortune 
after a period of danger or disaster. Such a period Eome 
had experienced during the last two or three years, and 
our type is, so to say, an expression of the relief which 
every one felt at the news that the barbarians had retired 
and submitted: “the tide has turned and better times 
are coming,” it says in effect. 

If the dates so far fixed for the outbreak of the war, 
the first victory, the departure of the emperors for the 
front, and the adoption of imp. V. in the titulature of the 
coins, are correct, the remaining events of the war fall 
naturally into place. The two winters which the 
emperors appear, from the narratives in the Historia 
Augusta , to have spent in Aquileia, will be those of 
167-8 and 168-9, and the return to Eome, during which 
Yerus died, is clearly fixed at the beginning of 169. 
The- death of the younger emperor is marked on the 
coins of Marcus by the omission of the titles ARM. 
PARTH. MAX., which he held only by virtue of his 
divided imperium , as well as of IMP. V., which might 
similarly be regarded as belonging only to the imperial 
partnership, and not to the surviving partner by him- 
self. 



174 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Coins of Veins for the few weeks of his ninth tribu- 
nician year are very scanty, and show.no fresh type . 18 
The coins of Marcus for the same period are somewhat 
more interesting. The Fortuna Redux type is re- 
tained / 9 and along with it we find the common type 
of Salus . 20 This type is even more vague than that of 
Fortune, but without seeking for any more specific 
reference we can at least say that it was not inappro- 
priate at a time when the plague was raging at Rome and 
in the army, and when the younger emperor himself was 
showing signs of ill-health ; for although the final 
attack in January was sudden, he was during this winter 
under treatment by Galen. Besides these types of rather 
indefinite meaning, we have a bronze medallion with 
a new Victory-type : 21 

Ojv. — M. ANTON I NVS AVG. ARM. PARTH. MAX. Bust 
r., laureate, loricate, and paludate. 

Hev.—COS. III. Victory wearing x LT( ^ v an d fywmo v 3 
standing 1., with head turned r., leaning on 
cippus, holding in r. hand wreath, in 1. hand palm. 


18 I have noted a coin at Berlin as foUows : — 

FH. Obv. IMP. L. VERVS AVG — Head r. hare. 

Eev. TR. P. Villi. COS. III.— Female figure in diadem, 
XirctSi/ and Ivanov, standing 1., holding in r. hand 
abacus, in 1. hand sceptre. 

This is the well-known Liberalitas type. There is a LIB. V. on the 
coins of Marcus for this year, hut after Veras’ death, cf. Eckhel, vii. 
p. 57. The absence of ARM. PARTH. MAX. in itself renders the coin 
suspicious, and it is not given by Cohen. The consular number is not 
certain : two strokes only are visible, but the coin is much worn. 

19 See Cohen, II. M. A., 206. 

20 See Cohen, ib. 825 sqq. ; a large and more important issue of Salus 
coins, however, follows the death of Verus ; see Cohen, 543 sqq . ; 
Eckhel, vii. p. 58. They bear the inscription SALVTI AVG., while the 
coins struck during Verus’ lifetime are uninscribed; and they are to 
the uninscribed coins in the proportion of 8;2 in the Berlin 
Collection. 

21 Cf. Cohen, ib. 187, 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 175 


This is merely an adaptation of the simple Victory-type 
of 167 to the more elaborate style proper to a medal, 
and it was no doubt struck as an appropriate com- 
memoration of the general results of this short war. 
The following type, which appears on bronze coins of 
Marcus for this period, is also of interest : 22 

TR. P. XXIII. IMP..V. COS. III. Female figure in helmet, 
Xltuv (or lorica) and short cloak, standing 1., withd. 
foot on helmet, holding in 1. hand spear, in r. hand 
Victory. 

This figure is called by Cohen, and no doubt rightly 
called, Eome. It represents the Roman power trium- 
phant over the barbarians, and may be compared with 
Veras’ Roma Victrix of 165. 

Neither this type nor the previous one implies, I 
think, a new victory in 169, or rather late in 168. The 
literary authorities give no hint of any fighting after the 
emperors had crossed the Alps, and there is nothing in 
these coins which make it necessary to suppose any such 
fighting. The Victory is an elaboration of a previous 
type, and we have other cases in which the coinage of the 
year which saw the conclusion of peace recalls and sums 
up the types of the war. The Roma Victrix is a suitable 
figure to represent in a summary form the results of the 
E<l “ peH itio Ge j -manica , 23 

One more piece is perhaps worth noting, though its 


22 Of. Cohen, M. A 908. 

23 One might contrast the walking Roma Victrix of 1G5 (struck while 
the war was in progress) with the standing Roma Victrix of 169 (struck, 
it is here argued, after the close of the fighting), as presenting, the one 
the process, and the other the completed fact — tj vikwcto, *P dipt) and tj 

Vim)(racra 'P 



176 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 


bearing on the war is slight. It is a bronze medallion 
of Marcus : 24 

Obv.—M. ANTON1NVS AVG. ARM. PARTH. MAX. Bust 
i\, laureate, loricate, and paludate. 

Rev.— TR. P. XXIII. IMP. V. COS. III. Female figure 
wearing diadem, x LT( *>v and 6/*cmov , enthroned 1., 
with feet on footstool, holding in 1. hand sceptre, 
and extending r. hand ; to 1. two nude genii 
approaching her bearing cornnacopiae , 

The figure is called, by Cohen, Faustina. Possibly he is 
right. The point is of little importance. In any case 
the idea is that the war has restored peace and plenty in 
place of the distress of 167. 

We have now reviewed the whole of the somewhat 
scanty numismatic evidence for the first Danubian war, 
the Expeditio Genua nica of inscriptions, and we may 
recapitulate in the light of the literary sources, that is, 
practically in the light of the two narratives in the 
lliaturia Augusta, for neither Dio, nor Eutropius, nor 
Victor, notices this little war. The account given by 
Capitoliuus in his Lives of the two emperors is sufficiently 
meagre, although he complacently observes that the 
whole story “ m March vita pleuissiute disjjutatum estT 
The narrative is as follows. 25 After the preparations for 
the war and precautions against plague and famine were 
completed, the emperors left Eome for the front. On 
their arrival at Aquileia the barbarians retired and sent 
in their submission. Verus desired to withdraw at this 
point, but Marcus insisted on further advance, and the 
emperors crossed the Alps. No fighting is mentioned, 
but we are told that the country north of the mountains 


24 Of. Cohen, l.c. 909. 

" 5 3. A., iv. 12, § 13-14, § 8 ; v. 9, §§ 7-11. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 177 


was settled, and measures taken for the defence of Italy 
and Illyricum. The emperors then returned — to Aquileia, 
evidently. Then at length Marcus yielded to his 
colleague’s entreaties, and the return to Rome was 
commenced. On the way Verus died at Altinum. 
These events are to be spread (from the great invasion 
to the death of Verus) over the period 166-169. 

The year 166, the year of the Oriental triumph, is 
marked by the great simultaneous invasion of the 
Danube provinces, and in its later months we may date 
the siege of Aquileia and the sack of Opitergium, 
which are known from other authorities. 26 The demora- 
lization caused by the famine, the plague, and the 
financial crisis greatly delayed all government measures, 
and it was not until the autumn of 167 that the 
emperors set out. In the meantime, however, the coins 
attest at least one victory, won by the generals on the 
spot. This victory gained the salutation IMP. V, from 
the soldiers, but it was not officially adopted, though it 
is without authority employed in inscriptions of this 
date. The emperors left Rome and advanced as far as 
Aquileia, the barbarians retiring before them. When 
Aquileia was reached the campaigning season must have 
been already over, and the winter was spent in that town. 
The victory over the barbarians seemed sufficiently 
decisive, and the title IMP. V. was definitely assumed by 


26 See Mo mm sen, Prov ., p. 210. Amm. Marcell, XXIX. vi. 1, 
“ . . . obsessaqT.ee ab iisdem (Quadis) ac Marcomannis Aqmleja, 
OjpitCT giumque excisum , et cruenta complura peiccleri acta procinctu : 
mx Ubisfcnte peiTuptis Alpibus Juhis pnuupc. se?io . . . Marco.” 
Note, however, that Marcus is mentioned as if sole emperor. Lucian 
mentions the narrow escape of Aquileia, as if it occurred during the 
Marcomannic war, hut his chronology is very vague : Alex.> c. 48, eTra 
7]KQ\o6dT]cr6 ra xepi ’A Kvkrjlav yevofieva, kgcI 7] napa fxiKpbv rrjs irohecos akccffis. 



178 


NUMISMATIC OHKONICLE. 


both, emperors. Veras wished to regard the w r ar as 
finished, and to return to Rome. Commentators have 
been anxious to fit in a “ defeat ” of the prefect Furius 
Victorinus, which, according to Capitolinus, 27 made 
Verus anxious to return. But Capitolinus’ words are 
“ quod amissus esset Furius Victorinus , atque j jars exercitus 
iuteribset. . . .” The words used are quite general, and 
would suit at least as well deaths from plague as destruc- 
tion in war. If the plague was ravaging the army, 
Veras had good reason for desiring a speedy conclusion 
of hostilities. The loss of the prefect is mentioned in 
the Life of Marcus before the crossing of the Alps ; 
in the Life of Verus, 28 the reluctance of the younger 
emperor alone is mentioned, without any reference to its 
motive. But the narrative in the Life of Marcus is so 
clearly a patchwork that the order cannot he trusted ; 
and indeed the sequence of thought would be far better 
preserved if the passage referring to Furius Victorinus 
were taken out of its context, and the narrative made 
to run — “ Lucius was reluctant to go farther, since the 
barbarians were already [in winter 167-8] sending in 
their submission ; but Marcus distrusted them, and 
insisted on advancing beyond the Alps [in early spring 
168].” 29 The reference to the loss of Victorinus might 
then be associated with V eras’ second proposal to withdraw. 


27 H. A., iv. 14, § 5. 

28 M, y. 9, §§ 7-8. 

20 Ibid., iv. 14, §§ 4-8. The passage seems to read continuously thus : 
“ Lucitis tamen invitiia . . . veniampostidantes. Ma? cus antem fingerc 
barbaros . . . pertinebant” Then some reference to the second return 
to Aquileia seems to be wanted, parallel to that in JET. A., v. 9, § 10 ; 
then would foUow, as in the Life of Verus, an account of Verus’ 
motives in urging for a second time retreat. To this lost passage the 
reference to Victorinus may belong. Then in both narratives follow* the 
account of the actual return (H. A., iv. 14, § 7 ; v. 9, § 10 Jin.). 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 179 


Reluctantly, in the spring of 168, Verus accompanied 
liis brother across the Alps. There is no evidence of 
serious fighting, either in the literary authorities or in 
the coins. The word used by Capitolinus in both Lives 
to describe the operations of this year is “ componcre .” 30 
The year was spent in the much-needed resettlement 
of the affected provinces and the fortification of the 
frontier towns of Italy and Illyricum. 30 * 1 On the conclu- 
sion of the war (“hello composite”), the emperors returned 
— to Aquileia obviously, for the return to Rome is related 
separately. The coins of this year bear witness to the 
conquest of the barbarians, the triumph of Rome, and 
the return of peace and plenty. The winter was spent 
at Aquileia, and Verus now carried his proposal to return 
to Rome. The emperors started together, Verus had an 
apoplectic attack, lingered for three days, and died at 
Altinum, a few miles west of Aquileia, on January 23, 
169 p.c. 

The second of Marcus’ wars on the Danube, and the 
really important one, covers a period which practically 
coincides with his reign as sole emperor, between the 
death of Verus and the elevation of Commodus to the 
full powers and style of an Augustus. Its official name, 
as attested by inscriptions, and confirmed by coins, is, in 
its earlier stages, BeJlum Germanic urn , and in its later 
stages Bellum Genim u/eiini et Saymaticum. The literary 
authorities generally speak of Belhun Germanicum , or 
more loosely, Bellum Marcomannicnm . Their accounts 
are much confused, and only in Dio can we detect the 
faintest traces of a chronology. 

30 H. A., iv. 14, § 6 ; v. 9, § 10. 

30a Salonae was restored by detachments of the legions raided in 169 
v. G. I. L., iii. 1980 (170 P.c.). 



180 NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 

Marcus clearly did not regard the victory already 
gained as conclusive. There is no evidence of a triumph, 
nor do any coins occur with the recognized types referring 
to the “ pacification ” of a territory, such as commonly 
mark the termination of a war of any importance. The 
operations of 166-169 had served only to give a temporary 
relief from the immediate pressure of barbarian invasion, 
a mere breathing-space in which to prepare for a serious 
attempt to re-establish the Northern frontier. The fear- 
ful embarrassments of the government in 169, and the 
desperate shifts resorted to in order to raise the necessary 
troops, are reflected in the narrative of the Life. 31 The 
greater part of the year must have been spent in these 
measures, but the coinage of 169, subsequent to the 
death of Verus, clearly shows that before the end of the 
year the second Danubian war had commenced. The 
significance of the following coin is clear ; 32 

JE i. Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXIII. Head r., 
laureate. 

Hev. — COS. III. (upper margin) PROFECTIO AVG- 
(exergue) S. C. The emperor, bareheaded, 
wearing loric and pahidamentiuii , on horse- 
back r., holding spear in r. hand ; he is pre- 
ceded by a soldier wearing helmet, lorica, and 
boots, who walks r., looking back over his 
shoulder, and holds a spear in r. -hand ; and 
he is followed by a similar figure walking 
r. ; in the background to 1. are two more 
similar figures, merely indicated, one of 
whom bears a standard. 

This is a variety of the already familiar Profectio- type. 
The profectio is mentioned in the Life. 33 This coin, which 


31 H. A ., iv. 21, §§ 6-10. 

32 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A ., 500 ; Eckhel, vii. p. 58. 

33 H. A ., iv. 20, § 6 ; 21, § 3. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 181 


is shown, by the form of inscription to belong to the 
months succeeding the death of Verus, leaves no doubt 
that it took place before December, 169. But there is 
no trace of any warlike operations during this year. 
There are only two other fresh types of importance. 
The one is the type inscribed SALVTI AVG., to which 
reference has already been made. The health of Marcus 
was exceedingly feeble, and the sudden death of his 
colleague must have given rise to grave anxiety on 
behalf of the surviving emperor, and it is this anxiety 
which expresses itself in the appeal to the Health of the 
Emperor. 84 The other fresh type is as follows : — 

M. Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR P. XXIII. Head r., 
laureate. 

Bev. — COS. 111. Female figure wearing diadem, 

and IfjidTtov , standing 1., holding in 1. hand 
coniucopicic , and with r. hand supporting short 
rudder. 

This type is clearly one of Fortuna. It is not given 
by Cohen, 35 who has only a continuation of the type of 
last year inscribed FORT. red. The present type differs 
from it in that Fortune is represented standing instead 
of seated. The change is not significant, but it shows 
that the type is a fresh one, and embodies an appeal to 
the good Fortune of the surviving emperor. The old 
Fortuna Eedux had belonged to both ; the new type 
emphasizes the beginning of a new state of affairs. 


31 It is evident that anxiety about his own life led the empeior to 
hasten on the marriage of Lucilla with Pompeianus (H. A iv. 20, § 6). 
It was urgently necessary that in case of the emperor’s death some 
responsible person should be left as guardian of the youthful Caesar 
and regent of the Empire. The marriage was perhaps made the 
occasion of the Cumjiai mm celebrated on the coins bearing the legend 
LIBERAL. AVG. V, and the usual type (see Cohen, II. M . A., 412). 

35 Cohen, II; M. A. } 136, is the same type in the fohowing year 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 



182 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The coinage of 170 bears unmistakable testimony to 
a vigorous renewal of the war. Take first the following 
coin : 36 

M\ Obv — M. ANTON! NVS AVG. TR. P. XXI1II. Bust r, 
laureate, loricate, with ±)aludamentum on 1. 
shoulder. 

Rev. — COS. III. (upper margin) ADLOCVT. AVG. S. C. 

(exergue). Allocution scene : to the r. a 
platform, on which (a) the emperor wearing 
1 orica, yaludamentum, and boots, standing L, 
holding in 1. hand spear or sceptre, and ex- 
tending r. hand ; (b) another figure (the 

praetorian prefect) similarly attired, standing 
1 , holding spear in 1. hand ; off platform to 1. 
three soldiers with lorica and cloak standing 
r , each holding standaixl. 

This is the familiar group which regularly announces 
(as on Trajan’s Column) the formal opening of a campaign. 
The next type takes us into the midst of the actual 
fighting. It is a fresh one, and fairly numerous in this 
year : 37 

M. Obv.— M. ANTON1NVS AVG. TR. P. XXIII!. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev . — COS. III. Female figure wearing helmet, x L ™ y i 
and aegis, advancing rapidly r., holding shield 
on 1. arm, and brandishing javelin with r. hand. 

There is no difficulty in the identification. The 
Capitoline goddess Minerva, one of the Three who 
watched over the fortunes of Home, has twice before 
appeared on the coins as the emperor’s patroness, once 
as the Peace-bringer, and once simply standing in repose 
with her shield lowered and the owl on her hand. Here 


36 Cf. Cohen, II. M . A ., 1. 

37 Not in Cohen; described from specimen at Berlin. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 183 


the warrior goddess is fighting the emperor’s battles. 
Minerva Bellatrix we may appropriately call the type 
in distinction from Minerva Pacifera. The results of 
the fighting are indicated by a group of Victory-types. 
Besides the common types of Victory bearing a palm- 
branch and wreath, 38 and Mars (Pater) bearing a trophy, 39 
there is a numerous issue of coins with a new form of 
Victory-type as follow^ : 40 

-dl* Rev . — VI CT. AVG. COS. 111. Victory, wearing diadem 
and advancing 1., holding in r. hand 

wreath, and over 1. shoulder trophy. 

There is also a Roma type for this year 41 — 

AX. Rev . — COS III. Female figure in helmet, x tT0 ^ and 
IfxdrLov , seated L, holdingjm 1. hand sceptre, 
and laying r.liand oi^^^wTresting on ground — 

but it does not exhibit any direct 4W us i° n to the war. 
Nor are there any other fresh types of this year having 
any such reference. The Profeetlo f coins are probably 
mere repetitions of those of the previous year. 42 

In the coinage of this year, therefore, we have a com- 
plete record of the beginning, progress, and close of a 
successful campaign. Yet no imperatorial title appears. 
Clearly the successes won were not regarded as decisive, 
and the emperor refused to allow thorn to be celebrated 
by a new «s alutatio. 

The sixth salutatio appears during fihe next year. This, 


38 Not in Cohen. 

30 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 910. 

40 Cf. find., II. M. A., 980; Eckhel, vii. p\ 39; the other Victory- 
type, Cohen, 138, may he simply repeated from the previous year. 

41 Cf. Ibid., II. M. A., 181. 

42 See Ibid., II, M. A., 502. There seems ito be something wrong 
about No. 501, which gives Marcus a companio n- 

o 2 



184 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


the twenty-fifth tribnnician year of Marcus, and the 
eleventh year of his reign, is marked by a very large 
issue of coins celebrating the DccenuuUa.^ These coins, 
numbering in the Berlin Collection 22 out of a total for 
the year of 56, bear (most, if not all) the obverse in- 
scription IMP. M. ANTONIN VS AVG., and no impemtorial 
inscription on the reverse. Strictly, therefore, they 
supply no evidence as to the number of the impemtorial 
title, but in all probability they belong to the period 
before the assumption of IMP. VI. Allowance must be 
made for This large exceptional issue, in attempting to 
approximate to the date of the change from tho pro- 
portions of tna coins. The proportions, for 
Collection, are as follows : — ^ 

Without 49 ) r . 

With IMP. Vl^^ .... 7f ,b 

Even after making the necessary allowance, it is clear 
that the new title vas assumed late in the year. This 
points to a long campaign occupying practically the 
whole year. This time we are not left without an 
explanation of the title (as was the case with IMP. V.), 
for in this year appears a type closely parallel to those 
which commemorafed the Oriental victories of earlier 
years : u 

M\ Obv.— M. ANT0N1NVS AVG. TR. P. XXV. Head r., 
laureji>te. 

Bev . — IMP. VI. COS. 111. S. C. Victory, nude to waist, 
wearing diadem and x^twv, standing r., sup- 
porting with 1. hand shield resting °on palm- 

tree : the shield is inscribed V,C ' 

GER. 

43 See Cohen, II. Hf -I., 1080 sqq., 491 sqq. ; Eckhel, vii. p. 59 
41 Cf. Cohen, II. M- -4., 267 ; Eckhel, vii. p. 59. 



UANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 185 


The new sahitatio, therefore, is given, quite definitely, 
in consideration of a victory over the G-ermans. Another 
fresh Victory-type which appears along with IMP. VI. is 
a slight variation of a common form : 45 

At. Rev . — IMP. VI. COS. III. Victory wearing diadem and 
Xltwv, seated 1., holding in 1. hand palm, in r. 
hand wreath or patera. 

The remaining types of the year occur without IMP. VI. 
The majority of these are repeated from 170, but at 
least one new Victory-type appears before the sixth 
scilutatio : 46 

M. OliiK— M. ANTON INVS AVG. TR. P. XXV. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev , — COS. III. Female figure in helmet and x LT wv, 
seated 1. on lorica, 1. foot resting on an object 
which may be only a footstool, holding in 1. 
hand spear, in r. hand Victory. 

The figure evidently represents Home, but the type 
differs from the Home of 170. The military character 
is here much more definite, and the introduction of the 
figure of Victory justifies us in calling the type Eoma 
Victrix, though it is not identical with the similar types 
of 1G5 and 169. Possibly the coin was struck to com- 
memorate some incidental success in the campaign of 
171. It is at any rate a fresh type, and it is fairly 
numerous, for if we leave out of account the coin of the 
Dccennalia, the Eoma Victrix coins are in the proportion 
of of the total number of coins for the first part of 
171 in the Berlin Collection. The other Victory-types, 


* 15 Not in Cohen. 

ib Cohen, II. M. A., 279, seems to describe this type with the legend 
|MP. VI. ; I know it only without the imperatorial title. 



186 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


representing Victory bearing a trophy/ 7 Victory walking, 
with palm and wreath/ 8 and the type of Mars (Pater) 
bearing a trophy/ 9 are repeated from the previous year, 
as is also that of Minerva Bellatrix. 60 But another of 
the Oapitoline Triad, and a greater than Minerva, appears 
on a fairly numerous issue of coins for this part of 171 : 61 

JE\ Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. JR. P. XXV. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev. — COS. III. S. C. Jupiter, nude to waist, cloak 
hanging at back from shoulders and falling 
over knees, seated 1. with feet on footstool, 
holding in 1. hand sceptre, in r. hand fu/men. 

This is the familiar representation of the great god of 
the Capitol. He is not yet drawn, like Minerva, into the 
combat itself, though two years later we shall find him 
there. The present type is in conception like that of 
the Minerva of 168, a simple appeal to the majesty of 
the god who is the protector of Eome. 

The two years 170-171, then, have been occupied with 
practically continuous fighting against German tribes, 
concluding’ victoriously at the close of 171. The year 
172 shows no fresh salutation, though it has a consider- 
able crop of coins having reference to a victory. I will 
give a list of these at once, and attempt to ascertain 
from them the general character of the fighting during 
this year. The three forms of Victory-type, 62 the Boma 


47 Cf. Coken, II. M. A., 983 

48 Cf. Ibid., l.c. 260. 

49 Cf. Ibid., II. l, c . 126. 

90 Not In Cohen, but three examples at Berlin 
" Ot Cohen, II. M. A., 113. 

found ^ se ated Victory is also 

found, although not given by Cohen, y m 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 187 


Victrix, 53 and the trophy-bearing Mars 54 which are 
repeated from 171, may be passed over. Then we have 
two more Mars coins. The first I describe from a 
specimen at Berlin : 55 

JR. Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev. — imp. VI. COS. 111. Warrior in helmet, lorica, short 
cloak, and boots, standing r., holding in r. hand 
spear with point downwards, and laying 1. hand 
on shield. 

This is the same type which I have discussed among 
the coins of 164-165, and identified as MarsUltor resting 
at the close of a successful war. The other I have not 
seen, but transcribe from Cohen : 50 

M\ Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. Bust r., 
laureate. 

Jtrv. — MARTI VICTORI IMP. VI. COS. III. S. C. Mars 
standing r., half nude, holding shield resting 
on captive (?), with inscription S. C. and spear. 

This is an entirely new type, differing indeed but little 
from the previous one, but sufficiently explained by the 
inscription. Then we have a new Roma type : 

M\ Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev. — imp. VI. COS. III. S. C. Female figure in helmet, 
ytroiv and Ifxdriov , seated 1. on lorica, holding in 
r. hand spear or sceptre, 1. arm resting on 
round shield, which rests on two other shields, 
one round and one hexagonal. 

This type does not seem to be given in Cohen, but it is 


63 See Cohen, lx. 280 ; this type is, however, not quite identical. 

54 Sec Ibid., Lc. 913. 

fi5 Of. Ibid., II. M. A 290. 

fifl Ibid , II. M. A. r 481, 



188 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


fairly common among the coins at Berlin, and is clearly 
to be distinguished from the Roma Yictrix of last year. 
The figure of Victory is not here present, but the idea 
of conquest is sufficiently conveyed by making Rome sit 
upon a pile of arms — the spoils of the barbarians. 

In addition to these, the coins of this year include a 
new type introducing the figure of Victory, but of a 
different character from the simple Victory-types of 
last year. I describe a fine gold coin in the British 
Museum : 57 

A7. Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. Bust r., lau- 
reate, loricate, paludate. 

Rev . — IMP. VI. COS. ill. The emperor, wearing lorica 
and boots, standing L, holding in r, hand 
fnl men, in 1. hand upright spear (which passes 
through small ball); behind him Victory ad- 
vancing 1., holding palm-branch in 1. hand, and 
with r. hand placing wie.ith on emperor’s head. 

This type represents the Victory who commonly appears 
on the coins with her palm and wreath, laying the 
wreath on the head of the victorious emperor. He holds 
the fulmen, the proper attribute of Jupiter. We may 
compare the relief on the Arch of Trajan at Beneventuni, 
where the returning emperor is greeted by the god of 
the Capitol, who offers him the fuhnen. 

.Finally, we have another type recalling those of the 
Oriental campaigns, and defining more closely the effect 
of the successes in war celebrated on the other coins. I 
describe the type after Cohen : 5S 

M\ 05*;.— M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. Head r., 
laureate. 

57 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 308. 

56 IM., II. M. A., 215 sq. Eckhel (vii. p. 60) gives this type 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 189 

Rev. — GERMANIA SVBACTA IMP. VI. COS. III. S. C. 

Germany, weeping, seated 1. at foot of trophy, 
surrounded by shields. 

The year, as I have said, is without a fresh suhiUitfo. 
There was evidently some fighting; the question is as 
to its character. It must have been one of two things: 
either the first stage of a fresh war, successful but so 
far inconclusive, or. the guerilla warfare winding up 
and completing the operations of 170-1. The series of 
types I have described hardly leave the question in 
doubt as between these two alternatives. It is no 
incidental, indecisive success that these types celebrate, 
but an achieved conquest. The Mars Ultor type, in 
point of fact, gives the key to the character of this 
year’s operations. The resting Stars last occurred in 
101-5, during the year succeeding the Armenian victory 
and preceding the first Parthian victory — the period of 
the “ pacification ” of Armenia. The year 172 is similarly 
spent in the “ pacification ” of Marcomannia, or “ Ger- 
mania ” The position is indeed closely similar ; it is the 
conclusion of a war complete in itself, but at the same 
time forming a stage in a larger whole. All the fresh 
types of the year are clearly suitable to the conclusion 
of an important series of operations, and the result of the 
whole is expressed in the coin representing the weeping 
Germany; Germany is not merely “ vieta” but 
“ subaeta 

This is confirmed by the evidence of inscriptions, 
which give to the emperor the title of Germanicus from 
this year on. G8a It is true that the coins do not exhibit 


See, e.g., G. I. L., iii. 1450. DIVO VERO PARTH. MAX. 
FRATRI | IMP. CAESARIS M. AVREL1 ANTON1N1 AVG. | 
ARMENIAC. MEDIC. GERM. PARTHIC. MAX, | TRIBVNlC. 



190 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


this title in their inscrip lions until the next year, but 
there is no real conflict, as will appear from the character 
of the coins in question. There are only two such coins, 
and in each case the title occurs only on the reverse. 
As they are probably to be associated with events of the 
current year 172, I will give them at once. The first is 
a medallion of Marcus and Commodus : 59 

Obv . — M. ANTON1NVS AVG. TR.‘ P. XXVII. Bust i\, 
laureate and loricate. 

Rev . — COMMODVS CAESAR GERM. ANTONINI AVG. 

GERM. FIL. Youthful bust i\, loricate and 
paludate. 

Here the title seems to be introduced merely for the 
sake of Commodus. The other is a bronze coin, examples 
of which are fairly numerous : 60 

Obv . — M. ANTON1NVS AVG. TR. P. XXVII. Head i\, 
laureate. 

Rev . — GERMAN ICO AVG. IMP. VI. COS. III. S. C. (exergue). 

Trophy; at base three shields, two hexagonal, 
leaning against trophy on r. and 1. respectively ; 
the third round, at the back of the trophy ; to r., 
German captive, male, with slight cloak over 1. 
shoulder, standing r. with hands behind back ; to 
1. German captive woman, nude, seated 1. on one 
of the hexagonal shields, in attitude of grief. 


POTESTATIS XXVI. IMP. V- (sic') P. P. | COS. III. PROCOS. | 
COLONIA VLP1A TRAIAN. AVG. DAC. | SARMIZEGETVSA. 
The titles are used in a somewhat erratic manner, but the inscription 
is evidence of the use of the title Germanicus in this year. IMP. V. 
is a misprint ” PROCOS. shows that the emperor was on the 
Danube. The Life of Commodus relates that the title Geriaanhus was 
assumed on October 15, 172 ; v. H. A., VII. xi. 14. 

50 Of. Cohen, II. M. A. et Comm., 2, cf. 1, 3, 4. Eckhel (vii. p. 59) 
gives this medal for 172, as well as for 173 (p. 60). 

60 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 227. Eckhel (vii. p. 59) gives this coin for 172, 
as well as for 173 (p. 60). 



DANUI3IAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 191 


Tlie type is clearly akin to the Germania Subacta of 
172, and like it recalls types of the Oriental war. It 
seems, therefore, almost certain that its reference is to 
the “subjugation of Germany” celebrated in the coins 
this year. It is obviously intended to explain the 
assumption of the title Germanicus, just as the analo- 
gous type was used to justify the title Armeniacus. So 
far as it goes, therefore, it tends slightly to confirm the 
inscriptions, rather than to contradict them. But these 
exceptional coins are sufficient to show that for some 
reason or other the title Germanicus was not officially 
adopted into the regular style of the emperor on the 
coins. In 174, again, it never appears on the coins, so 
that the fact of its absence in 172 proves nothing. We 
can, therefore, accept without misgiving the evidence of 
inscriptions as to the assumption of the title Germanicus 
in the present year. This, combined with the evidence 
of the coins, enables us to form a fairly clear idea of the 
state of affairs. The years 171-172 are occupied with 
a continuous war, compact and complete in itself, con- 
sisting of a sucessful but inconclusive campaign followed 
immediately by a second and decisive campaign, and 
a year given to the “ pacification ” of the enemy's 
territory. The name of the war, as we should gather 
it from the coins, would be “ Bell am Germanicum” Can 
the area of the war be fixed, and can it be identified with 
any of the events chronicled in the literary authorities ? 
The assumption of the title Germanicus gives the clue. 
Dio G1 records it in immediate connexion with his 
account of the defeat of the Marcomanni, which is the 


01 Djpit. Dion. C&SS., lxxi. 3. ruv Se Mapito/bbdvcov ebrv^cra.vrcav, k.t.A. 
. , . Kpardjcras Se avrtay, Tep/naviKbs uuD/j-dardy]. Tep/uavovs yhp robs rots 
dvoo x^piois otKQvvras ovop.d^Ofiev. 



192 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


first episode in his account of the war. The Life 02 is 
innocent of chronology, but when it makes a distinction 
between the general successes of the emperor “ contra 
Ger memos” and the “ sped ale helium Met rcomcuui team ” 
the war meant in the original source may have been 
this three years’ war. Elsewhere this writer speaks of 
“ Germauicum ct Mat com<nnt/'cum helium ” 03 or of “ helium 
Genua uteuni she Marcomanuicum ? 64 It seems very 
probable that this war, the most critical and important 
stage of the great conflict on the Danube, has over- 
shadowed the rest of the operations in the historical 
records, and its name has come to be used in a loose and 
general sense. It is the only war of this period in 
Eutropius, 05 who speaks of a war waged against the 
Marcomanni from Carnuntum as a base, for three years 
continuously. The jucjc triennium is 170-172. It would 
appear, however, that the fighting was not all on the 
one line, for Fronto is recorded 00 to have fallen in 170 
fighting against the Germans and Iazyges, and opera- 
tions in that region might be suggested by the Dacian 
inscription quoted above, which at any rate shows that 
the Dacian provinces were clear of the enemy as far north 
as Sarmizegethusa in 172. Probably a parallel advance 
through the territory of the Iazyges protected the rig] it 

G2 JET. A., iv. 17, §§ 1-2. 

C3 Ibid., iv. 21, § 8. 

04 Ibid , iv. 22, § 7. 

65 Eutrop. JEpit., viii., 13. 

00 C. I. vi. 1377. M. CLAVDIO F. Q. FRONTONI . . . 
AVCTORE(M) IMPERATORE(M) AVRELIO ANTONINO AVG. 
ARMENIACO MEDICO PARTHICO MAXIMO QVOD POST 
AUQVOT SECVNDA PROELIA ADVERSVM GERMANOS ET 
IAZYGES AD POSTREMVM PRO. R. P. FORTITER PVGNANS 
CECIDER1T. . . . The date of his death is deduced from C.I. L ., 
iii. 7505, from which it appears that Cornelius Clemens succeeded him 
as governor of Dacia in 170, 



DANUBIAN W All IS OF MA110US ANTONINUS. 193 


Hank of the main advance against the Marcomanni and 
their immediate allies. In this case the Iazygian cam- 
paign which in Dio 67 follows the Marcomannic, and 
is mentioned in the same sentence with it where the 
results of the war are summed up to the commencement 
of the campaign cm rove kuXo / uivove KovaSove, 68 be- 
comes an integral part of the Marcomannic War. 

If this view of the nature of the three years’ war 
be correct, it might be possible to suppose that the 
victory over the Marcomanni in ipso transitu JDanuvii 
recorded in the Life 09 is the same incident as that 
recorded with more precision by Dio 70 as a victory won 
over the Iazyges on the frozen river. Eckhel 71 saw a 
memorial of the victory “ at the crossing of the Danube ” 
in the following coin of 172, which I transcribe from 
Cohen : 

M. Obv.—U . ANTON IN VS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. Head r., 
laureate and paludato. 

Bcv.—y 1RTVS AVG. (exergue) IMP. VI. COS. III. 

(margin) S. C. r lhe emperor crossing the 
Danube bridge 1., followed by five soldiers, 
the first and the third bearing .standards, the 
fourth on horseback holding spear, the fifth 
on foot holding spear; beneath the bridge 
three boats. 

If Eckhel’s attribution is right, the identification sug- 
gested above is of course untenable. But I incline 
rather to give a more general significance to the Virtus 
type. It would hardly suggest, in itself, a particular 
victory won “ in ipso transitu DamicH.” It seems more 

07 Epit, Dion. Cass., Ixxi. 7. 

1)8 Ibid., Ixxi. 8 ad init. 

60 J5T. A., iv. 21, § 10. 

70 Epit. Dion. Cass., Ixxi. 7. 

71 Eckhel, vii. p. 60; cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 999, 1C00. 



194 


NUMISMATIC CIIKONICLK. 


natural to find in it a summary of the achievements of 
the war. The Valour of the Emperor has made the 
Danube a Roman stream. The river no longer sets a 
bound to the power of the empire. Trajan’s Danube 
bridge was the prelude to the annexation of Dacia, so 
Marcus’ Danube bridge symbolizes the establishment of 
Roman power in Marcomannia, and points, in fact, in the 
direction of the full annexation , which the emperor 
contemplated later. 

There remains one important type of 172 relating to 
the war which has not yet been discussed. I describe 
after Cohen a large bronze medallion of this year : 72 

Olv . — IMP. CAES. M. ANTON INVS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. 

COS. III. Bust r., laureate, loricate, and palu- 
date. 

Rev. — ADLOCVTIO (exergue). The emperor ]., with 
prcief. praet. and another, addressing five soldiers 
with standard and eagles. 

The Allocutio usually marks the opening of a campaign. 
Such may be its intention here. Yet the character of 
this closing campaign was probably too informal and 
irregular to make this quite plausible. Were it not for 
the overwhelming evidence already produced which 
goes to show that this year’s campaign closed a war, the 
type would strongly have suggested the opening of a 
new war. It may indeed mark the opening of the new 
war entered upon in 173, if we can suppose that the 
movement of troops from Carnuntum to the new base 
took place before the winter. But the Allocutio is not 
absolutely confined to the opening of a campaign. It 


72 Cohen, II. M. A., 2. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 195 

is used at least once on Trajan’s Column to mark the 
close of a campaign. In association with the numerous 
types of this year commemorating the completion of the 
war, the present type may quite probably be meant to 
mark in a solemn and formal way the conclusion of 
what was clearly regarded as a very critical and decisive 
conflict. This is perhaps the best way of regarding this . 
medallion. Otherwise it might be possible to bring it 
into some connexion with another type, very similar in 
form to the AUucitt/o which occurs on large bronze coins 
of this year : 73 

M\ Obv. — M. ANTON1NVS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. Head r., 
laureate. 

Mcv. — PROVIDENT! A AVG. (exergue) IMP. VI. COS. III. 

(margin) S. C. To r. of field, platform, on 
which emperor wearing lorica and boots, stand- 
ing 1., holding baton in r. hand , and another 
figure, behind him, similarly attired, standing 
1. ; to 1., off platform, four soldiors, of whom 
the one nearest to the platform stands 1., hold- 
ing standard in r. hand and wearing shield on 
1. arm ; the next stands r., holding spear in r. 
hand; tho third stands r., somewhat in the 
background, holding a spear or a standard ; 
and tho fourth stands r., holding horse’s head 
by the bridle. 

Cohen, with much probability, regards this scene as 
commemorating the presentation of Commodus to the 
army. The emperor “ provides for ” the succession. 

Before leaving this triennium I must pause to consider 
certain types which I passed by in tracing the course of 
the war. There are two companion types of 171 which 


73 Of. Cohen, II. M. A. y 529, and note ad loc . 



196 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


I describe ; the first from a coin in the British Museum, 
the second from one at Berlin : 7i 

Obv . — IMP. M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXV. Hoad 
r., laureate. 

Rev . — CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM (margin) COS. III. 

(exergue) S. C. Female figure wearing dia- 
dem, x</7 w, and l/mrtov, standing L, holding 
military standard in each hand. 

Obv . — IMP. M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXV. Head 
r., laureate. 

Rev. — FI DES EXERCITVVM (margin) COS. III. (ex- 
ergue) S. C- Female figure wearing diadem, 
Xircov, and Ifianov, standing 1., holding in r. 
hand Victory, and supporting with 1. hand 
military standard. 

Both these coins belong to the earlier part of the year, 
before the victorious close of the campaign. In the 
trying circumstances of the time, before the success of 
the war was assured by the victory of 171, the “ harmony ” 
and loyalty ” of the troops must have been a matter of 
great anxiety, and this may be sufficient to account for 
the types. But one is inclined to seek some more 
definite ground for the appearance of so marked a pair 
°f types at this particular point in the war. It is 
certainly a curious coincidence that among the new 
troops raised tor this war was the Legio III Concordia. 
The companion legion raised at the same time was the 
Legio II Ria , 75 This legion, however, is known to have 


74 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A 66, 199. 

,5 Both are mentioned in 0. 1. L ., iii. 1980, an inscription found at 
Salonae, and dated TR. POT. XXIIII. C. I. L. f iii. 5187, gives the 
second legion the titles PI A FI DELIS. (211 p.c.). 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 197 

borne, in the time of Caracalla, the full title Legio II 
Pia Fidelib. These new troops would he those for whose 
“ loyalty ” and “ harmony ” most anxiety would be felt, 
and this might well be indicated in their names, and 
reflected in a series of coins struck specially in their 
honour. Unfortunately, however, there is no evidence 
of the Second Legion having borne at this time the 
title Fidelia , and if this is not so, the coincidence loses 
much of its force. Moreover, the two legions were raised 
in 169, so that this hypothesis is not a very good one 
to explain the appearance of the Concordia and Fides 
types in 171. I incline to a different explanation. It 
seems natural to suppose that the types would be called 
for by some quite special strain upon the good behaviour 
of the army at that particular time. The types are, in 
fact, frequently used at times when there is dissension 
and disloyalty among the troops, as an appeal, one might 
say, to their abstract “ fidelity ” and “ harmony ” against 
temporary aberrations. Just as Sains types appear during 
a time of plague, so Fides and Concordia types occur in 
times of revolution. The types of Fides Militum and 
Fides Ej.crcituiuib 76 are particularly common on the coins 
of three out of four of the rival emperors of 69-70 p.c. 
Fides and Concordia coins occur again during the present 
reign at the time of the revolt of A vidius Cassius. 77 
There is a further coincidence; these coins of 175 are 
followed in 176 by dementia coins, 78 celebrating the 
emperors mercy to his conquered enemies. So in the 
present case, after the Fides and Concordia of 171, 


7G See Gohen, I. Galba , 69; Tddliu s, 30 S£2-> 37; Vcbjjasieu, 
159 sqq. 

77 See Cohen, II. M . A., 60, 337. 

78 See ibid., II. M. A., 28. 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. R 



198 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


comes the following coin of 172 (described after 
Cohen) : 79 

M\ OU.— M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVI. Head of 
emperor r., laureate. 

JRev . — CLEMENTIA AVG. IMP. V. COS. 111. S. C. Em- 
peror in toga, standing, bolding spear, resting r. 
elbow on shield ; before him, half-nude figure. 

The combination seems to me irresistible evidence of a 
revolt or serious disturbance in some part of the empire 
about this time. It is quite likely that such a time, 
just after the death of the emperor Verus, when his 
surviving colleague, reputed to be no soldier, was 
embarrassed and almost overwhelmed by the combined 
weight of famine, pest, and a dangerous war, should have 
been chosen by a disloyal governor for an attempt at 
revolt. That other revolts besides that of Cassius took 
place is certainly to be expected, and indeed we are 
accidentally in possession of some slight presumptive 
evidence for one. On two JYumidian inscriptions 80 of 
167 the name of the governor who set them up is erased. 
This looks like a case of memorai damnata. Some one, 
therefore, who governed Numidia in 167 was probably 
involved in treason at a later date. It cannot be Cassius 
himself, for at that date he had just entered upon his 
government of Syria. It might of course be some 
governor who supported him, but it might equally well 
be a person who independently rose in revolt against 
the emperor. And there is no reason why this revolt 
may not have taken place in 170-172, and be the very 


70 Cohen, II. M. A., 27, 

80 C. I. I/., yin. 4208 and 4593, both dated to Marcus’ twenty-first 
tribunician year. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 199 


one we have suspected from tlie coins. I do not lay 
stress on this very conjectural identification, but the 
epigraphic evidence shows at least the possibility of a 
revolt unnoticed by the historians, and the evidence of 
the coins seems to be all but conclusive for a sedition of 
some kind between 170 and 172. 

C. Harold Dodd. 

(To he continued.) 



VIII. 


TABLES OE BULLION GOINED UNDER 
EDWARD I, II, AND III. 

The following tables were drawn up by the late Mr. 
Arthur Hughes and ourselves from the enrolled accounts 
of the Warden of the Mint at the Public Record Office, 
for the purpose of showing the actual quantities of 
pence, halfpence, and farthings coined in each year of 
Edward I, II, and III . 1 

The tables are three in number. The first relates to 
the silver coinage issued from the Mint of London ; the 
second to the silver coinage issued from the Mint of 
Canterbury and the less important provincial mints ; 
the third deals with the gold coined at London and 
Calais. As far as the silver is concerned it will be 
sufficient to describe in full the tables dealing with 
the Mint of London ; in the other tables most of the 
columns are only repetition. 

The table showing the silver coined in London 
consists of ten columns. The first contains the reference 
to the membrane of the Pipe or Foreign Roll containing 
the account described ; the second and third columns 
show the period over which the account extends and 


1 Since these tables were prepared about twelve years ago, some of 
the items have been published by Messrs. Eox in the Brit. Num. 
Join nal , but it still seems worth while to print them m extenso. 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, III. 201 

the name of the warden or other accountant. The 
fourth column gives the amount of bullion received by 
the mint; this sum is reckoned in pounds, shillings, 
and pence, weight ; and up to June 2, 1349, it 
is the weight of silver actually received without any 
allowance for variations in standard. The fifth column 
shows the total poundage charged to cover mintage, 
seignorage, etc. The sixth column contains the amounts 
of coin issued from the mint, reckoned in weight of the 
legal standard. The seventh column gives the rate per 
pound charged on this output for mintage, reckoned in 
pence tale; the eighth shows the seignorage charged 
on each pound of bullion received into the mint, 
reckoned in pence weight ; and the ninth gives the 
number of pence tale into which the pound weight was 
coined on the average during the period in question. 
The names of the wardens, when English, are left as 
they appear on the roll, but an attempt has been made 
to put Italian names into a more presentable form than 
that in which they appear there. 

The varying form of account employed has not 
enabled all these columns to be filled up; it would 
often be possible to do this by inference or from some 
other source, but as it was found that the results of 
different methods were not always in agreement, it has 
been thought best to adhere to the one authority and 
avoid conjecture. A brief description of the varying 
forms of account employed is here appended as an 
additional illustration of the table. 

From 1272 to 1278 the warden debits himself with 
the seignorage and with the increment on this needed 
to convert it from weight to tale; and credits himself 
with miscellaneous wages and expenses. 



202 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


From April 29, 1279, he debits himself with a 
sum made up of the mintage, seignorage, and an extra 
sum of 3 d., all reckoned in tale ; and credits himself 
with the mintage due to the master moneyer. A 
difference is made between the charges on English 
silver and silver from abroad, described as coming from 
Bruges, G-hent, or Brussels, or as Baudekin silver ; and 
the mintage on farthings differs from that on pence 
coined. 

On February 24, 1281, the extra charge of 3 cl. was 
surrendered ; the total deduction is then reckoned in 
weight and an increment of 8 d. in the pound taken on 
it to convert it into tale. 

On the 18th of April following the first system, by 
which the warden debits himself with the seignorage 
only, comes again into force and continues until 
May 28, 1285. 

From that date the warden once more debits himself 
with the total deduction reckoned in weight and credits 
himself with the mintage. This method then continues 
without change through the remainder of the table. 

One more change must be noticed. Up to May 8, 
1335, the bullion received into the mint — as has been 
said — was reckoned in weight as received, whatever 
the fineness of it might be. From that date the amount 
received is noted in the same way, but a note is also 
made of the amount of alloy added and the total 
deduction is charged upon that also. From June 2, 
1349, the amount received is always the same as the 
amount coined, and both are reckoned in weight at the 
English standard. 

In the table dealing with the gold coinage the same 
columns are employed as in the silver tables with the 



TABLES OP BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, III. 203 

exception that, as the amount coined is always the same 
as the amount received, it was not necessary to fill up 
both columns. Both are always reckoned in weight of 
pure gold ; the accounts give the weight of the gold 
before it was refined, but it has not been thought need- 
ful to give this. The total deduction and mintages are 
in money of account not in weight of gold. 

C. G. Crump, 

C. Johnson. 



204 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 


Ta 


SILVE] 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion pm chased. 

P. 1 Edw. I, 7 

20 Nov., 1272, to 
20 Nov., 1273 

Bartholemew de 
Castello 

£ s. d . 

6,544 1 7 

P. 2 Edw. I, 18 

20 Nov., 1273, to 
24 June, 1274 

■> 

10,230 1 11 

P. 3 Edw. I, 20 

25 June, 1274, to 
24 June, 1275 

- 

7,894 10 10 

P. 6 Edw. I, 28 

25 June, 1275, to 
29 Nov., 1278 

j) 

60,161 9 9 

P. 15 Edw. 1,3 

28 April, 1279, to 
20 Nov., 1279 

Gregory de Rokesle 
and Orlandino di 
Poggio 

83,107 11 8 E.S. 
10,225 16 4 E.S. 

>i 

20 Nov., 1279, to 
1 Jan., 1280 

jj 

3,876 12 5 E.S. 

400 0 0 E.S. 
1,112 3 8 F.S. 
9,144 0 10 E.S. 

i) 

1 Jan., 1280, to 
18 May, 1280 

n 

4,930 0 0 E.S 
63,332 10 8 E.S. 
5,469 0 0 E.S. 

JJ 

18 May, 1280, to 
18 Oct., 1280 

| 


79,996 4 1 E.S. 
14,297 16 1 F.S. 


IS 

Ti 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. ^205 


I. 

LONDON. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

Seignor- 

Pence m lb. ! 

Remarks. 





age. 

age. 

£ 

s. 

d 


d. 

d. 

, 



— 



— 

6 

242 



— 




6 

242 



— 



— 

6 

242 



— 




6 

242 







d. d. 



92,688 

5 

9 

pence 

10 

6+3 

242| to 243 

E.S. is English Silver ; E.S. is 

— 


Lii things 

8 


Eoreign Silver. 

| 3,877 


0 

pence 

10 

6+3 

243 

The first two lots of bullion 

2 

8 


were purchased and coined 

}io,ooo 

0 

0 

pence 

8 

10 



while Master Albert was 
Master Moneyer ; the re- 
mainder during the adminis- 
tration of William de Turne- 








mire de’ Marcelli. The mint 








of Bury St. Edmunds is 
mentioned. 

10,399 

0 

0 

pence 

54 



243 

See Indenture with William 

35,961 

0 

0 

halfpence 

7" 



de Turnemire, loc. cit. The 

5,060 

0 

0 

farthings 

10 



account mentions the follow- 
ing provincial mints as at 
work under W. de Turne- 
mire, viz. Bristol and York. 
There are no accounts for 
these Provincial Mints be- 
cause W. de Turnemire had 
them to farm. 

14,861 

13 

7 

pence 



243 

The account mentions mints 

88,058 

6 

5 

pence 

7 



at work at Newcastle and 

2,690 

0 

0 

halfpence 

9 



Lincoln. 

740 

0 

0 

farthings 

iii 




2,260 

0 

0 

farthings 

104 






206 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


SILVER- 


Reference. 

Date. ! 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 




£ s. 

d. 

d. 

P. 15 Edw. I, 3 

18 Oct., 1280, to 

Gregory de Rokesle 

29,321 5 

1 E.S. 

19 


24 Feb., 1281, 

and Orlandino di 

1,546 2 

8 F.S. 

174 


and 

Poggio 





24 Feb., 1281, to 


7,376 13 

1 E.S. 

16 


18 April, 1281 


2,902 9 

6 F.S 

144 


13 April, 1281, to 

}> 

14,582 18 

11 E.S 

— 


15 July, 1281 


15,887 2 

8 F.S. 



15 July, 1281, to 

Gregory de Rokesle 

4,726 16 

10 E.S. 



29 Sept., 1281 


5,329 11 

4 F.S. 


P. 15 Edw. I, 2 

30 Sept., 1281, to 


33,573 15 

0 E.S 




21 Oct., 1283 


44,443 1 

6* F.S. 



21 Oct., 1283, to 


11,359 17 

14 E.S. 



20 May, 1285 


26,222 4 

6" F.S 


P. 14 Edw. I, 4 

20 May, 1285, to 

) » 

29,106 19 

9 E.S. 

16 


15 Aug., 1286 


42,387 4 

0 F.S. 

14J 

3 J 

15 Aug., 1286, to 

33 

4,710 16 

11 E.S. 

16 


15 June,’ 1287 


41,551 17 

7 F.S. 

14; 

;j 

15 June, 1287, to 

33 

3,032 4 

84 E.S. 

16 


3 Nov., 1287 


19,532 13 

6 F.S. 

14i 

P. 16 Edw. I, 28 

3 Nov., 1287, to 

33 

3,813 14 

64 E.S. 

16 


3 Nov., 1288 


33,017 17 

ljF.S. 

14 

P. 18 Edw. I, 1 

3 Nov., 1288, to 

J, 

4,045 16 

54 E.S. 

16 


17 April, 1290 


11,555 1 

9" F.S. 

14, 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 207 
LONDON — conti n iu J. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in lb. 

Remarks. 

£ 

s. 

d. 


d. 

d 



f 4,592 18 

5 

pence 

54 


242J to 243 

The first four issues of coin 

J 25,883 

5 

8 

pence 

7 



run from 18 Oct., 1280, to 

1 860 

0 

0 

halfpence 

9 



Christmas, 1280 ; the last 

[ 2,230 

0 

0 

farthings 

lli 



three from Christmas to 

(12,S04 

0 

11 

pence 

64 



April. Provincial mints men- 

^ 225 

0 

0 

halfpence 

S4 



tioned are Chester, Lincoln, 

( 1,180 

0 

0 

farthings 

ioj 



Bristol, York, and Durham. 

29,960 

0 

0 

pence 



9 

243 

Account rendered “ deduct o 

2S0 

0 

0 

halfpence 

— 

94 


monetagio.” Provincial 

1,400 

0 

0 

farthings 




mints mentioned are Bristol, 








Lincoln, York, Newcastle, 








Durham, and Bury St. 








Edmunds. 

10,370 

0 

0 

pence 


94 

243 

The mint of Lincoln is men- 

960 

0 

0 

halfpence 


9 


tioned. 

690 

0 

0 

farthings 






— 




94 

243 

The following provincial mints 






9 


are mentioned . Lincoln, 








Durham, and Bury St. 








Edmunds. 


— 


pence 


10 

243 





halfpence 


9 






farthings 





28,467 19 

9 

pence 

6 


243 

In this account the alloy added 

42,387 

4 

0 

)> 

halfpence 

54 



is stated separately and 

490 

0 

0 

7| 



mintage charged on it. Bra- 

150 

0 

0 

farthings 




bant silver included with 

1,354 

11 

2 

alloy 

54 



English. 

42,890 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

New Indenture with Peter 

250 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 



Bertin de Turnemire lower- 

45 

0 

0 

farthings 

9| 



ing mintage on English 








silver to 5%d. 

25,910 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 


156 

0 

0 

halfpence 

7l 




168 

3 

9 

farthings 

9* 




36,690 

0 

0 

pence 

51 


243 


210 

0 

0 

halfpence 

n 




80 

0 

0 

farthings 

9 




15,780 

0 

0 

pence 

51 


243 


120 

0 

0 

halfpence 

7i 




445 

0 

0 

farthings 

9 






208 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 


SILVER — 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 




£ s. d. 

d. 

P. 18 Edw. 1, 1 

17 April, 1290, to 

Gregory de Rokesle 

282 7 1 E.S. 

16 


14 July, 1290 


4,598 4 8 E.S. 

14i 

P. 19 Edw. I, 55 

15 July, 1290, to 


957 8 0 E.S. 

16 


14 July, 1291 

* 

1,218 19 6 E.S. 

11J 

P. 27 Edw. I, 23 

2 Sept., 1291, to 

William de Wi- 

2,388 7 11 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1292 

mundham 

2,689 16 11 E.S. 

1U 


80 Sept., 1292, to 


928 16 7 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1298 


2,166 2 9 E.S. 

in 


80 Sept., 1298, to 


2,723 3 8 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1294 


1,020 6 8 E.S. 






3,953 13 7 F.S. 

Hi 


30 Sept., 1294, to 


3,772 18 3 E.S 

16 


29 Sept., 1295 


1,900 8 10 E.S. 

in 

3 J 

30 Sept., 1295, to 

it 

8,474 10 6 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1296 


1,145 11 2 F.S. 


33 

30 Sept., 1296, to 

,» 

388 18 8 E.S. 

16 


6 Nov., 1296 


729 10 3 E.S. 

HI 

P. 27 Edw. I, 24 

2 Deo., 1296, to 

Peter de Leicester 

4,664 10 5 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1297 


1,110 5 2 E.S. 

, — 




1,682 17 3 E.S. 

114 


30 Sept., 1297, to 


1,636 19 1 E.S 

16 


14 Oct., 1298 


405 2 9 E.S. 

11J 

P. 33 Edw. I, 44 

15 Oct., 1298, to 

John de Sandale 

687 12 0 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1299 


13,009 16 0 F.S. 

HI 



TABLES OE BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 209 

LONDON — continued. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

Seignor- 

Pence in lb. 

Remarks. 





age. 

age. 

£ 

s. 

d 


a. 




4,480 

0 

0 

pence 



243 


60 

0 

0 

halfpence 

n 




120 

0 

0 

farthings 

9 




1,670 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

Reduction of the total charge 

200 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 



on foreign silver to 114 dwt. 

530 

0 

0 

farthings 

9i 


- 

per lb. to cause foreign mer- 
chants to come to the mint 
as they had been used to do. 

4,200 

0 

0 

pence 

5i 


243 


90 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 




2,430 

0 

0 

pence 

5i 


243 


60 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 




50 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 




5,090 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

£1020 6s. 8$. clipped money 

1,210 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 



recoined without deduction. 

5,640 

0 

0 

pence 

5i 


243 


20 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 




970 

0 

0 

farthings 

H 




3,560 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 


280 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 




770 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 




380 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 


40 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 




5,410 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

The £1110 5s. 2d. was derived 

110 

0 

0 

halfpence 

7i 



from the King’s mines in 

760 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 



Devon. 

1,110 

180 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 


0 

0 

halfpence 

74 




720 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 




13,040 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

Crockards, pollards, &c., called 

250 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 



in by Ordinance of Stepney 








(15 May, 1299), but allowed 
to circulate up to Xmas, 
1299, after which date they 
were only to be received as 








halfpence. Up to 19 Feb., 
1300, the Mint of London 
purchased them as Foreign 








silver; after date as English. 



210 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


SILVER- 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 




£ s. d 

d 

P. 38 Edw. I, 44 

30 Sept., 1299, to 

John de Sandale 

1,250 8 • 2 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1300 


78,399 19 9 E.S. 

16 




29,944 13 10 E.S. 

1U 




1,900 0 0 


33 

30 Sept., 1300, to 


32,524 16 7 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1301 

• 

8,580 17 8 E.S. 

Hi 

53 

30 Sept., 1301, to 


6,360 4 7 E.S. 

10 


,29 Sept, 1302 


394 0 9 F.S. 

lli 

57 

30 Sept., 1302, to 


1,629 1 3 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1303 


3,922 10 4 E.S. 

1H 




383 6 S 

— 

P. 35 Edw. I, 25 

30 Sept , 1303, to 


936 10 5 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1304 


15,784 17 2 E.S. 

lli 

>3 

30 Sept., 1304, to 

33 

355 4 5 E.S. 

16 


30 April, 1305 


22,811 4 5 F.S. 

1U 

P. 1 Edw. II, 81 

1 May, 1305, to 

John de Everdon 

299 1 0 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1305 


45,395 8 11 F.S. 

lli 

33 

30 Sept., 1305, to 


1,463 19 4 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1306 


59,857 8 6 F.S. 

1H 

33 

30 Sept., 1306, to 

33 

1,304 9 2 E.S. 

16 


19 Sept., 1307 


85,018 18 1 E.S. 

Hi 

P. 2 Edw. II, 45 

19 Sept., 1307, to 

Amerigo de’ Erisco- 

881 5 2 E.S. 

16 


29 Sept., 1308 

baldi 

67,691 18 0 F.S. 

lli 

33 

30 Sept., 1308, to 

33 

1,156 0 0 E.S. 

16. 


29 Sept., 1309 


93,386 1 4 E.S. 

lli 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 211 


LONDON — continued. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- ! 
age. 

Seignor- 

age 

Pence in lb. 

Remarks 

£ 

s. 

a. 


d 




106,830 

0 

0 

pence 

5*j 


243 


1 190 

0 

0 

farblimgss 

91 




39,990 

0 

0 

pence 

51 


243 


370 

0 

0 

halfpence 

71 




1,269 

0 

0 

farthings 

91 




5,450 

0 

0 

pence 

51 


243 


1,580 

0 

0 

farthings 

91 




4,520 

0 

0 

pence 

5} 


243 


60 

0 

0 

halfpence 

71 




1,160 

0 

0 

farthings 

91 




15,540 

0 

0 

pence 

51 


243 

John Porcher, Master of the 

50 

0 

0 

halfpence 

71 



Mint, was imprisoned on 

1,440 

0 

0 

farthings 

1 91 



account of the magnitude of 
his debt to the king. Boni- 
face, his brother, succeeded 








him. 

22,L04 

0 

0 

pence 

51 


243 


30 

0 

0 

halfpence 

71 




1,220 

0 

0 

farthings 

9| 




46,897 

10 

4 

pence 



243 


90 

0 

0 

farthings 

9£ 




62,971 

5 

2 

pence 

H 


243 


40 

0 

0 

halfpence 

7£ 




1,150 

0 

0 

farthings 

9£ 




88,462 

17 

5 

pence 



243 


30 

0 

0 

halfpence 

71 




550 

0 

0 

farthings 

9* 




69,SS0 

0 

0 

pence 

5^ 


243 


820 

0 

0 

farthings 

91 




71,504 

6 

101 pence 

51 


243 


90 

0 

0 

halfpence 

71 


2451 to 246 


520 

0 

0 

farthings 

91 


244 1 ' to 2461 


25,125 

0 

0 

pence 

5| 



Indenture of 29 June with 

380 

0 

0 

farthings 

H 



John de Pontoise. 








The Friscobaldi expelled by 








the Lords Ordainers. Ac- 
count never rendered. 



212 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


SILVER — 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 9 Edw. II, 44 

9 Oct., 1311, to 
23 Oct., 1311 

John de Cocker- 
mouth. 

£ s. d, 

467 5 6 F.S. 

d. 

Ill 

5) 

23 Oct., 1311, to 
29 Sept., 1312 

John de Lincoln 

762 7 8 E.S. 
12,441 8 0 F.S. 

16 

111 

n 

30 Sept., 1312, to 
29 Sept., 1313 

33 

• 

317 9 8 E.S. 
6,862 13 2 F.S. 

16 

111 

jj 

30 Sept., 1313, to 
29 Sept., 1314 

jj 

491 15 8 E.S. 
29,487 2 0 F.S. 

16 

111 

jj 

30 Sept., 1314, to 
25 Eeb., 1315 

jj 

207 IS 6 E.S. 
3,760 0 4 E.S. 

16 

11| 

P 12 Edw. II, 33 

25 Feb., 1315, to 
30 Sept., 1315 

William Trente 

190 2 4 E.S. 
7,515 6 7 F.S. 

16 

111 

JJ 

1 Oct., 1315, to 
20 June, 1316 

jj 

226 6 6 E.S. 
517 9 6 E.S. 

16 

HI 

JJ 

21 June, 1316, to 
28 Sept., 1316 

J ohn de Cocker- 
mouth 

143 10 6 E.S. 
208 12 6 E.S. 

16 

111 

JJ 

29 Sept., 1316, to 
11 April, 1317 

« 

101 4 0 E.S. 
1,375 5 9 E.S. 

16 

Ilf 

P. 12 Edw. II, 33 d, 

11 April, 1317, to 
30 Sept., 1317 

Augustine le 
Waleys 

117 16 2 E.S. 
6,048 9 4 F.S. 

16 

HI 

>5 

1 Oct., 1317, to 
30 Sept., 1318 

jj 

240 8 8 E.S. 
12,663 13 10 E.S. 

16 

HI 


1 Oct., 1318, to 
30 Sept., 1319 


42 12 4 E.S. 

, 8,688 18 0 E.S. 

16 

111 

P. 13 Edw. II, 30 

1 Oct., 1319, to 

13 Aug., 1320 

?j 

35 18 4 E.S. 
8,016 4 6 F.S. 

16 

HI 

P. 16 Edw. II, 49 

14 Aug., 1320, to 
30 Sept., 1320 

William de Hau- 
stede 

431 19 0 E.S. 

111 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 213 


LONDON — continued. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in lb. Remarks. 

£ 

5 . 

d. 


d. 



468 

9 

n 

ponce 

54 


243 

13,160 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

397 

5 

11 

farthings 

94 


244 to 247 

7,032 

11 

3 

pence 

54 


243 

20 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


. 2434 

290 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


244 to 246 

30,245 

8 

2 

pence 

54 


243 

450 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


245 to 2454 

3,955 

14 

2i 

pence 

54 


243 

140 

0 

0 

farthings 

9| 


245 to 2454 

7,270 

18 

14 

pence 

54 


243 New Indenture with John 

40 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


247 Porcher. 

630 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


248 to 249 

269 

15 

54 

pence 

54 


243 

60 

0 

0 

La Up l nee 

74 


247 

440 

0 

0 

faitlungb 

94 


248 to 249 

173 

11 

3 

pence 

54 


243 

190 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


247 to 248 

1,100 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

50 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


242 to 2424 

350 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


242 to 246" 

5,856 

7 

8 

pence 

54 


243 

30 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


246 to 2464 

440 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


2474 to 250 

13,021 

16 

4 

pence 

54 


243 

130 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


247 

220 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


247 to 249 

8,621 

11 

9 

pence 

54 


243 

10 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


246 

310 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


247 to 2484 

8,060 18 

4 

pence 

54 


243 

20 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


246 

120 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


247 to 248 

409 

13 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

30 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


2444 to 245 


YOL. XIII., SERIES IV. Q 



214 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


SILVER— 


Reference. 

Bate. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 16 Edw. II, 49 

1 Oct., 1320, to 
30 Sept., 1321 

William de Hau- 
stede 

£ s. 

9,384 6 

d. 

5E.S. 

d. 

m 

P. 3 Ed. Ill, 38 d. 

7 Oct., 1322, to 
30 Sept., 1323 

Robert de Hasel- 
sbaw 

91 4 
907 18 

3 E.S. 
8E.S. 

16 

111 


1 Oct., 1323, to 
30 Sept., 1324 

• 99 

6 2 
1,691 16 

6 E.S. 
9 E.S. 

16 

111 


1 Oct., 1324, to 
30 Sept., 1325 

99 

124 9 

5 E.S. 

Hi 

P.3 Edw. 111,32 d. 

1 Oct., 1325, to 
30 Sept., 1326 

99 

47 8 
92 5 

6 E.S. 
10 

16 

111 

j? 

1 Oct., 1326, to 

4 Feb., 1327 

99 

112 18 

3 

Hi 

P. 3 Edw. Ill, 33 

4 Feb., 1827, to 
29 Sept., 1327 

Walter Turk 

75 18 
48 3 

3 E.S. 
10 E.S. 

16 

Hi 

)) 

30 Sept., 1327, to 
29 Sept., 1328 

9? 

80 0 
52 15 

0 E.S, 
8 F S. 

16 

Hi 


30 Sept., 1328, to 
16 Feb., 1329 

99 

37 2 
46 4 

2 E.S. 
4 F.S. 

16 

in 

P. 5 Edw. Ill, 50 

16 Feb., 1329, to 
29 Sept., 1329 

if 

500 9 
J.33 8 

10 E.S. 

5 E.S. 

16 

n 

30 Sept., 1329, to 
29 Sept., 1330 

99 

134 0 
342 19 

8 E.S. 

0 E.S. 

16 

111 

P. 8 Edw. in, 45 

19 Jan., 1331, to 
29 Sept., 1331 

John de Windsor 

306 17 
198 18 

0 E.S. 

7 E.S. 

16 

11| 

9? 

30 Sept., 1331, to 
29 Sept., 1332 

99 

367 6 
45 9 
40 4 

74 E.S. 
9E.S. 
6| 

16 

11} 

99 

30 Sept., 1332, to 
29 Sept., 1333 

99 

308 11 
340 12 

11 E.S. 

2 F.S. 

16 

11} 

P. 8 Edw. m, 45 

30 Sept., 1333, to 
29 Sept., 1334 

99 

336 1 
48 14 

11 E.S. 

7 E.S. 

16 

11} 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 215 


LONDON — continue'!. 


Amount issued. j 

Mint- 

age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in lb 

Remarks. 

£ 

5. 

d. 


d. 




9,209 

8 

9 

pence 

5tj 


243 


240 

0 

0 

farthings 

94 


244 to 245 


793 14 

3 

pence 

5i 


243 


10 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


243 


220 

0 

0 

farthings 

9j 


243 to 245 


1,614 19 

9 

pence 

54 


* 243 


120 

0 

0 

farthings 

9:- 


244 to 245 


10 

0 

0 

halfpence 

74 


243 


105 

14 

6 

farthings 

94 


244 to 246 


140 

0 

0 

farthings 

9£ 


2444 to 245 









Silver “ diversi pretii.” 

60 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 


50 

0 

0 

farthings 

9i 


244 


125 

9 

4 

farthings 

94 


2441 to 245 


150 

0 

11 

farthings 

94 


244 to 245 


85 

6 

5 

farthings 

94 


244 


387 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 

First mention of new dies 

16 

11 

0 

halfpence 

74 


244 to 244£ 

under Edw. III. 

232 17 

0 

farthings 

9| 




60 

0 

0 

pence 

54 


243 


5 

1 

4 

halfpence 

74 


244 to 2444 


427 

3 

7| 

farthings 

94 











Mint closed. 

10 

5 

0 

halfpence 

74 


244 to 2444 


493 19 

9 

farthings 

94 




10 

5 

6 

halfpence 

74 


244 to 244£ 


400 19 

4 

farthings 

94 











This last sum is not charged 








with any deduction. 

656 

0 

9 

farthings 

94 


244 to 2444 


382 

7 

9 

farthings 

94 


244 to 2444 




216 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 


SILVER— 


Reference. 

Date. 

Wjnl*-n 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 8 Edw. Ill, 15 

29 Sept., 1384, to 
7 May, 1335 

John de Windsor 

£ s 

229 8 
7 5 

d. 

9 E.S. 

5 E.S. 

d. 

16 

Hi 

P. 12 Edw. Ill, 57 

8 May, 1335, to 
29 Sept., 1335 

ii 

265 4 
90 12 

3 E.S. 

1 F.S. 

26* ' 
20; 

5? 

30 Sept,, 1335, to 
29 Sept., 1336 


1,132 1 
1,721 5 

6 E.S. 

6 F.S. 

26; 

20* 

11 

30 Sept., 1336, to 
29 Sept., 1337 

ii 

1,619 15 
28 11 

1 E.S. 

1 F.S. 

26 ; 

20 ; 

11 

30 Sept., 1337, to 
6 June, 1338 

ii 

672 1 
25 11 

11 E.S. 

5 F.S. 

20; 

20 j 

P. 16 Edw. Ill, 54 

6 June, 1338, to 
29 Sept., 1338 

John de Flete 

586 12 
30 18 

6£E.S. 
9 F.S. 

26* 

20j 

71 

30 Sept., 1338, to 
29 Sept., 1339 

)> 

1,3S7 11 
22 7 

2^ E.S. 
8 F.S. 

26; 

20; 

71 

30 Sept., 1339, to 
29 Sept., 1340 

ii 

1,445 17 
253 19 

104 E.S. 
54 F.S. 

2 6\ 
20; 

11 

30 Sept., 1340, to 
29 Sept., 1341 

ii 

887 17 
103 3 

Ilf E.S. 
3 FS. 

26; 

20; 

11 

30 Sept., 1341, to 
29 Sept., 1342 

a 

675 6 
3,359 8 

Ii E.S. 
8 F.S. 

26; 

20; 

P. 17 Edw. Ill, 50 

30 Sept., 1342, to 
29 Sept., 1343 

” 

422 9 
12,492 6 

84 E.S. 
6J F.S. 

26- 

20; 

P. 18 Edw. Ill, 43 

30 Sept., 1343, to 
15 Dec., 1343 

ii 

34 8 
2,990 9 

114 E.S. 
104 F.S. 

26* 
20 i 

P. 17 Edw. Ill, 58 

20 Jan., 1344, to 
10 July, 1344 

Giorgio Chierichino 
and Lotto Nicolini, 
of Florence, Masters 

20,647 0 

4 

16 

P. 18 Edw. Ill, 47 

10 July, 1344, to 
29 Sept., 1344 

Percival de 
Porche, of Lucca, 
Master Moneyer 

12,055 18 

5f 

14 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDEB EDWAED I, II, AND III. 217 
LONDON — O'litnnii J. 


Amount issued. j 

Mint- 6 
age. 

seignor- 

age. 

Pence m lt>. 

Remarks. 

£ s. 

d. 

d. 




299 13 

2 farthings 

9$ 


244 to 2444 


188 3 10 halfpence 

74 


252 

Ordinance made at York. 

200 11 

4 farthings 

9$ 


254 

Standard to be 10 oz. of 





silver and 2 oz. of alloy to 
the pound ; and the pound 
weight to contain 21s. half- 








pence and 21s. 2d. farthings. 
Gawain de Suthorp, master 






moneyer. 

1,316 3 

2$ halfpence 

74 


252 


1,801 11 

5 farthings 

94 


254 


376 10 

3 halfpence 

74 


252 


874 16 

44 farthings 

94 


254 


279 18 

7 halfpence 

74 


252 


464 14 11$ farthings 

9$ 


254 


397 3 

2f halfpence 

74 


252 


272 0 

9 farthings 

94 


254 


1,301 16 115 halfpence 

74 


252 


482 2 

3$ farthings 

94 


254 


1,217 7 

2^ halfpence 

74 


252 


622 9 

3f farthings 

94 


254 


752 1 Ilf halfpence 

74 


252 


322 9 

4f farthings 

94 


254 


4,808 1 

2 halfpence 

74 


252 


299 11 

94 tai. tilings 

94 


254 


13,764 4 

64 halfpence 

74 


252 


284 1 

5 farthings 

94 


254 


3,320 7 

Ilf halfpence 

74 


252 


19 8 

6 farthings 

94 


254 


20,919 19 

0 pence 

3 

9 


270 

Indenture. Pence to be of 




old standard and of the 
weight of those commonly 
current. 





12,257 12 

3f pence 

8 


266 

Indenture with Percival de 




Porche, of Lucca. 



218 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


SILVER— 






Total 

Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

deduc- 

tion. 




db s d 

d. 

P. 19 Edw. Ill, 43 

30 Sept., 1344, to 

William de Wake- 

20,263 11 9 

14 

23 June, 1345 
and 

23 June, 1345, to 

field 

1,790 19 6 

14 



28 Sept., 1345 




P. 20 Edw. Ill, 45 

30 Sept., 1345, to 

»» 

3,791 3 9i 

14 

30 July, 1346 


for pence 
1,572 14 10 

17 




for halfpence 
425 12 7J 

19 




for farthings 



30 July, 1346, to 


651 12 9 

14 


29 Sept., 1346 


for pence 
189 0 8J 

17 




for halfpence 
144 17 2J 

19 




for farthings 


P. 21 Edw. Ill, 48 

30 Sept., 1346, to 

>> 

437 11 8 

14 

23 Nov., 1346 


for pence 

17 



280 2 Of 




for halfpence 
69 18 6 

19 




for farthings 



23 Nov., 1346, to 

>> 

769 6 5J 

14 

** 

29 Sept., 1347 


for pence 

17 



2,214 3 lOf 




for halfpence 
294 7 Of 

19 




for farthings 


P. 22 Edw. Ill, 29 

30 Sept., 1347, to 

Lotto Nicolini and 

1,333 10 101 

14 

17 May,* 1348 

Giorgio Chieri- 

for pence 

17 


chino, Masters 

2,966 9 91 



for halfpence 
150 7 3 

19 





for farthings 


P. 22 Edw. Ill, 32 

17 May, 134S, to 

John de Horton 

2,747 15 9f 

17 

29 Sept., 1348 


for halfpence 
64 8 5 

19 





for farthings 


P. 23 Edw. Ill, 40 

30 Sept., 1348, to 

n 

1,614 1 91 

17 

27 Jan., 1349 


for halfpence 
20 12 91 
for farthings 

19 





TABLES OE BULLION COINED UNDEE EDWAKD I, II, AND III. 219 


LONDON — continue'!. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

stignur- 

Pence m lb. 

Remarks. 



age. 

age. 


£ $ 

d. 

d. 




22,336 13 

OJ pence 

8 


266 






268 

Fresh Indenture with Per- 






rival de Porche. 

3,816 11 

7\ pence 

8 


268 

New Indenture with Percival 





de Porche. Halfpence and 

1,596 15 

2£ halfpence 

11 


279 

farthings to be of old stan- 
dard. 

181 2 

1J farthings 

13 


281 


662 3 

2 pence 

6| 


270 

Writ to Giorgio Chierichino 
and Lotto Nicolini, Masters. 

191 8 11| halfpence 

10 


279 

156 13 

5| farthings 

12 


281 


115 11 

5| pence 

68 


270 

The account gives for this and 




the following account joint 

281 6 

5£ halfpence 

10 


279 

totals of money issuod, 
viz. £1231 3s. 11 d. pence, 

70 12 

8 farthings 

12 


281 

£2502 11s. 2| d. halfpence, 
£366 8s . lOf d. farthings. The 






discrepancy in the pence 

785 6 

5£ pence 

6| 


270 

and halfpence is due to a 
detail in the account. 

2,221 7 

7jj halfpence 

10 


279 to 280 


295 16 

2| farthings 

12 


281 


1,360 10 10 pence 

61 


270 


2,991 6 

9J halfpence 

10 


279 


151 3 10 j farthings 

12 

j 

281 


2,752 i 

!J halfpence 

10 


279 


61 11 

9£ farthings 

12 


281 


1,616 0 

7J halfpence 

10 


279 

The amount of farthings issued 
is calculated by us. 

[20 17 

9J] farthings 






220 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 





SILVER— 

Reference, 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 




£ s. cL 

dwt. 

P. 23 Edw. Ill, 40 

27 Jan., 1349, to 

2 June, 1349 

John de Horton 

2,073 7 6 
for halfpence 
69 2 If 
for farthings 

17 

19 


2 June, 1349, to 

Bobert de Milden- 

47 7 8 

14 


12 April, 1350 

hall 

for pence 
4,184 12 2j 
for halfpence 

2 19 6i 
for farthings 

17 

19 

P. 24 Edw. Ill, 39 

12 April, 1350, to 
29 Sept., 1350 


4,125 18 101 
for halfpence 

3 13 
for farthings 

17 

19 

P. 24 Edw. HI, 42 

29 Sept., 1350, to 
24 Jan., 1351 

>> 

2,446 14 84 
for halfpence 

17 

P. 24 Edw. III. 45 

24 Jan., 1351, to 
24 June, 1351 


4,290 19 8 
for halfpence 
26 1 3 
for farthings 

17 

19 

P. 25 Edw. Ill, 45 

24 June, 1351, to 
25 Oct., 1351 

j> 

13,891 14 0 

14 

P. 25 Edw. Ill, 39 

25 Oct., 1351, to 

4 March, 1352 

j> 

22,334 10 9 

14 

P. 25 Edw. Ill, 43 

4 March, 1352, to 
24 June, 1352 


20,543 14 10 

14 

P, 26 Edw. Ill, 37 

24 June, 1352, to 
11 Nov., 1352 


27,438 16 5 

14 

P. 27 Edw. Ill, 35 

11 Nov., 1352, to 
6 May, 1353 

>5 

35,989 7 7 

14 

P. 27 Edw. Ill, 39 

7 May, 1353, to 
24 Dec., 1353 

William de Both well 

53,861 12 7J 

14 

P. 28 Edw. Ill, 33 

24 Dec., 1353, to 
29 Sept., 1354 

» 

37,389 1 llj 

14 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 221 


LONDON — ^unturned. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in lb. 

Remarks. 

£ 5 . d. 

d. 

a. 



2,075 16 Hi halfpence 

r-W* 

00 


279 

Indenture with John Donati 

69 2 1J farthings 




di Gastello of Florence and 

10* 


281 

others, master moneyers. 

From this pence 



270 


point the 

figures in this halfpence 

column are 

8J 


279 


the same as farthings 
those in the 
fourth column. 

10i 


281 



halfpence 

CO 


279 


farthings 

10i 


281 


halfpence 

00 


279 


halfpence 

CD 


279 


farthings 

101 


281 



8 

7 

300 

Writ to master moneyer dated 1 





July, 1351. The pieces coined 
to be 4:d.j 2d., and Id., of 
old standard. The accounts 





give no means of discover- 
ing how many of each were 
coined. 


8 

7 

300 



8 

7 

300 

Indenture with Henry de Bru- 





selee and John de Gicestre. 


8 

7 

300 



8 

7 

300 



8 

7 

300 



8 

7 

300 




222 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


SILVER— 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion 

P. 29 Edw. Ill, 37 

29 Sept., 1354, to 
5 April, 1355 

William de Rothwell 

£ s. d. 

14,021 7 4£ 

d 

14 

P. 29 Edw. Ill, 38 

5 April, 1355, to 
31 May, 1355 

5 t 

4,862 9 3j 

14 

P. 29 Edw. Ill, 39 

31 May, 1355, to 
24 Dec., 1355 


19,750 19 2£ 

9J 

P. 30 Edw. Ill, 45 

24 Dec., 1355, to 
6 Nov., 1356 

5 J 

22,664 4 6$ 

9i 

P. 30 Edw. Ill, 39 

6 Nov., 1356, to 

8 April, 1357 

jj 

6,041 17 lli 

91 

P. 31 Edw. Ill, 37 

8 April, 1357, to 
29 Sept., 1357 

>> 

8,468 9 10i 

91 

P. 32 Edw. Ill, 39 

30 Sept., 1357, to 
1 April, 1858 

» 

3,591 4 7i 

91 

P. 32 Edw. Ill, 41 

1 April, 1358, to 
29 Sept., 1358 


6,260 9 44 

91 

P. 32 Edw. Ill, 35 

30 Sept., 1358, to 
21 April, 1359 


2,299 18 5i 

91 

P. 33 Edw. Ill, 41 

21 April, 1359, to 
29 Sept., 1359 

it 

6,038 3 9 £ 

91 

P. 33 Edw. Ill, 35 

29 Sept., 1359, to 

5 April, 1360 


1,880 5 5| 

91 

P. 33 Edw. 111,42 

5 April, 1360, to 
17 June, 1360 

if 

1,672 16 1 

91 

Exch K. B. Misc. 
Bie. 291, No. 20 

17 June, 1360, to 
29 Sept., 1360 

John de Thorpe 

1,361 13 1 

91 

Ibid., No. 24 

30 Sept., 1360, to 

5 March, 1361 


902 6 4£ 

91 

P. 35 Edw. Ill, 51 

5 March, 1361, to 
18 June, 1361 

>) 

1,265 10 9J 

8 

P. 35 Edw. Ill, 50 

18 June, 1361, to 
29 Sept., 1361 

>> 

2,647 19 14 

8 

P. 35 Edw. in, 55 

30 Sept., 1361, to 
22 March, 1362 

ff 

4,918 10 8£ 

8 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWAKD I, II, AND III. 223 
LONDON — continued 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in lb. 

Remarks. 


d. 

8 

tZ. 

7 

300 



8 

7 

300 



6ft 


300 

Indenture with Henry de 
Bruselee. 


6ft 


300 



6ft 


300 



6ft 


300 



6 ft 


800 



6ft 


300 



6ft 


300 



6ft 


300 



6ft 

l 

i 

300 



6ft 


300 



6ft 


300 



6ft 


300 



7 


300 

Indenture with Walter, son of 
Philip de’ Bardi. 


7 


300 



7 


300 




224 


numismatic chronicle. 


SILVER- 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. c 

lotal 

leduc- 

tion. 

P. 36Edw.HI, 43 

• 

22 March, 1362, 
to 29 Sept., 1362 

John de Thorpe 

£ s. a. 

6,412 11 1 

d. 

8 

P. 36 Edw. Ill, 47 1 

BO Sept., 1362, to 
11 Eeb., 1363 

33 

755 13 4 

8 

P. 37 Edw. Ill, 42 

11 Eeb., 1363, to 

29 Sept., 1363 

33 

1,762 18 0 

8 

P. 38 Edw. Ill, 45 

30 Sept., 1363, to 
29 Sept., 1364 

33 

2,271 14 1 

8 

P. 39 Edw. Ill, 40 

30 Sept., 1364, to 
29 Sept., 1365 

3) 

1,187 19 3 

8 

P. 40 Edw. Ill, 48 

30 Sept., 1365, to 
29 Sept., 1366 

33 

nil 


P. 41 Edw. Ill, 39 

30 Sept., 1366, to 
29 Sept., 1367 

5? 

nil 


E. 42 Edw. Ill, A. 

30 Sept., 1367, to 
29 Sept., 1368 

” 

1,754 19 9 

8 

E. 43 Edw. Ill, H. 

30 Sept., 1368, to 
29 Sept., 1369 

J 3 

1,227 13 0 

8 

E. 44 Edw. Ill, B. 

. 30 Sept., 1369, to 
29 Sept., 1370 

33 

1,556 5 5 

8 

F. 45 Edw. Ill, G, 

. 30 Sept., 1370, to 
29 Sept., 1371 

3) 

640 13 3 

8 

E. 46 Edw. Ill, A 

. 30 Sept., 1371, to 
29 Sept., 1372 

33 

139 1 9 

8 

E. 47 Edw. Ill, D 

. 30 Sept., 1372, to 
29 Sept., 1373 

33 

362 14 2 

8 

E. 48 Edw. Ill, C 

. 30 Sept., 1373, to 
29 Sept., 1374 

33 

372 13 0 

8 

E. 49 Edw. Ill, A 

.. 30 Sept., 1374, tc 
24 Sept., 1375 

* 33 

3,334 13 9 

8 

E. 50 Edw. Ill, E 

!. 24 Sept., 1375, ti 
24 July, 1376 

3 Richard Lyons 

2,331 14 5 

8 

E. 51 Edw. Ill, I 

l. 24 July, 1376, t< 
20 Sept., 1377 

) Thomas Hervey 

180 0 0 

8 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 225 


LONDON — continued. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in lb. 

Remarks. 


d. 





7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 



7 


300 




226 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Table II.— CANTERBURY 
SILVER — 


Refei ence 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 2 Edw. I, 18 

25 Dec., 1272, to 
24 June, 1274 

Bartholemew de 
Castello 

£ s 

1,065 7 

a 

6 

a. 

P. 7 Edw. I, 21 

23 April, 1278, to 
7 July, 1278, and 
7 July, 1278, to 
20 Nov., 1278 

jj 

352 5 

451 2 

6 

3 

— 

P. 15 Edw. I, 3 

1 Jan., 1280, to 
18 Oct., 1280 

Gregory de Rokesle 
and Orlandino 
di Poggio 

27,040 9 
8,167 3 

0 E.S. 
11 E.S. 

19 

17* 

3 3 

18 Oct., 1280, to 
12 Mar., 1281, and 
12 March, 1281, 
to 3 May, 1281 

j> 

33 

1,422 0 
813 3 
1,452 17 
1,678 10 

0 E.S. 
6 E.S. 

0 E.S. 

1 E.S. 

19 

17 * 

16 

144 

33 

3 May, 1281, to 
29 Sept., 1281 

Gregory de Rokesle 

1,437 0 
•15,836 0 

0 E.S. 
6 F.S. 



33 

30 Sept., 1281, to 
25 Nov., 1282 

33 

l,68j3 12 
23,400 3 

■ 0 E.S. 
8 E.S. 

— 

33 

25 Nov., 1282, to 
25 Nov., 1283 

3 3 

788 0 
14,468 5 

0 E.S. 

5 E.S. 



33 

25 Nov., 1283, to 
20 May, 1285 

33 

977 16 
22,523 14 

9 E.S. 
10 E.S. 



P. 14 Edw. I, 4 

20 May, 1285, to 
15 Aug., 1286 

3 3 

1,451 11 
27,176 10 

3 E.S. 

1 E.S. 

16 

14* 

>> 

15 Aug , 1286, to 
15 June, 1287 

” 

873 12 
29,699 17 

6 E.S. 

0 E.S. 

16 

14* 

P. 16 Edw. I, 29 

15 June, 1287, to 

3 Nov., 1287 

33 

541 19 
13,498 9 

1 E.S. 

2 F.S. 

16 

14* 

P. 16 Edw. I, 28 

3 Nov., 1287, to 

3 Nov., 1288 

33 

331 13 
14,510 1 

4 E.S. 

9 E.S. 

16 

14* 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 227 


AND PROVINCIAL MINTS. 

CANTERBURY. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- i 
age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence m 11). 

Remarks. 

£ & d. 

d. 

d . 

6 

242 

Of the seignorage the king has 
jjths and the archbishop 
sths. 

— 

— 

6 

242 


27,032 16 1 pence 

8,167 3 11 pence 

7 

5^ 

— 

242 


1 2,668 3 0 pence 
j 2,572 17 0 pence 

61 

5| 

— 1 

242’ 


927 7 8 pence 
16,472 12 4 pence 

— 

9£ 

9 

243 


— * 

— 

9£ 

9 

243 


— 

— 

9£ 

9 

243 


— 

— 

10 

9 

243 

See note to London account. 

298 15 1 E.S. pence 
1,152 16 2 F.S. pence 
27,176 10 1 E.S. pence 
873 0 9 alloy 

6 

5b 

5b 

5| 


243 


28,690 0 0 pence 

5i 


243 


17,150 0 0 pence 

5b 


243 


15,070 0 0 pence 



243 




228 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 


SILVER— 


Reference. 

Date 

Warden 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 18 Edw. I, 1 

3 Not., 1288, to 
15 July, 1290 

Gregory de Rokesle 

£ s. cl. 

> 401 6 11 E.S. 

5,956 11 4 E.S. 

d 

16 

144 

P. 19 Edw. I, 55 

15 July, 1290, to 
15 July, 1291 


209 5 04 E.S 
744 19 2 E.S. 

. 16 
14J 

P. 27 Edw. I, 23 

15 July, 1291, to 
29 Sept., 1292 

William de 
Wymondham 

272 14 4 E.S 
530 11 9 E.S 

16 
■ Hi 

J J 1 

30 Sept., 1292, to 
29 Sept., 1298 

jj 

226 17 1 E.S, 
525 14 8 E.S, 

. 16 
. in 


30 Sept., 1293, to 
29 Sept., 1294 

jj 

69 0 5 E.S. 
98 17 0 P.S. 

. 16 
in 

jj 

30 Sept., 1294, to 
29 Sept., 1296 

jj 

16 5 4 E.S. 
19 18 9 E.S. 

16 

16 

P. 38 Edw. I, 44 

1 Nov., 1299, to 
29 Sept., 1300 

lohn de Sandale 

354 14 7 E.S. 
17,783 5 8 E.S. 
5,366 13 9 E.S. 

16 

16 

11* 

j> 

30 Sept., 1300, to 
29 Sept., 1301 

j j 

9,004 7 6 E.S. 
1,529 16 0 F.S. 

16 

in 

jj 

30 Sept., 1301, to 
29 Sept., 1302 

” 

2,642 9 9 E.S. 
57 12 8 E.S. 

16 

Hi 

jj 

30 Sept., 1302, to 
29 Sept., 1303 

jj 

1,511 1 10 E.S. 
1,918 2 10 E.S. 

16 

lli 

P. 85 Edw. I, 25 

30 Sept., 1303, to 
29 Sept., 1304 

jj 

408 16 3 E.S. 
14,596 12 6 E.S. 

16 

Hi - 

J J 

30 Sept., 1304, to j 
30 April, 1305 

jj 

84 11 2 E.S. 
14,181 15 5 E.S. 

16 

lli 

P. 1 Edw. II, 81 



1 May, 1305, to 

29 Sept., 1305 

John de Everdon 

20,414 6 9 E.S. 

Hi 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 229 


CANTERBURY — continued. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

age. 

Seignor- 

age 

Pence in lb 

Remarks, 

£ 

5,400 

s 

0 

d. 

0 pence 

d 


243 


910 

0 

0 pence 



243 


770 

0 

0 pence 

5i 


243 


740 

0 

0 pence 

61 


243 


90 

0 

0 pence 

61 


243 

Mint closed. 

22,340 

0 

0 pence 

5^ 


243 

By order dated 14 March, 1300, 
all pieces of money not 
being any foreign currency 
to be bought at the rate for 
English silver. At this date, 
therefore, crockards and 
pollards were transferred 
from the category of foreign 
to that of English silver. 
The two sums given show 
amounts bought as English 
silver before and after 10 
March, 1300. 

22,250 

0 

0 pence 

5J 


243 


3,070 

0 

0 pence 

5} 


243 


3,780 

0 

0 pence 

« 


243 


15,310 

0 

0 pence 

54 


243 


14,557 19 

2 pence 

5i 


243 


21,012 15 

7 pence 

5| 


243 



YOL. xm., SERIES IY. R 



230 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


SILVER — 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion 

P. 1 Edw. II. 31 

30 Sept., 1305, to 
29 Sept., 1306 

John de Everdon 

£ 

23 

31,399 

s. 

12 

13 

d. 

6 E.S. 
3 F.S. 

d 

16 

111 

11 

30 Sept., 1306, to 
18 Sept., 1307 

11 

52,503 

3 

7 F.S. 

11 £ 

P. 2 Edw. II, 45 

19 Sept., 1307, to 
29 Sept., 1308 

Amerigo de’ Frisco- 
baldi 

44,290 

17 

1 F.S. 

Hi 

11 

30 Sept., 1308, to 
29 Sept., 1309 

13 

41,793 

17 

2 F.S. 

14 

P, 9 Edw. II, 44 

23 Oct., 1311, to 
29 Sept., 1312 

John de Lincoln 

4,770 

7 

10 F.S. 

lii 

jj 

30 Sept., 1312, to 
11 May, 1313 

11 

2,562 12 10 F.S. 

14 


12 May, 1313, to 
29 Sept., 1313 

- 

4,198 

9 

3 F.S. 

Hi 

P. 9 Edw. II, 44 

30 Sept., 1313, to 
26 Feb., 1314 

-> 






27 Feb., 1314, to 
29 Sept., 1314 

ii 

34,648 

5 

2 F.S. 

14 

jj 

30 Sept., 1314, to 
24 Feb., 1315 

ii 

12,956 

0 

3 F.S. 

14 

P. 12 Edw. H, 33 

25 Feb., 1315, to 
30 Sept., 1315 

William Trent© 

15 12 4 E.S. 
7,147 16 10 F.S. 

16 

ill 

)> 

1 Oct., 1315, to 
20 June, 1316 

31 

897 

8 

4 F.S. 

14 

}j 

21 June, 1316, to 
28 Sept., 1316 

John de Cocker- 
mouth 

1,612 

1 10 F.S. 

14 

>) 

29 Sept., 1316, to 
11 April, 1317 

31 

3,940 

7 

6 F.S. 

114 

> i 

11 April, 1317, to 
30 Sept., 1317 

Augustine le 
Waleys 

10,560 

0 

0 F.S. 

in 


1 Oct., 1317, to 

30 Sept., 1318 

ii 

20,820 

6 

9 F.S. 

14 



TABLES OE BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 281 
CANTERBURY — cuiitinucrt. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 6 
age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in lb. 

Remarks. 

£ s. d. 

32,427 7 3 pence 

d. 

54 


243 


54,219 4 9f pence 



243 


45,877 10 lOf pence 

5f 


243 


35,077 0 54 pence 
8,054 11 if pence 

5 i 

5i 


243 

243 

Mintage reduced by agreement 
with John de Pontoise, 29 
June, 1309. 

No Accounts. 

4,898 6 4§ pence 

Bi 


243 


2,634 13 lOf pence 

5f 


243 


4,300 7 5f pence 

| 5J 


243 | 

No work done. 

35,663 8 If pence 

5J 

— 

243 


13,322 2 lOf pence 

5f 


243 


7,396 15 Of pence 

5J 


243 

Pence stated to be coined from 
the foreign silver. 

916 4 1 pence 



248 


1,661 14 5J pence 

5J 


243 


4,060 7 1 pence 

5J 


243 


10,834 16 10J pence 

54 


243 


21,482 2 3 pence 

5f 


243 



R 2 



232 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


SILVER— 


Reference. 

1 

Date. 

'VVaiden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion 

P. 12 Edw. II, 33 

1 Oct., 1318, to 
30 Sept., 1319 

Augustine le 
Waleys 

£ 5. d. 

16,212 3 0 F.S. 

d. 

iii 

P. 13 Edw. II, 30 

1 Oct , 1319, to 
13 Aug., 1320 


13,010 0 9 F.S. 

n§ 

P. 16 Edw. II, 49 

14 Aug., 1320, to 
30 Sept., 1320 

William de Hau- 
stede 

2,562 6 8 F.S. 

ii| 


1 Oct,, 1320, to 
30 Sept., 1321 

5 7 

5,514 0 9 F.S. 

Hi 

P.3 Edw. Ill, 33 d. 

7 Oct., 1322, to 
30 Sept., 1323 

Robert de Hasel- 
shaw 

1,060 17 11 F.S. 

Hi 

P. 3 Edw. Ill, 33 

30 Sept., 1328, to 
16 Feb., 1329 

Walter Turk 

46 0 0 F.S. 

iii 

P. 5 Edw. Ill, 50 

16 Feb., 1329, to 
29 Sept., 1329 

>> 

92 4 6 F.S. 

Hi 

P. 8 Edw. Ill, 45 

19 Jan., 1331, to 
29 Sept., 1331 

J ohn de Windsor 

613 10 0 F.S. 

ill 


30 Sept., 1331, to 
29 Sept., 1332 

>j 



P. 19 Edw. in, 43 

30 Sept., 1344, to 
23 June, 1345 

William de Wake- 
field 

1,638 16 9 

14 

jj 

24 June, 1345, to 
29 Sept., 1345 

» 

52 15 4 

14 

P. 21 Edw. Ill, 48 

30 July, 1346, to 
29 Sept., 1346 


212 14 6| 

14 

; > 

2 Oct., 1346, to 

19 Dec., 1346 

»> 

94 1 11 

14 




SILVER— 

PRO 

P. 33 Edw. I, 44. 

8 May, 1300, to 

31 Oct., 1300 

John de Sandale 

12,345 13 0 E.S.I 
483 10 6 F.S. 

BRIS 

16 

11| 


P. 33 Edw. I, 44 


12 July, 1300, to 

1 fi Not 1 -inn 


1,405 10 


5 E.S. 


CHES 

I 16 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED 


UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 233 


CANTERBURY — continued. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- S 
age. 

eignor- 

age 

Pence in lb. 

£ s d. 

17,662 5 6 pence 

d 

51 


243 

18,272 3 2J pence 

5=7 


243 

2,589 15 1 1 pence 



243 

5,548 11 2| pence 



243 

1,076 19 2J pence 

Si 


243 

48 4 1 pence 

51 


243 

94 14 51 pence 



243 

630 0 0 pence 

5$ 


243 

1,716 17 1 pence 

8 


266 


8 


268 

212 14 pence 

6J 


270 

94 1 11 pence 

6| 


270 

VINCI AL MINTS. 
TOL. 

13,410 0 0 pence 



243 

TER. 

1,450 0 0 pence 

1 

1 

! 243 


Remarks. 


Mint closed. 


Mint not working. 


No work. 

Mint closed. 

Indenture with Percival de 
Porche. 

New indenture with the same, 
23 June. 


Mint finally closed. 



234 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 


SILVER— PROVINCIAL 


EXE 


Reference. 

Date. 

"Warden. 

Bullion purchased. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 33 Edw. I, 44 

12 June, 1300, to 
31 Deo., 1300 

John de Sandale 

£ s. d. 

3,757 0 0 E.S. 

d . 

16 




NEWCA 

STLE- 

i) 

1 June, 1300, to 
29 Sept., 1300 

3> 

5,368 12 2 E.S. 

16 

3) 

30 Sept., 1300, to 
29 Sept., 1301 

33 

11,877 17 5 E.S. 

16 

33 

30 Sept., 1301, to 
29 Sept., 1302 

3 3 

2,930 8 8 E.S. 

16 


YORE AND 


33 

27 April, 1300, to 
31 Deo., 1300 

33 

11,710 9 5 E.S. 
5,574 9 9 F.S. 

16 

YO 

P. 28 Edw. Ill, 33 

14 July, 1353, to 
24 Deo., 1354 

William Hunte 

18,761 6 9J 

14 

P. 29 Edw. Ill, 40 

25 Dec., 1354, to 
29 May, 1355 

33 

1,892 5 9 

14 

’CAL 

P. 37 Edw. III. 51 

20 Eeb., 1363, to 
10 April, 1364 

Thomas de Brant- 
ingham, Trea- 
surer of Calais 

[2,678 0 0] 

[8] 

P. 39 Edw. Ill, 38 

10 April, 1364, to 
13 April, 1365 

j) 

389 11 1 

8 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 235 

MINTS — continual. 

TER. 


Amount issued. 

Mint- 

age. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in lb. 

Remarks. 

£ 

3,870 

s. 

0 

a. 

0 pence 

a. 


243 


ON-TYNE. 






5,210 

0 

0 pence 

5£ 


243 


12,510 

0 

0 pence 

5£ 


243 


2,970 

0 

0 pence 

5i 


248 


HULL. 







17,770 

0 

0 pence 



243 


RK. 







18,761 

6 

9J pence 

8 


300 


1,892 

5 

9 pence 

8 


300 

Payment made for carriage of 
dies from London. 

AIS. 



m 


[300] 

Amount calculated from 
issues. 

389 

11 

1 pence 

7 


300 




236 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Table III. — GOLD — 
LON 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Pure gold corned. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 17 Edw. Ill, 53 

20 Jan., 1344, to 
10 July, 1344 

Giorgio Chierichino, 
Lotto Nicolini of 
Florence 

lbs. s dwt. 
2,129 18 8J 

23/6 

P. 18 Edw. Ill, 47 

10 July, 1344, to 
29 Sept., 1344 

Percival de Porche 
of Lucca, Master 
Moneyer 

560 7 Si 

8/4 

P. 19 Edw. Ill, 43 

30 Sept., 1344, to 
23 June, 1345 

William de Wake- 
field 

669 11 4 

8/4 

>> 

23 June, 1345, to 
29 Sept., 1345 


87 13 3 

V- 

P. 20 Edw. Ill, 45 

30 Sept., 1345, to 
30 July, 1346 

j > 

350 3 91 

V- 

j i 

30 July, 1346, to 
29 Sept., 1346 


265 5 5 

11/8 

P. 21 Edw. Ill, 48 

30 Sept., 1346, to 
23 Nov., 1346 

j i 

585 10 0£ 

11/8 

- 

23 Nov., 1346, to 
29 Sept., 1347 

tf 

2,028 5 2i 

11/8 

P. 22 Edw. Ill, 29 

30 Sept., 1347, to 
17 May, 1348 

Lotto Nicolini 
Giorgio Chierichino 

1,795 13 2£ 

11/8 

P. 22 Edw. Ill, 32 

17 May, 1348, to 
29 Sept., 1348 

John de Horton 

1,297 3 2| 

11/8 

P. 23 Edw. Ill, 40 

30 Sept., 1348, to 
27 Jan., 1349 


243 1 91 

11/8 


27 Jan., 1349, to 
2 June, 1349 

i 


549 16 11 

11/8 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 237 


LONDON AND CALAIS. 

DON. 


Mintage. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence m florin. 

Florins in lb. 

Remarks. 

3/6 

20/- 

72 

50 




36 

100 




18 

200 


3/4 

5/- 

80 

394 

Convention with Per cival de Porche 


40 

79 

of Lucca, Orig. 18 Edw. III. 



20 

158 

3/4 

5/- 

do. 

394 




79 





158 1 


2/- 

5/- 

do. 

394 

Indenture of 23 June. 


79 





158 


2/- 

5/- 

do. 

391 

Indenture with Percival de Porche 


79 

of Lucca. 




158 


1/8 

10/- 

do. 

42 

Writ of 23 July, 20 Edw. III. 



84 




168 


1/8 

10/- 

do. 

do. 


1/8 

10/- 

do. 

do. 


1/3 

10/- 

do. 

do. 


1/8 

10/- 

do. 

do. 


1/8 

10/- 

do. 

do. 


1/2 

10/6 

do. 

do. 

Indenture between Ling and John 



Donati de Castello of Elorence, 
Philip John deNeri of Elorence, 
and Benedict Isbare of Lucca, 









Masters of the Mint. 



238 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


GOLD — 


Reference 

Date. 

Warden. 

Pure gold coined. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 23 Edw. Ill, 40 

2 June, 1349, to 
12 April, 1350 

Robert de Milden- 
hall 

lbs. s. 

2,046 1 

dwt. 

8 

11/8 

P. 24 Edw. 111,39 

12 April, 1350, to 
29 Sept., 1350 

3 3 

546 13 

6 

11/8 

P. 24 Edw. Ill, 42 

29 Sept., 1350, to 
24 Jan., 1351 

33 

49 12 

6 

11/8 

P. 24 Edw. Ill, 45 

24 Jan., 1351, to 
24 June, 1351 

33 

56 15 

6| 

11/8 

P. 25 Edw. Ill, 45 

24 June, 1351, to 
25 Oct., 1351 

33 

6,272 9 

8! 

9/3 

P.25 Edw. Ill, 39 

25 Oct., 1351, to 
4 March, 1352 


1,655 14 

Si 

9/3 

P. 25 Edw. Ill, 43 

4 March, 1352, to 
24 June, 1352 

» 

1,704 9 

If 

9/3 

P. 26 Edw. Ill, 37 

24 June, 1352, to 
11 Nov., 1352 

- 

1,480 8 

2 

9/3 

P. 27 Edw. Ill, 35 

11 Nov., 1352, to 

6 May, 1353 

33 

407 15 

3 

9/3 

P. 27 Edw. Ill, 39 

7 May, 1353, to 
24 Dec., 1353 

William de 
Rothewell 

3,181 13 

8 

9/3 

P. 28 Edw. Ill, 33 

24 Dec., 1353, to 
29 Sept., 1354 

33 

8,300 11 

U 

9/3 

P. 29 Edw. Ill, 37 

30 Sept , 1354, to 

5 April, 1355 

33 

2,436 9 

3 

9/3 

P. 29 Edw. Ill, 38 

5 April, 1355, to 
31 May, 1355 

33 

1,036 7 

8 % 

9/3 

P. 29 Edw. Ill, 39 

31May, 1355, to 
24 Dec., 1355 

33 

2,177 3 


6/8 

P. 30 Edw. Ill, 45 

24 Dec., 1355, to 

6 Nov., 1356 

33 

551 17 : 

n 

6/8 

P. 30 Edw. Ill, 39 

6 Nov., 1356, to 

8 April, 1357 

33 

239 4 

8 

6/8 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 239 

London — continued. 


Mintage. 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence in florin. 

Florins in lb. 

Remarks. 

1/2 

10/6 

80 

12 



10 

81 




20 

168 


1/2 

10/6 

do. 

do. 


1/2 

10/6 

do. 

do. 


1/2 

10/6 

do. 

do. 


2/- 

7/8 

do. 

15 

Writ 1 July, 1351. Orig. 25 Edw, 


90 

III. Agreement between King 




180 

and Henry de Bruselee and John 
de Oicestre. 

2/- 

7/3 

do. 

do. 


2/- 

7/3 

do. 

do. 


2/- 

7/3 

do. 

do. 


2/- 

7/3 

do. 

do. 


2/- 

7/3 

do. 

do. 


2/- 

7/3 

do. 

do. 


2/- 

7/3 

do. 

do. 


2/- 

7/3 

do. 

do. 


1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 

K.R. Mem. 30 Edw. Ill, Mich. 



Recorda gives indenture. 

1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 


1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 




240 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 


GOLD— 


Reference. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Pure gold coined 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 31 Edw. Ill, 37 

8 April, 1357, to 
29 Sept., 1357 

William de 
Rothewell 

lbs. s. 
4,910 6 

dwt 

84 

6/8 

P. 32 Edw. Ill, 39 

29 Sept., 1357, to 
1 April, 1358 

jj 

3,169 13 

91 

6/8 

P. 32 Edw. Ill, 41 

1 April, 1358, to 
29 Sept., 1358 

j? 

4,308 2 

7J 

6/8 

P. 32 Edw. Ill, 35 

29 Sept., 1358, to 
21 April, 1359 


2,248 11 

2 ’ 

6/8 

P. 33 Edw. Ill, 41 

21 April, 1359, to 
29 Sept., 1359 


4,284 0 

n 

6/8 

P. 33 Edw. Ill, 35 

30 Sept., 1359, to 
5 April, 1360 

» 

2,029 13 

% 

6/S 

P. 33 Edw. Ill, 42 

5 April, 1360, to 
17 June, 1360 

» 

2,164 5 

Oi 

6/8 

Acot., &c., Exch. 
K.R. Ble. 291, 
No. 24 

29 Sept., 1360, to 
5 March, 1361 

John de Thorpe 

3,222 14 

Cj 

0/8 

P. 35 Edw. Ill, 51 

6 March, 1361, to 
IS June, 1361 

3 3 

5,960 3 

3 

5/- 

P. 35 Edw. Ill, 50 

18 June, 1361, to 
29 Sept., 1361 

3 1 

4,675 1 

2J 

5/- 

P. 35 Edw. Ill, 55 

30 Sept., 1361, to 
22 March, 1362 

}> 

4,339 1 

3} 

5/- 

P. 36 Edw. 111,43 

22 March, 1362, to 
29 Sept., 1362 

31 

4,403 13 

6| 

5/- 

P. 36 Edw. Ill, 47 

30 Sept., 1362, to 
11 Feb., 1363 

33 

736 1 


«/- 

P. 37 Edw. Ill, 42 

11 Feb., 1363, to 
29 Sept., 1363 

33 

1,780 6 

9? 

5/- 

P. 38 Edw. Ill, 45 

30 Sept., 1363, to 
29 Sept., 1364 

33 

1,365 16 

9i 

V- 

P. 39 Edw. Ill, 40 

30 Sept., 1364, to 
29 Sept., 1365 


1,048 15 

81 

5/- 



TABLES 

LONDON 

OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND III. 241 

— continih d. 

Mintage 

Seignor- 

age. 

Pence m florm. 

Florins In lb. Remarks. 

1/2 

5/6 

80 

45 



40 

90 



20 

180 

1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 

1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 

1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 

1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 

1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 

1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 




Foreign accounts missing from 




Pipe Roll 34 Edw. III. 

1/2 

5/6 

do. 

do. 

1/8 

3/4 

do. 

do. Indenture with Walter, son of 




Philip de’ Bardi. 

1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. Convention with Robert de 




Portico, master. 

1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 

1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 

1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 

1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 

1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 

1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 



242 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


GOLD— 


Eefeience. 

Date. 

Warden. 

Pure gold coined. 

Total 

deduc- 

tion. 

P. 40 Edw. Ill, 48 

30 Sept., 1365, to 
29 Sept., 1366 

John de Thorpe 

lbs s. dwt 

1,101 5 7£ 

5/- 

P.41 Edw. Ill, 39 

30 Sept., 1366, to 
29 Sept., 1367 

jj 

741 0 114 

V- 

F. 42 Edw. Ill, A. 

. 30 Sept., 1367, to 
29 Sept., 1368 

?? 

1,680 4 1 

5/- 

E. 43 Edw. Ill, H. 

30 Sept., 1368, to 
29 Sept., 1369 

»j 

4,847 13 9| 

V- 

E. 44 Edw. Ill, B. 

30 Sept., 1369, to 
29 Sept., 1370 


1,480 7 0 

5/- 

E. 45 Edw. Ill, G. 

30 Sept., 1370, to 
29 Sept., 1371 

J j 

1,029 15 04 

V- 

F. 46 Edw. Ill, A. 

30 Sept., 1371, to 
29 Sept., 1372 

j J 

1,455 1 6 

5/- 

F. 47 Edw. Ill, D. 

30 Sept., 1372, to 
29 Sept., 1373 


973 2 3J 

5/- 

F. 48 Edw. Ill, C. 

30 Sept., 1373, to 
29 Sept., 1374 

) j 

642 16 0 

5/- 

F. 49 Edw. Ill, A. 

30 Sept., 1374, to 
24 Sept., 1375 

jj 

694 5 4f 

5/- 

F. 50'Edw. Ill, B. 

24 Sept., 1375, to 
24 July, 1376 

Richard Lyons 

376 6 6 

5/- 

F. 51 Edw. Ill, A. 

24 July, 1376, to 
20 Sept., 1377 

Thomas Hervey 

273 8 2£ 

5/- 





CAL 

P. 37 Edw. Ill, 51 

20 Feb., 1363, to 
10 April, 1364 

Thomas de Brant- 
ingham 

3,528 13 4 

5/- 

P. 39 Edw. Ill, 38 

10 April, 1364, to 
13 April, 1365 

jj 

683 3 3f 

5/- 

F. 42 Edw. Ill, 0. : 

13 April, 1365, to 
13 April, 1366 | 

j j 

6,387 1 114 

5/- 



TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I, II, AND 

LONDON — continued. 

iii. 243 

Mintage. 

Seignoi- 

age 

Pence m florin. 

Florins in lb. Remarks. 

1/6 

3/6 

80 

45 




40 

90 




20 

180 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


AIS. 





1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. Amount calculated : 

from issues. 




Account rendered 

“ deduct o 




monetagio.” 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 


1/6 

3/6 

do. 

do. 




244 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


GOLD— 



1 



Total 

Reference. 

f Date. 

Warden. 

Pure gold coined. 

deduc- 


| 


tion 


I 


lbs. s. dwt. 


E. 42 Edw. Ill, C. 

13 April, 1366, to 

Thomas de Brant- 

7,597 6 7J 

5/- 

20 March, 1368 

ingham 



R 46 Edw. Ill, D. 

20 March, 1368, to 

William de Gun- 

606 13 6| 

5/- 

27 Aug., 1368 

27 Aug., 1368, to 

thorp 

3,461 10 5f 

5/- 



26 Oct., 1370 

26 Oct., 1370, to 


1,030 17 Si 

5/- 


16 Oct., 1371 




E. 47 Edw. Ill, E. 

16 Oct., 1371, to 


4,672 7 9 

5/- 

4 Nov., 1373 




E. 48 Edw. Ill, E. 

4 Nov., 1373, to 

John de Romeseye 

608 10 11 

5/- 

16 June, 1374 

16 June, 1374, to 

123 12 7J 

5/- 




4 Nov., 1374 




E. 50 Edw. Ill, D. 

4 Nov., 1374, to 
14 July, 1375 

35 

110 4 7J 

5/- 


14 July, 1375, to 


97 19 0 

5/- 


4 Nov., 1375 



E. 8 Ric. II, C. 

4 Nov., 1375, to 

William Eyrmyn, 

1,984 11 11 

5/- 


15 May, 1381 

Treasurer of 

Calais 




15 May, 1381, to 

)) 

5 19 10 

5/- 


7 Jan., 1384 





TABLES OF BULLION COINED UNDER EDWARD I ; II, AND III. 245 


CALAIS — continued. 


Mintage. 

1 Seigiun- 
| age. 

j I Vim e in floun 

I'loinib m lb. 

Itemaiks 

1/6 

I 

3/6 

80 

45 




40 

( J0 




20 

ISO 


V- 

V- 

do. 

do. 

Bard ettus do Malepilis, campsor. 

V- 

4/- 

do. 

do. 


V- 

V- 

do. 

do. 


V- 

4/- 

do. 

do. 


V- 

4/- 

do. 

do. 

John de Leycester, campsor. 

V- 

4/- 

do. 

do. 


1 - 

4/- 

do. 

do. 


1/- 

4/- 

do. 

do. 


1/- 

4/- 

do. 

do. 


! 

1/6 i 

! 

3/6 

do. 

do. 



VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 



IX. 


MEDALLIONS TRUE AND FALSE OF MARY 
QUEEN OF SCOTS AND CHARLES I. 

(See Plates X,, XI.) 

In these days, when the increasing number of collectors 
has resulted in the issue to the public of a large quantity 
of spurious medals, misleading at times the very elect, 
it is not without interest to look back upon a period, 
when a smaller market was open to this nefarious trade, 
and to find that even then similar frauds were already 
common. 

I do not purpose to write of the various devices con- 
trived by those who tampered with works of art, but 
specially of two classes of imposture, frequently practised 
in the sixteenth and succeeding centuries. Firstly, we 
find the erroneous combination of an obverse design 
from the hand of a well-known artist, with a reverse 
unconnected with the subject and not due to the same 
medallist. Secondly, there is a far more heinous de- 
ception, that of making falsely signed copies from 
medals of early date — a fraud perpetrated by more than 
one person, whose names have remained a problem. 

Two medallions in my cabinet appear to me to cast a 
little light upon these matters, and I am permitted to 
bring them before you in our plates. The memorial of 
Charles I is an example of a uniface portrait attributed 



MARY STUART AND CHARLES I. 


247 


to Jean Yarin, and apparently as the artist intended 
it to remain [PI. X. 1], whilst an engraved matrix 
representing Mary Queen of Scots is an early eighteenth- 
century copy of an original by Primavera [PI. XI. 1], 
The discovery of the original medallion of Charles 
corrects a date of uncertain reading on a later mule ; 
whilst the slate matrix, the work of a very young 
engraver, may supply a name to the author of subse- 
quent frauds. 

Several artists of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries were much in the habit of producing uniface 
medallions — Jacopo Primavera and Jean Yarin amongst 
others. Although the later in point of time I wish first 
to speak of Jean Yarin, in connexion with the alteration 
to which his work was exposed, and afterwards of the 
copyist of Primavera. The medallion portraying 
Charles I, reproduced from my collection on PI. X. 1, 
is a silver plaque, which no doubt Yarin issued, as usual 
without any reverse, 1 little thinking that somewhat later 
an enterprising person, who deemed a completed medal 
would b,e more saleable, would reproduce it in com- 
bination with an unsuitable design. There is, however, 
in the British Museum an electrotype from a bronze 
specimen which was in the cabinet of Mr. Edward Pretty 
of Maidstone, who lent it for exhibition at a meeting of 
this Society in May, 1852. This specimen has a reverse 
decoration totally foreign to it. 2 


1 This practice was not invariable, for Jean Yarin’s cast medal of 
Richelieu has a reverse, and so has the Bodley, Med. III., i. 200, 28 ; if, 
indeed, this portrait be not rather, as M. Rondot claims, by Claude 
Yarin than by Jean, This medal did not escape imitators. 

2 It is not known where the medal is now preserved. See Med. III., 
vol. i. p. 292, No. 107, PI. xxv. No. 4; and Num. Ghron 1st Series, 
Yol. XY. p. 105. 



248 


NUMISMATIC CIIltONICLli. 


The obverse representing Charles I is a east taken 
from the same medallion as that shown on PI. X. 1, 
and in that invaluable book, 3£l dull a Illustrations of 
British History, is attributed to Jean Vaviu, but on the 
other side we find Aurora in a chariot, drawn by winged 
horses — the copy of the reverse of a medal executed, 
as is there stated, by Jacopo da Trezzo, of Ippolita 
Gonzaga, daughter of Ferdinando, Count of Guastalla, 
who died in 1563. a 

In describing this combination of designs from the 
work of two artists, separated by nearly a century from 
one another, 3 4 * * the authors of Medal lie HI nst i atvai^ of 
British History remarked that “it is very probable that, 
like most of Varin’s portrait medals, no reverse was ever 
executed by him for this one.’ 7 Owing to a slight flaw 
in the lettering, a mark across one of the figures upon 
the bronze medal, which is in less perfect condition than 
my silver plaque, the date of Charles I’s presentment 
was read as 1642, instead of 1649, and was so recorded 
in MedalUe Illustrations (vol. i. p. 292, No. 107). 

The legend upon the silver specimen runs as follows : 
CAROLVS • I • D ■ G ■ MAGN • BRIT ■ FRANC ■ ET ■ HIB • REX ■ 
/ETATIS . SVj€ . , the sentence remaining unfinished, and 
the King’s age unstated. A blank space upon the orna- 
ment pendant from the ribbon about the King’s neck 
suggests the possibility that the artist intended to 
engrave the missing number there. 

In smaller lettering, too small to be clearly visible on 
our plate, we read the date 1649. The custom of dating 


3 See Museum Mu:~ucliJ,hanim- 7 1, PI. lxx. 5. 

4 Jacopo da Trezzo died in 1589, and the medal, as we see, was executed 

a quarter of a century before his death. Varin died in 1672, but his 

medal is of 1619. 



MARY STUART AND CHARLES I. 


249 


his works in tiny figures was much followed by Varin, 
but it is just possible that the 16 has been inserted later, 
and the 49 referred to the years of Charles, thus com- 
pleting the Latin sentence. 5 On the truncation of the 
shoulder is incised “natus 1600,” and with this ex- 
ception the whole of the legend has been much tooled, 
portions of the field being cut away to bring out the 
lettering, especially as regards the date 1649. 

The piece is not signed, but no doubt can be held as 
to its authorship if we compare it with other portraits 
executed by Jean Varin, whose activity during his 
residence in England produced several similar plaques 
which may be examined in the British Museum. 
Amongst these I may instance, as most nearly ap- 
proaching Charles I’s medallion in style, those of William 
Blake and his wife, which are exhibited in the Depart- 
ment of Coins and Medals. 0 

Jean Varin, or Warm, as his name is sometimes spelt, 
was born at Sedan in 1599, and studied under Guillaume 
Dupre. He was appointed engraver to the mint in Paris 
in 1646, and Superintendent General of the Coinage in 
1648. He died in France in 1672, and the period of his 
English visit is earlier than the date engraved upon our 
medal, for we mostly find his medallions representing 
Englishmen dated between 1633 and 1636. Were it not 
that the numeral 1 after the name of Carolus in the 
legend suggests that this is a memorial, we might 
suppose that Varin worked from life and modelled the 


a Charles was born in November, 1600, and had therefore, at the 
time of his death, in January, 1648-9, recently entered upon his 49th 
year. 

o Med. III., vol. i. pp. 270 and 271, Nos. 70 and 71, PL xxii. Nos. 
11 and 12. 



250 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


portrait during his stay in England, inserting the small 
figures, which read distinctly as 1649, after the execution 
of Charles. This substitution of a nine for an eight is 
natural, for it is evident that the plaque was issued in 
France, Varin haying returned to that country, and the 
date of the King’s death would be correct according to 
the new style of reckoning there in use, whereas upon 
medals struck in England the year would be registered 
as 1648. 

The medallion came into my hands from the Sloane 
Stanley sale at Christie’s in May, 1910, having passed 
through the Montagu and Murdoch cabinets, and having 
been figured in reduced size in the Montagu Catalogue 
on PL vi. No. 168. This catalogue contained a 
misprint, for the date of birth is there given as Natus 
1649 on the truncation of the shoulder instead of 1600, 
the figures 1649 being in reality in the legend just 
beyond it. 

Varin was not the only artist who suffered from 
this practice of altering his design by coupling with 
it the work of other medallists. To more than one 
example of Primavera’s portrait plaques we find un- 
welcome additions, but by this form of garbling, for it 
is nothing more or less, the craftsman’s reputation was 
not so much endangered as it was by the hand of the 
fraudulent copyist, who produced an inferior imitation 
and signed it ia.primave. Let us turn again to the 
National Collection, and we shall find an interesting 
bronze medallion of Mary Queen of Scots (illustrated on 
PL I. 2), the genuine work of Primavera, an Italian 
artist of whom little is known. 7 The probable date of 


7 Med, III , yoI i. p 118, No. 52, 



MARY STUART AND CHARLES I. 


251 


his birth is given tentatively as 1544, 8 and of his death 
as about 1600. 9 The chief period of his activity lay in 
Trance and the Netherlands between 1568 and 1585, 
where he executed many medals, without, so far as we 
know, visiting England. Mr. Cochran-Patrick defines 
Primavera’s Mary as “ executed probably from a portrait 
taken in 1566-7, 5> referring to the Morton picture 
traditionally said to have been painted during the 
Scottish Queen’s imprisonment in Lochleven Castle. 10 
In Meclallie Illustrations we find it catalogued under 
date 1572, on account of its similarity to a medallion of 
Elizabeth by the same artist approximately so dated, 
but the exact date of its production is therein left 
uncertain. 

Mr. Oust in his Authentic Portraits of Mary Queen 
of Scots , attributes both the Morton picture and the 
medal to a later period — in fact, posterior to the Sheffield 
portrait at Hardwick, which is dated 1578, 11 calling 
attention to the medallion’s general resemblance to the 
figure on the monument afterwards erected by James 
the First to her memory in Westminster Abbey, por- 
traying Mary in her old age, and believes it to be a 
memorial. 12 

Be this as it may, the original plaque figured on 
PI. X. 2, is very graceful, and the eighteenth-century 
imitations illustrated on PI. XI. 1 and 2, do not approach 
it in beauty. However, unless placed side by side with 


8 M. A. Chabouillet, Mem. Soc. Arch, de VOrUanais , tom. xv. p. 231. 

9 Forrer’s Dichonco y of Medallists. 

10 Gatalogtie of the Medals of Scotland, PI. i. No. 12. 

11 Cast, pp. 70-83 and 121. 

12 Mary was executed on February 8, 1586-7, and if Primavera 
survived until 1600, as is suggested in Forrer’s Dvclionai y of Medallists, 
this is possible, 



252 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE 


Primavera’s uniface plaque, tlie copies are good enougli 
to have deceived many persons in the past. 

Two forms of tampering with the genuine piece appear 
in connexion with Primavera’s work, for we find upon one 
specimen the introduction of an inappropriate reverse, 
a cast from the reverse of a medal of Ercole II d’Este, 
Duke of Ferrara, attributable to Pompeo Leoni, whilst 
the obverse is [PL XI. 2] not even absolutely faithful to 
the original, but is the effort of a more modern hand. 13 
Another mule presenting a portrait of Francis I (!) is said 
to have been in the collection of the late Mr. Cochran- 
Patrick, 14 but it is not figured by him. He, however, 
engraves from his own cabinet an unsigned uniface 
example of somewhat smaller size with legend reading 
maria REG • SCOT . E ■ ang . 15 I have not seen these last- 
mentioned medals, but he distinctly states that he 
believes the British Museum specimen to be alone due 
to Primavera. Again, we have a uniface copy with the 
reading maria, stowar. REGi . SCOTI angli as in the 
original, even to the signature ia.primave. varying 
only from the prototype in the hard lines of the por- 
traiture and the fact that the letters are enclosed within 
an inner circle, running between plain engraved lines, 
instead of being in the field within the dotted bordei\ 
This piece and the obverse of the first-mentioned 
mule [PL XI. 2], present no important difference to each 
other, and even in the arrangement of the legend agree 
so exactly with the slate matrix in my collection that 
I venture to suggest that they proceed from the same 


13 Med. III., vol. i. p. 118, No. 52, var. 

11 Ibid., vol. i. p. 119, No. 54, var. 

15 Medals of Scotland , PI. i. No. 13, and pp. 14 and 15 ; and Med. III., 
vol. i. p. 119, No. 54. 



MARY STUART AND CHARLES I. 


253 


hand. Who, then, was the artist who so boldly signed 
the name of the dead Italian upon his reproductions ? 

A short time ago I acquired a carefully executed slate 
matrix [PI. XI. 1], together with an electrotype taken 
from it, but this matrix, instead of the forged signature 
which we have discussed, bears the words, “By S. Henning 
1717. Done in his 14th year.” It seems clear that in 
the pride of his early success as a copyist Henning 
affixed his name to his work, creditable enough to a boy 
of 13, but I fear that at a later date he was induced 
first to issue the medals of Mary which appear without 
any signature, and finally to copy Primavera’s bronze 
plaque, eyen to the taking of the artist’s name in vain. 
Are we, howeyer, any further advanced, for we know 
nothing of S. Henning ? The surname is not unfamiliar 
in the history of art, for John Henning, born at Paisley 
in 1771, was a distinguished modeller in wax, whose 
reduced copies of the Parthenon and Phigaleian friezes 
are well known. John Henning, who died in 1851, was 
the son of one Samuel Henning, a carpenter, and made 
his own reputation in a fair field. He did much excellent 
work, modelling wax medallions from life in the style of 
the Tassies, but usually cast in white biscuit porcelain. 
It would be unfair to suggest that John, an honourable 
sculptor, may have derived his artistic talents from 
another S. Henning, a more remote ancestor than his 
father Samuel, the similarity of initial being somewhat 
suggestive. We do not, howeyer, even know the Christian 
name of our young engraver, who, according to the date 
upon the slate matrix, must have been born about 1704, 
being in his 14th year in 1717. 

In closing these notes I should like to tender 



254 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


my thanks to Mr. Grueber and Mr. Hill, tinder whose 
kind and courteous guidance I have compared the 
medallions in my cabinet with those in the National 
Collection, and to say that I owe to Mr. Grueber the 
first suggestion as to the similarity of workmanship 
between Henning’s and the unknown forger’s medals. 

Helen Farquhar. 


MISCELLANEA. 


Loss of Minorca, 1756. — Two varieties of the medal 
issued on. the loss of Minorca, 1756, are known. They appear 
as Nos. 13 and 14 on plate 176 of the plates to Medallic 
Illustrations, and as Nos. 394 and 395 of George II in that 
work. The obverse shows the figure of General Blakeney 

with the couplet, “ Brave Blakney Reward — But to B 

give a cord,” and the reverse shows the figure of Admiral 
Byng receiving a bag of money from an outstretched hand 

with the question : “ Was Minorca sold by B for French 

Gold. 5 ’ No. 14 can be distinguished on the obverse by 
Blakeney’s baton pointing to the ship, and on the reverse by 
Byng’s figure being larger. 

I now write to put on record an interesting and possibly 
unique specimen in my collection upon which the legend on 
the reverse as struck reads : “ Minorca sold — For French 
Gold.” This carries out what was obviously the intention 
of the designer of the medal, namely, that the reverse 
legend should like that on the obverse be read as a couplet. 

This state of the reverse is interesting, but still more 
so is the fact that on my specimen the word “ was ” has been 
punched in in small sharp letters before the word “ Minorca/' 
while the word “ by ” and the letter “ B ” have been punched 
in on each side of Byng’s figure, changing the couplet as struck 

into the question : “Was Minorca sold by B for French 

Gold ” as struck on the published varieties. 

As far as I can judge both the obverse and reverse dies 
of the unpublished specimen are the same as those used for 



MISCELLANEA. 


255 


No. 14, and it would appear that the reverse die after striking 
the unpublished specimen was altered by cutting into it the 
letters as punched. 

The illustrated specimen and my own specimen of No. 14 
both have a flaw below the word “ gold.” The unpublished 
specimen shows no sign of this flaw, so that the reverse die 
probably broke after it had been altered. 

To understand the reason for the alteration in the die it is 
necessary to refer to the dates. 

Admiral Byng having failed to relieve the Island, re- 
turned, and arrived in England on July 26, 1756. He was at 
once arrested, and in December tried by court martial. The 
Court on January 27, 1757, sentenced him to be shot for 
neglect of duty, and the sentence was carried out on 
March 14. 

On the other hand, General Blakeney, who was in command 
of the garrison, only surrendered upon condition that the 
garrison should not be taken prisoners, but should be sent to 
Gibraltar. He did not arrive in England until November 17, 
1756. He was then knighted, and afterwards made an Irish 
Peer. On his death in 1761 he was buried in Westminster 
Abbey. 

Upon the loss of the Island the popular feeling in England 
against Byng was very high, and the charge of treachery made 
in the design of the reverse of the medal and in the couplet, 
reflects that feeling. 

A reference to the account of the court martial shows that 
no charge of treachery was made. As soon as it was known 
that no such charge would be made, the publisher of the 
medal evidently decided to tone down his reverse by altering 
the couplet containing a definite charge, into the form of 
a question, which, while still insinuating that there was 
treachery, suggested that Byng may not have been the 
culprit. After Byng’s execution there seems to have been 
a considerable change in the public feeling, and it was said 
that he ought never to have been executed, for what merely 
amounted to an error of judgment. 

The dies of the unpublished specimen were evidently pre- 
pared in the interval between Byng's return in July and 
Blakeney’s return in November. The couplet was probably 
altered into the form of a question before any number of 
specimens were struck. Then in consequence of the failure 
of the reverse die at “Gold” the new dies for No. 13 were 
prepared and the bulk of the issued medals struck from 
these dies. 

The size of the figure of Byng on No. 13 was considerably 



256 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


reduced from that on No, 14, but this probably has no special 
significance. The issue would appear to have been made before 
Blakeney was rewarded with honours, and before it was 
known that Byng was to be shot and not hung with a cord. 

In conclusion, it may be noticed that in November, 1756, 
Blakeney was an old man of 84, which the figure on the 
obveisc certainly does not suggest. 

F. Willson Yeates. 


Countermarking of Base Testons. — Adverting to Mr. G. C. 
Brooke’s note on this subject (Num. Citron ., 4th Ser. Vol. XIII. 
p. 130), I may ubstri vt that the engraver at the Tower Mint 
provided 955 stamps at 1 2d, each, in 1560, for marking the 
testons with the portcullis and greyhound (P.B.O. Declared 
accounts. Pipe Office 2185). A list of the towns in which the 
stamping was to be done is given among the Dom. State 
Papers of Elizabeth (vol. 14, No. 5). I noticed that Bristol, 
Wells, and Glastonbury were the only places mentioned in 
the south-west country. 


Henry Symonds. 



CUUU1GL1NDUJM. 

On page 37, lines 16 and 17 of note, for Con read 

C'uustautinopuli. 




X. 


GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH 
MUSEUM, 1911-1912. 

(See Plates XII., XIII.) 

From the present article on Greek coins recently 
acquired by the British Museum, I have omitted those 
which are about to be published, sooner or later, in 
forthcoming volumes of the Cit<(lor/ne. As it is the 
practice of the Department of Coins in its purchases 
to devote special attention to such fields as are not 
covered by the already published volumes of the Cata- 
logue, this limitation means that some of the more 
interesting acquisitions of the years 1911 and 1912 do 
not appear in these pages. I have included no coins of 
Palestine, the volume dealing with which is now in the 
press, or of Cyrenaica, of which the catalogue may be 
expected from Mr. E. S. G. Robinson in a few years, or 
of the Macedonian kings, of whose coins large numbers 
have been recently acquired. 1 


1 In this connexion I may mention especially the generous gifts of 
thirty gold staters of Philip II and Alexander by Mrs. E. E. Deacon, 
and of fifty silver tetradrachms of Alexander III from the Damanhur 
hoard by Mr. E. T. Newell. 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. T 



258 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 


POPULONIA EtRURIAE. 

Obv. — Beardless head r., with short curly hair; tore 
round neck; behind, XXV. Plain linear border. 

Rev. — Plain. 

tf. 11 mm. Wt. 21*0 grs. (1*36 grms.). 

[Pl. XII. 1.] 

This specimen of a rare coin 2 is said to have come 
from Popnlonia. 

Capua. 

Obv. — Head of Zeus r., laureate ; below, four pellets ; 
border of dots. 

Rev . — Winged thunderbolt ; four pellets ; border of dots. 

JE, 33 mm. Z 1 Wt. 353*0 grs. (22*90 grms.). 
[Pl. XII. 2.] Prom the Prowe Sale (Egger, 2, 
v. 1912), lot 47. 

Thurium. 

Obv. — Head of Apollo r., laureate, with long hair. 

Rev. — [©]OYP I ON (in exergue). Bull butting r. ; above, 

XOI. 

M. 21 mm. 4 Wt. 88*7 grs. (5*75 grms.). 
[Pl. XII. 3 .] Prom the Egger Sale, xxxix. 
(15, i. 1912), lot 56. 

This coin is apparently from the same dies as another 
specimen also recently sold at Vienna (Egger, xli, 
18, xi. 1912, lot 74). It belongs to the period of 
reduced weight, after 281 b.c., 3 but the style of the 
Apollo head is unusually fine for the time, as may be 
seen by comparing it with the careless work of other 

2 A. Sambon, Monn. Ant. d’ Italic , p. 38, No. 4. 

3 Cp. Evans, Horsemen of Tarentum , p. 228. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 259 


specimens, such as that previously in the British 
Museum. 4 


Caulonia. 

Obv . — Nude Apollo moving rapidly to r. (holding, as 
usual, branch in r., small winged figure in 1.) ; 
in field r. stag on pedestal ; 1. bull’s head facing, 
surrounded by olive (?) branches, which appear 
to spring from a stem. 

Rev . — KA AT AM Stag r ; fillet border. 

M. 19*5 mm. Wt. 102*6 grs. (6*65 grms.). 

[PL XII. 4.] 

The tree with branches framing the bull’s head on the 
obverse is not noticed by Garrucci, who publishes a 
similar specimen, PI. cxi. 19. On most Cauloniate 
coins Apollo’s position is that of standing or at the most 
striding; ; here both knees are slightly bent as on 
B. M. G ., No. 25. 


Segesta. 

Obv . — XETEXTAUB (in exergue). Quadriga moving 
slowly to r., driven by female figure ; the four 
horses indicated by doubling the outlines of the 
legs of a pair ; the driver holds in her raised r. 
a bunch of three ears of corn. 

Rev . — ETE5TAI (on 1. upwards) ON (on r. downwards). 

Nude hunter standing r. with two dogs (usual 
type, the ithyphallic herm off the flan). 

M. 28*5 mm. Wt. 253*5 grs. (16*13 
grms.). [Pl. XII. 5.] 

This coin belongs to the rare earliest class of the 
Segestan tetradrachms, placed by Lederer 5 between 


4 Head, Guide, V. C. 18. 

5 Die Tetradrachmenpragung von Segesta (1910), pp. 18 f. 

T 2 



260 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


454-53 and 426 (?). The obverse is apparently from 
the same die as his No. 3, and shows that the inscription 
should be read as given above, and not without the last 
two letters. 


Selinus. 

Ohv . — Leaf of wild celery. 

Rev . — Incuse square divided into eight triangles by lines 
crossing in the centre. 

iR. 23 mm. Wt. 135*3 grs. (8*77 grins.). 

[PL XII. 6.] 

This didrachm is said to have come from a small 
hoard found in Malta. The rendering of the leaf is 
unusual, and does not show the feathery appearance 
which is found on other specimens, nor is the division 
between the three lobes carried out distinctly. But 
there seems to be no reason to doubt the genuineness of 
the coin. 


Syracuse. 

The fine specimen of the well-known medallion illus- 
trated on PI. XII. 7, was generously presented to the 
Museum by Mr. Henry Van den Bergh, through the 
National Art Collections Fund. It was purchased at 
Vienna, at Eggers sale of the Feneiiy Bey, &c., 
Collections. 6 

The fact that at least five 7 specimens of this medallion, 
struck after the fracture of the obverse die, exist, shows 
that the Syracusans were not offended by the appearance 


G Ratal, xli. lot 152. 

7 (1) “Late Collector,” Sotheby, May, 1900, lot 153; (2, 8) Hirsch, 
Ratal, xxxii. lots 316, 317 ; (4) the Paris specimen, Rev. Rum , 1913, 
PL i. 174; (5) the coin here illustrated. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM, 261 

produced by the fracture. To a modern eye also, 
accustomed to the work of Rodin, the suggestion of a 
mass of rock, out of which the head rises, is distinctly 
attractive. 

The reverse die from which this medallion was struck 
was also used for the following pieces : — 

1-4. The four mentioned above from the same broken 
obverse die. 

5-6. The Paris medallion and that from the Santa 
Maria hoard published by Sir Arthur Evans. 8 

7. The specimen in the British Museum, Sicily , 
No. 204. 

8. Hirsch, Eatalog xxxii. lot 313. 

9. Du Ohastel, PI. xvi., No. 143. 

Its peculiarity lies in the double signature, KIMQN, on 
the upper edge of the exergual line (of which practically 

no traces survive on most specimens), and in the 
field below the reins. The die is otherwise easily identi- 
fied by two flaws : a small one between the sixth and 
seventh hooves (counting from the left), and a crack 
proceeding downwards from the exergual line just below 
the near wheel of the chariot. 9 

Of the five pieces from the same broken obverse die, 
the Paris specimen (No. 4 in the above list) seems to be 
the earliest; nearly the whole of the dolphin behind 


8 Symcusan “ Medallions ,” p. 200, and PI. ii. fig. 1. 

0 The writer of the text of the “ Clioix de Monnaies grecques du 
Cabinet de Prance,” now appearing in the Bevue Numismatirjue (1913, 
pp. 121), states that his No. 173 is from the same reverse die as his 
No. 174, which is from the fractured obverse die. In his illustration, 
however, I can see no trace of the characteristic flaw between the 
horses’ hooves, and the flaw in the exergue seems to differ from that 
on the nine other coins. Indeed, the reverse die of Paris 173 seems 
to be the same as that which was used for No. 202 in the British 
Museum ; both coins are also from the same obverse die. 



262 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Arethusa’s head is still clear of the flaw, which is, how- 
ever, running into her hack hair. Then conies the 
Hirsch specimen (No. 2) ; the flaw has spread consider- 
ably, but the dolphin is still discernible, and would be 
plainer if it were not partly off the flan. Between the 
three other specimens there is little to choose. It would 
be interesting to find a medallion struck from this 
obverse die before the fracture began, if indeed it did 
not break at the outset. 


Acanthus. 

Obv . — Lion r., bringing down bull 1. ; dotted exergual 
line ; border of dots. 

Rev. — Mill -sail incuse square. 

JR. 22*5 mm. Wt. 256*5 grs. (16*62 grms.). 
[PI. XII. 8.] From the Taranto hoard (Rev. 
Nwn 1912, p. 13, No. 27, PI. ii. 7). 

The greater part of the exergue being off the flan, it 
is not possible to say whether it contained the acanthus- 
flower. The coin differs from the ordinary early 
Acanthian series in fabric, being dumpy, instead of flat. 
Mr. Robinson also points out to me the difference in the 
treatment of the bull, as seen in the skin of the neck, 
which is rendered in parallel folds, and not in three 
rows of curls as on nearly all the other Acanthian 
tetradrachms. In fact, in this respect it approaches 
some of the Thraco-Macedonian coins (e.g. Head, Gulch, 
PI. 5, Nos. 15, 17), &c. M. Babelon places the piece at 
the head of the Acanthian series, and that certainly 
seems to be the only place for it. 



GREEK COIRS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 263 


Thessaly. 

From a hoard recently discovered near Larissa the 
Museum acquired 75 double-victoriates and drachms of 
the Thessalian League. Among the double-victoriates 
are the following on which the magistrates’ names may 
be recorded as of interest : — 


Obv . — Head of Zens. 
ZOZI riATPOY 

AYKOcfcANTOZ (?) 


innAiTAE 

MENEAHMOZ 

ZQZIB10Y 


Rev . — Fighting Athena. 
[A]AKETHZ 

AAEEin[nOZ] HPA N1KATOP 

AMYNANAPOY 

AIKAIOZ 0NAZ1MBP0T0Z 

[E]YKOAOZ ANTITONOZ 

KPATEPO<t>PONOZ 

AMYNANAPOZ 

KPATinnOY N1 
HAYZANIAZ N1 
cpEPEKPATHZ NEOTEPOZ 
ZIMY 


Damastium. 

Obv . — Head of Apollo r. laureate, with long hair. 

Rev. — Tripod with lion’s feet on basis; on 1., dagger, 
blade upwards ; on basis, H PAKA ; on r. upwards, 
El AO ; on 1. upwards, KH 

M. 27 mm. ^ Wt. 198*7 grs. (12*88 grms.). 
[PL XII. 9.] From the Pro we Sale (lot 841). 

For this variety of the coinage of Damastium, which 
is without the ethnic, see Imhoof-Blumer, Z . /. N. s i. 
p. 110. The magistrate’s name KH (for KrupLao^SvTog) 10 
fixes it to Damastium rather than Pelagia. 


10 Z. f. N., xsi. p. 258. 



264 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Corinth. 

Obv . — Pegasus flying 1. ; below, ? 

' Bed .— Head of Athena r. in Corinthian helmet ; behind, 
ivy-leaf. 

JR. 22 mm. f Wt, 131-6 grs. (8-53 grms.). 

[PL XII. 10.] 

In addition to this the two staters from the Egger Sale, 
xxxix. (1912), lots 289, 290, are now in the British 
Museum (symbols, vine -leaf and aphlaston). The 
former, however, has no ? , and, as Mr. Robinson points 
out to me, is probably Sicilian [PL XII. 11]. 

Obv. — MAVRA NT ON1NVCAVG (sic). Bust of M. Aurelius 
r. laureate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass ; 
border of dots. 

Rev. — CLI COR Palaemon on dolphin to r. ; border of 
dots. 

M. 25 mm. <-Wt. 163*3 grs. (10*58 grms.). 
[Pl. XII. 12.] From the Prowe Sale, lot 1052. 

The mistake in the emperor’s name, which is doubt- 
less due to the engraver being a Greek, occurs on other 
coins, e.g. B . ill. G, : Corinth, Nos. 613 and 616 (where, 
however, it has escaped notice). The obverse die of 
these two is the same, but differs from that of the new 
coin. 


Obv . — PLAVTI LLA AVGVSTA Bust of Plautilla r . ; border 
of dots. 

Rev . — CLICOR Artemis huntress r., in temple with 

four columns and central arch ; on either side a 
slender leafless tree, its branches overshadowing 
the temple j border of dots. 

Mi. 23*5 mm. Wt. 70*7 grs. (4*58 grms.). 
[Pl. XII. 11.] From the same collection, lot 
1053. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 265 


This appears to be the identical coin figured in Imhoof 
and Gardner’s Numismatic Commentary, Pi. D. lxviii. 


Nicaea. 

Obv. OYHMA H1MEINO C AV Bust of Maximinus r . , 

laureate, wearing paludamenbum and cuirass. 

Bev . — N 1 KA1 [EQ]N Nicaea, wearing turreted crown, 
standing r., holding in r. kantharos, resting 
with 1. on filleted thyrsos. In countermark, 
figure of Nike r., holding wreath. 

.ZE. 26 mm. f Wt. 118*3 grs. (7*67 grms.). 
[PI. XIII. 1.] From the Leitner Sale, 1911, 
lot 85. 

The Becueil gives no instance of this type under Maxi- 
minus or Maximus. The staff on which the goddess 
rests is meant for a thyrsos, although its head is hardly 
visible. 


Obv. IBTAAAOIIAVI (s?c) Bust of Trebonianus 

Gallus i\, radiate, wearing paludamentum and 
cuirass. 

Bev . — NIKA - - Hades-Sarapis seated 1., 1. resting on 
sceptre, extended r. pouring wine from phiale 0) ; 
at his feet, Kerberos. 

JE. 24 mm. Wt. 99-2 grs. (6*43 grms.). 
[Pl. XIII. 2.] From the Leitner Sale, ibid. 

Obv . — nOYAIKOYAAE PIANO CAY Bust of Valerian r., 

radiate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass. 

Bev . — AlON[YCOC?]N I KAIEU[N] Dionysos, nude, 
standing 1., holding kantharos in r., resting 
with 1. on filleted thyrsos. In oval counter- 
mark, head of an emperor r. 

M. 25 mm. f Wt. 112*4 grs. (7*28 grms.). 
[PI. XIII. 3.] From the Leitner Sale, ibid. 



266 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Obv. — nOYAlOYAAEPlANOCCE Bust of Valerian r., 

radiate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass. 

Rev. — NIKA 1 EON Athena, helmeted, standing L, hold- 
ing Nike in r., shield and spear in 1. 

JE. 23 mm. f Wt. 89-9 grs. (5*83 grms.). 
[PL XIII. 5.] From the Leitner Sale, ibid. 

Obv. — mOVBAIKErNrAAAHNOCAVr Bust of Gallienus 
r., radiate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass. 

Rev. — NI KA 1 EON Demeter (?) seated L, resting with 
1. on knotted sceptre or torch, holding in ex- 
tended r. ears of corn. 

2E. 26 mm. ^ Wt. 146*6 grs. (9*50 grms.). 

Countermarked X on obv. [Pl. XIII. 6.] 

JE. 25 mm. ^ Wt. 108 grs. (7*00 grms.). 
From same dies as preceding. Both from the 
Leitner Sale, ibid. Compare the standing type, 
Recueil, FI. lxxxvii. 27. 

Obv. — nOAlErNrAAAHNOCAYr Bust of Gallienus r., 
radiate, wearing paludamentum and cuirass. 
In countermark, X 

Rev. — NIKA I E U N Nicaea standing to front, holding- 
in each hand extended a prize crown, and wear- 
ing another on her head. 

JE. 24 mm, ^ Wt. 128*7 grs. (8*34 grms.). 
[Pl. XIII. 7.] From the Leitner Sale, ibid. 
This reverse appears to be from the same die as 
that of the coin of V alerian, Recueil , Pl. lxxxvii. 6. 
On the type, see Imhoof-Blumer in Nomisma , v. 
p. 42;vi. p. 2. 

Obv. — K0PNCAA[O]NINACEB Bust of Salonina r. 

Rev. — NI[KA]IE IAIN Table with curved legs, supporting 
three prize crowns, the centre one piled up with 
six balls, the others containing palm-branches ; 
below the table f!Y©IA | EEYHPI [ A [ ATOY EIA 
In countermark, head of an Emperor r. 

JE. 25 mm. ^ Wt. 88*8 grs. (5*75 grms.). 
[Pl. XIII. 4.] From the Leitner Sale, ibid. 
This reverse is from the same die as those of 



GREEK GOINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 267 


the two coins of G-allienus and Salonina, Becueil , 
852 and 863. ATOYCIA (for AYTOYLTIA) should 
therefore be added to the legend of the former, 
and FIY0IA to that of the latter. 


Cyzicus. 

Obv . — AVKA1 MAVPC6VH POCANTQNGINOCCG Bust of 
Caracalla r. 3 with short beard, wearing palu- 
d amentum and cuirass. 

Rev . — CTPANOYM IZOIAOV and in exergue KVZIKHNQN 
| NEOKOPQN Imperial galley to 1., with 
double ram, keleustes and rowers ; on the prow 
is an uncertain object resembling an altar ; on 
the poop, two standards and stylis ('?). 

jE. 35 mm. f Wt. 310*0 grs. (20*09 grms.). 
[PL XIII. 8.] From the Leitner Sale, ibid. 

Babelon 11 and Kubitschek 12 have discussed the signi- 
ficance of the representation of the imperial galley on a 
Cyzicene “ medallion ” of Commodus; the type appears 
to be connected with a visit of the imperial family to 
Cyzicus in summer 175. Similar types occur on other 
coins of Caracalla, 13 and the galley with standards is, 
indeed, a common Cyzicene type ; but whether it always 
refers to an individual visit of an emperor or a governor 
is a question that requires further consideration. Cara- 
calla, as Hasluck has remarked, 14 may well have visited 
Cyzicus in 214 a.d. 


11 Bev. Num ., 1891, pp. 27 ft. 

12 Num. Zeit., 1911, p. 15. 

13 Mionnet, Sitpp., v. p. 3m, Nos. 377-879. 

14 Cyzicus , p. 189. 



268 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Uncertain of Ionia. 

Ohv . — Sphinx with curled wing seated L, r. foreleg raised. 

Bev. — G-orgoneion in deep incuse square ; outside the 
square, below, a small rectangular incuse im- 
pression. 

iR. 14*5 mm. 7^ Wt. 49*1 grs. (3*18 grms.). 
[PL XIII. 9.] 

This was purchased at Smyrna, and is clearly Ionian 
in style. The Gorgoneion is not dissimilar from that 
which is found on the later silver coins attributed to 
Clazomenae. 15 The sphinx, of course, suggests Chios, 
although the Chian sphinx seldom raises its foreleg. 16 
The weight of the coin may be a “Phoenician” or a 
Chian or a Samian drachm ; 17 its date may be placed in 
the first quarter of the fifth century. 


Ephesus. 

The following magistrates’ names, occurring on 
Ephesian tetradrachms of the period 394-301 (accord- 
ing to Head’s dating) acquired by the Museum since 
the publication of the Catalogue of Ionia , may be noted 
as either unpublished or- confirming previous readings : — 
(1) Bee with curved wings : 

BAOKIAEV 

d>OKYA (apparently struck over another 

name ending in PIM 


15 B. If. C. ; Ionia , p. 14, Nos. 15, 16, PI. vi. 4, 5. 

1(5 An exception is the electrum coin in Babelon, Traitd, iii. PI. viii. 9. 
For sphinxes with the foreleg raised cp. the same hook, PI. xxviii. 11-13 
(the last is surely Lycian). 

17 B, M. C. : Ionia , p. xxxviif. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 269 

(2) Bee with straight wings : 

AIOTI M IAAZ (cp. Wadd., 1518) <j>IAOAEn[Z] 

IHBIOZ 4>YAAKOZ (cp.Wadd., 1542). 

Another new Ephesian magistrate is APIZTONOMOZ on 
a bronze coin similar to B. M. C. f Nos. 58 ff. 

Cnidus. 

Obv. — Lion’s head and r. foreleg r. 

Bev . — Female head r., with hair rolled behind, in deep 

incuse square. 

M. 0-75 mm. ^ Wt. 6-6 grs. (0*43 grm.). 

[PL XIII. 10.] 

A charming hemiobol of about 400 B.C., and pre- 
sumably to be classed with Nos. 20-23 in the British 
Museum Catalogue (period 412-400), although the treat- 
ment of the obverse is in some respects closer to the 
style of the next period. 

Flaviopolis in Cilicia. 

Obv . — IOVAI AMAMAIACCB Bust of Mamaea r. 

Bev . — cbAAOVIOnO — QNET and vertically in centre 

r 

of field P The Dioscuri, nude, leaning on 
N 

spears, joining hands. 

JE. 23 mm. ^ Wt. 129*2 grs. (8*37 grm.). 

[Pl. XIII. 11.] 

The date TNP = 225-6 a.d. occurs on another coin of 
Mamaea 18 and on coins of Sev. Alexander and Orbiana. 19 


18 Babelon, Inv. Wadd ., 4297. 

19 Imhoof-Blumer, Kleinas. Munien,, ii. p. 445. 



270 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The type of the Dioscuri is also found on a coin of 
Trajan, 20 but there they have the crescent (for Helen) 
between them. 21 


Tarsus. 

Obv. AVPANTQNGINCe Bust of Elagabalus (?) 

r.j laureate, undraped. 

Bev . — TAPCOVTHCM HTPOnOAG Wreath of derni- 

ourgoSj within which AH Ml ; below, FB. 

JE. 26*5 mm. ^ Wt. 107*0 grs. (6*93 grms.). 

This coin confirms the reading of Waddington, 4643 ; 
but the features seem to me to resemble Elagabalus 
rather than Caracalla, to which emperor M. Babelon 
assigns the Waddington specimen. Both Emperors held 
the title of demiourgos at Tarsus. 22 


Caesarea Cappadociae. 

A good specimen of the bronze coin of Claudius de- 
scribed by Imhoof (Moim. greequcs, p. 417, No. 182) 
was acquired in 1912. In B. 2L C, Cilicia (p. 31, No. 4) 
this coin was attributed doubtfully to Anazarbus, in 
ignorance of Imhoofs previous attribution to Caesarea. 
It is interesting now to note that the newly acquired 
coin was purchased at Anazai’bus itself by the person 
who sold it to the British Museum. 


20 Babelon, loc. cit ,, 4284. 

21 See B. M. C. ; Lyccionia , &c., p. cviii note ; cp. J. H. S.,xxxi. p. 62. 

22 JB. M. C.: Lyccionia, dc., p. xcviii; Wroth, in Num. Chron ., 1902, 
p. 343. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 271 


Antiochus I of Syria. 

Obv . — Head of Athena r., wearing crested Corinthian 
helmet, adorned with coiled serpent ; her hair 
in formal curls. 

Hev . — BAZIAEOY | AN TIOXOY Nike standing 1., 
carrying wreath and standard ; in field 1., 
monogram, 

A. 18*5 mm. f Wt. 132*8 grs. (8*61 grms.). 

[PI. XIII. 12.] 

The four gold staters of Antiochus I in the British 
Museum which bear his portrait have the reverse die 
inverted as regards the obverse. They were probably 
struck in the East, where that arrangement was fashion- 
able . 23 The present stater, with Alexandrine types, 
has both dies in the same position. Whether this 
points to a Western mint I cannot say. The die-posi- 
tions of the Alexandrine silver of the same reign seem 
to follow no fixed rule. Of the tetradrachms in the 
British Museum two are f, one ^ ; of the drachms, one 
is the other f ; and a half-drachm is 


Antiochus IY of Syria. 

Obv . — Head of Zeus Osiris r., laureate ; the wreath is 
decorated in front with the cc cap of Osiris ” (?), 24 
and its tie is treated like a diadem, with one 
end flying behind, the other coming over r. 
shoulder ; border of dots. 

Rev. — BAZIAEUUE | ANTIOXOY on r. downwards, ©EOY | 
Eni<i>ANOVZ on 1. downwards. Eagle with 
closed wings standing r. on thunderbolt. 

ZE. 36*5 mm. ^ Wt. 574*8 grs. (37*25 
grms.). [PI. XIII. 13.] 

m 

23 Macdonald, in Corolla Niunismutica, p. 187. 

24 See Gardner, JB. M, C. : Seleucicl Kings , p. 38. 



272 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


An unusually well-preserved and patinated specimen 
of a well-known coin. Attempts have been made to 
see in the head of Zeus on the tetradrachms of this 
Antiochus a reproduction of the features of the King, 
As Babelon remarks/ 5 all that can be said is that the 
features of the god are intentionally brought into a 
certain resemblance to those of the King. On the other 
hand, the not very usual treatment of the tie of the 
laurel-wreath seems to recall the regal diadem. 


Seleucus IV of Syria. 

Obv. — Head of King r., diademed; border of dots. 

Rev . — BAZIAEQZ | ZEAE YKOY Apollo seated L on 
omphalos, holding arrow in r., resting 1. on bow ; 
above and in exergue, thunderbolts ; in field r. 
H ; 1. monogram, £] and laurel-branch. 

M plated. 4,30 mm. Wt. 233*2 grs. 
(15*11 grms.). [PL XIII. 14.] 

The tetradrachms of Seleucus IV with Apollo on the 
omphalos as reverse type fall into two groups ; in the 
one, the king’s diadem falls straight, and the border is 
of dots (B. M. C. : Sdcucicl Kings , p. 31, Nos. 1, 2) ; in the 
other, one of the ties of the diadem flies backward and 
upward, while the other comes forward over the right 
shoulder, and the border is a fillet. In the former 
class there is usually a symbol behind the head — a 
wreath on B. M. 0 Nos. 1, 2, and on the Bunbury 
specimen 26 now in the British Museum, and perhaps 
also on at least one of the Paris specimens. 27 In regard 


25 Rois de Syne , p. scvi. 

20 Sale Catal. , ii. lot 484. 

27 Babelon, Rois de Syi ic, p. 62, No. 475, pi. xi. 14 : in the illustration 
I see traces of something behind the head. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 273 


to the diadem and border the present coin belongs to 
the former class, but it has no symbol on the obverse ; 
for this, however, compensation is made on the reverse 
by the duplicated thunderbolt and the laurel-branch. 
So, too, on the coins ‘of the second class, since there is 
no room for a symbol on the obverse, two (wreath and 
palm-branch) are put together on the reverse. This 
coin seems to be transitional between the two classes. 

A few days after the above was written, I was shown 
in a private collection formed in Persia a tetradrachm 
of Seleucus IV, with an obverse of the more usual kind, 
and a reverse exactly similar to the present one. But 
the coin was distinctly suspect, being either struck from 
false dies (of which the reverse may have been made 
from one similar to our own) or else a very fine cast. 


Armenia : Artavasdes III (?). 

Ob v . — Bust of King r., wearing Armenian tiara, adorned 
with a globe between two eagles ; behind, a 
small Kike flying holds out a wreath to crown 
him. 

jEtev . — BAX — above, METAAoY downwards on L, 
[APT]A!AXAo[Y] below. On r., the King, wear- 
ing trousers, standing 1., resting with 1. .on 
sceptre, extending r. to city-goddess, who kneels 
before him ; in the field between them, M 

2E. 17 mm. f Wt. 47*3 grs. (3*06 grms.). 

[PL XIII. 15.] 

The profile of the portrait on this coin is unfortu- 
nately lost, so that it is impossible to compare it with 
the portraits on coins attributed to Artavasdes I and 
III ; but the legend corresponds to that on the silver 
denarius 28 of the latter king (i being a mere blunder 

28 B. M. C . : Galatia, do., PI. xiv. 3. 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. U 



274 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


for Y in the King’s name). At the same time it is not 
impossible that the coin may have been struck by his 
father, Artavasd.es II, 29 the opponent of Tigranes III. 
The reverse type is a modification of one used by the 
Parthian kings in the first century b.c. ; thus, on coins 
of Orodes I the city-goddess kneels before the seated 
king, 30 and the same type occurs under Phraates IV. 31 
Our coin is too badly executed for us to see whether the 
goddess holds anything in her hands. 


Hispano-Carthaginian. 

Obv. — Head of Heracles 1., laureate, with curly beard ; 
large club over r. shoulder ; border of dots. 

Bev. — Elephant walking r., driven with a hooked goad 
by a rider who wears a long cloak ; border of 
dots. 

M. 26 mm. f Wt. 227*4 grs. (14*74 grins.). 

[PL XIII. 16.] 

This coin belongs to the important series of coins 
issued by the Bareids in Spain (doubtless from the mint 
at Carthago-Nova) to which due attention was fir ( st 
called in 1863, in connexion with the find of Mazarronl 32 
Two specimens from that find weighed 14*83 and 14*75 
grammes respectively. Ours was found in 1910 fit 
Mogente, 33 in the province of Valencia. The denomina- 


29 It was to this king that Gardner attributed the silver denarius 
just mentioned. 

30 B. M. G. : Parthia , p. T2, Nos. 30, 31, PI. xiv. 10, 11. 

3 * Ibid., p. 101, No. 11, PI. xix. 1. 

32 Zobel de Zangroniz, in Monatsber. der k. Akad. der IFiss., 1863 
(June), pp. 248 £f. ; cp. Memorial Numismatico Espanol, iv. pp, 160 f., 
177 f. 

33 See Boletin de la B. Acad, de laHistoria , June, 1910. 



GREEK COINS ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 275 

tion is the tetradrachm, two-thirds of the hexadrachm 
or largest coin of the series, which, according to Hultsch, 
weighs normally 23 ’39 grammes ; 84 the normal weight of 
these coins should therefore be 15*59 grammes. 


G-. F. Hill. 


See Hultsch, Met?ologie 2 , p. 425. 



XI. 


CHRONOLOGY OF THE DANUBIAN WARS OF 
THE EMPEROR MARCUS ANTONINUS. 

(See Plate XIV.) 

(Continued from p. 199.) 

The opening of a fresh, campaign in 173 is indicated by 
an abbreviated prefect to type ; I describe an example in 
the British Museum : 81 

N. Obv . — M. ANTONINVS A VG. TR. P. XXVII. Bust r., 
laureate and loricate. 

Bev . — IMP. VI. COS. III. The emperor paludate on 
horseback r., raising r. hand. 

There is no difficulty in the identification, and the 
type clearly marks a fresh departure in the war. But 
it also raises the question, whether a profeetio means 
necessarily a departure from the city. If it does, then 
the evidence of the coins flatly contradicts Dio, 82 who 
states that on the emperor’s return to the city in 
December, 176, he had been absent for eight years. I 
leave the point in doubt for the present ; other types 
will occur which raise the same difficulty. At all events, 
a fresh stage in the war is opened in 173. Following 
the precedent of 170, we look next for a type illustrating 


81 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 302. 


82 JSjpit. Dion. Cass., Ixxi. 39. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 


277 


the progress of the campaign. Instead of the fighting 
Minerva, we have this year a more august figure joining 
in the fray. I describe a large bronze medallion at 
Berlin : 83 


^E ra . Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVII. Bust r., 
laureate and loricate (seen from behind). 

Rev . — IMP. VI. COS. III. Jupiter, nude, in quadriga, 
galloping r., with r. hand hurling fuhnen ; 
beneath horses’ feet to r., figure in slight 
garment kneeling r., with face turned to- 
wards spectator, holding in r. hand spear, in 
1. hand shield, which rests on ground. 

[Pl. XIV. 7.] 

Jupiter of the Capitol has more than once been appealed 
to. This is the first time he has been represented as 
actually taking part in the combat. Is there any special 
reason for this ? Again I leave the question open, 
pending the consideration of other types. There is 
another Jupiter type of this year : 8i 

m\ Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVII. Bust r., 
laureate and loricate (seen from behind). 

Rev . — IMP. VI. COS. III. S.C. Jupiter, nude to waist, 
cloak hanging from shoulders and falling over 
knees, seated 1. on throne, holding in 1. hand 
sceptre, in r. hand Victory. 

This is the type of the Phidian Zeus at Olympia. Here 
it does duty for Jupiter Victor, parallel to Roma Victrix. 
An identical type on the coins of Commodus for 180 
is inscribed lOVl V1CTORI. The god who fought the 
campaign, then, brought it to a victorious issue. 


* 83 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 310. Cohen, however, gives I M P. VI I. on the 

reverse, an impossible reading: IMP. VI. is quite clear on the Berlin 
example. 

84 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 247. 



278 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


In this year, therefore, as in 170, we have a series 
of coins presenting the opening, the progress, and the 
successful close of a campaign, but again, as in 170, 
there is no salutatio . We may take it that the cam- 
paign of 173, like that of 170, was an inconclusive one. 
So much, I think, these three coins settle, but there are 
several other types of this year which demand considera- 
tion. Several types of the Marcomannic victory belong- 
ing to the previous year are repeated. They include 
the common types of Roma Victrix 85 and Victory with 
palm and wreath, 86 and the special type of Germania 
Subacta. 87 I have already described a type of 173 
closely akin to this, inscribed GERMANico AVG., and 
commented on its significance in relation to the war of 
170-172. There are two other types alluding to a 
German victory which closely cohere with those I have 
already mentioned, and must, I think, be brought into 
the same relation. The first I transcribe from Cohen : 88 

M. Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVII. Bust i\, 
laureate and loricate, with aegis on breast. 

Bev . — VICT. GERM, (in exergue) IMP. VI. COS. III. 

(above). Victory in quadriga , stepping 1., 
looking backwards. 

The other I describe from bronze coins at Berlin : 89 

JE\ Obv— M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVII. Head r., 
laureate. 


85 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A 283. 86 Cf. Cohen, ibid., 261. 

87 Cf. Cohen, ibid., 214. The Berlin collection has four silver coins 
hearing the type of Germania Subacta — a weeping captive by a trophy 
— without the inscription. Cohen does not give the coin ; it appears 
first in the present year. 

88 Cohen, II. M. A., 993. 


89 Cf. Cohen, ibid., 995. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 279 

Bev VI CT. 

GERMA.l 

IMP. VI. ) in laurel wreath. 

COS III 

s. c. 

/ 

There is nothing in the coinage of this year to indicate 
whether the types in question belong to its earlier or 
later months. Two of them recur in the following year . 90 
Yet the explicit reference to the “ German Victory” 
seems to associate them definitely with the war which 
won the title Germanicus, the JBellum German ieum sive 
Marcuhiunuicvm. The following coin, too, seems to me 
to have unmistakable reference to the Marcomannic 
victory : 91 

M\ Obv.—M. ANTONIN VS AVG. TR. P. XXVII. Head r., 
laureate. 

Bev. — RESTITVTORI ITAUAE IMP. VI. COS. 111. 

(margin) S C. (exergue). The emperor in 
loricct , jjalnJamcntitm, and boots, standing 1., 
holding sceptre in 1. hand, and giving r. hand 
to female figure in turreted crown and tunic, 
kneeling r. on r. knee, and holding globe in 
r. hand. * 

The coin is a dedication to the emperor as the Restorer 
of Italy, and in some sense a companion to the other 
dedication to the Conqueror of Germany (GERMAN ICO 
AVG.). They represent the two sides of the Marcomannic 
victory, the subjugation of Germany and the restoration 
of the integrity of the northern frontier of Italy. This 
at least is a possible interpretation of the coin, and one 
suggested by comparison with other coins of the year, 
and it is far more probable than a reference to benefac- 
tions to the country in the way of alimentary foundations 

00 Cohen, l.c., 226, 994. 

91 Cf. Cohen, lx., 538 ; Eckhel (vii. p. 58) gives the same type for 169 ; 
this coin is not recognized by Cohen, but would be quite in place. 



280 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


or subventions to agriculture, or any other administrative 
measures. Alongside of this coin may be placed another 
which seems to have a similar reference, and is fairly 
common in this year : 92 

JE\ Obv.—Wl. ANTONI NVS AVG. TR. P. XXVII. Bust r., 
laureate and loricate (seen from back). 

Eev. — SECVR1TAS PVBLICA IMP. VI. COS. 111. S. C. 

Female figure in x L ™v and I/rdriov, standing 
r.j supporting with 1. hand long palm branch, 
and raising 1. hand to head. 

The large collection of types of the German victory 
appearing in this year, and parallel to the Parthian 
types of 167, somewhat suggests a triumph, and this is 
more distinctly suggested by the following medallion : 93 

Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVII. Bust 1., 
laureate, seen from back ; aegis on 1. shoulder, 
strap over r. shoulder, spear visible over 1. 
shoulder. 

Bev . — IMP. VI. COS. III. (upper margin) ADVENTVS 
AVG. (exergue). Procession scene : r., tri- 
umphal arch, surmounted by quadriga of 
elephants ; 1., flaming altar, and in back- 
ground temple, of which only three columns 
and half the pediment are visible ; still further 
in the background 1., another building ; in 
foreground, centre, the emperor, wearing loricci, 
paludamentum , and boots, walking r., holding 
spear, and over 1. shoulder, trophy; he is 
preceded by two signiferi , of whom one wears 
cap and lorica and walks r. looking straight 
ahead, and the other walks r., but turns to 
face the spectator ; to 1., Victory in ytrcov, 
advancing r., and crowning emperor. 

[PL XIV. 9.] 


93 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 584. 

93 Neither Cohen nor Eckhel gives this medal for the present year, 
though both have it for 174 ; see Cohen, II. M. A., 3 ; Eckhel, vii. p. 61. 
The example I describe is in the Berlin collection. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCOS ANTONINUS. 281 


This looks like a triumphal entry into the city. A 
regular triumph, however, it can in strictness liardly be, 
since the emperor is on foot. But surely this medal 
must commemorate an actual advent us of the emperor. 
The details are far too circumstantial, and the back- 
ground, the triumphal arch and the Capitoline Temple, 
too definite, to allow of its being a merely symbolical 
“approach.” Here again, therefore, the coins seem to 
contradict Dio. The statement of this writer is so definite 
and occurs in such a context that it seems difficult to 
reject it, and yet it is harder to resist the evidence of 
the coins. That the emperor did pay a visit, if only a 
flying visit, to Home about this time, I am convinced. 94 
It is not easy to fix more closely the date of the visit, for 
the coins supply no data for classifying the types of this 
year as earlier or later. Yet in spite of its repetition in 
174, 1 think this medal must be associated with the other 
coins of the Marcomannic victory. It is worth while to 
compare it with the type of the emperor crowned by 
Victory which occurs on gold coins of 172 (see above, Vol. 
XIII. p. 188). Our present medallion seems to exhibit 
an elaboration of that type on lines which are quite usual 
in these cases ; it is by no means the first time that we 
have had a simple type on the coins of one year expanded 
into a complex type for a commemorative medallion of the 
next year. It is therefore quite reasonable, and indeed 
most consistent with the probabilities of the case, to sup- 
pose that this return to Home took place after the com- 
pletion of the Marcomannic victory, some time during the 
autumn of 172 or the winter of 172-173. The Profectio 


94 Such is Eckhel’s conclusion (see note ad l.c .), though he of course 
dates the advcntus in 174. 



282 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


coin of 173 in that case represents a real departure from 
the city in the spring, in readiness for the campaign of 
that year. This suits the circumstances in every way 
far better than to suppose a return to Eome at the close 
of 173, in the middle of what was practically a single 
continuous campaign lasting over two years. 

To the second year of this fighting I now pass. The 
coinage of 174 shows an increase in the imperatorial 
title, indicating a victorious issue of that year’s cam- 
paign. The proportions of the coins (at Berlin) struck 
before and after the change of titulature are as follows : 

With IMP. VI 20)*, 

With IMP. Vll 

The assumption of the title must, therefore, be placed 
not much later than the middle of the year. The most 
notable types which come in with IMP. Vll. are as 
follows : 95 

M. Obv.—Nl. ANTONI NVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII. Head r., 
laureate. 

Bev . — IMP. VII. COS. III. Victory in xrjw and ifjLdnov, 
seated 1., with feet on footstool, holding in 1. 
hand palm, in r, hand patera. 

M\ Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII. Head r., 
laureate. 

Bev . — IMP. Vll. COS. III. Female figure in plumed 
helmet, short x L ™ v which leaves r. breast 
bare, cloak, and boots, standing L, holding in 
1. hand spear with point downwards, in r. 
hand Victory. 

The Amazonian figure on the second coin is apparently 


95 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 826 sqq. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 283 


a Roma Victrix. There is nothing very definitive about 
these types, but there is a coin of the early part of the 
following year on which we can recognize one of the 
class of types regularly struck in connexion with a 
salutcitio. I borrow it from Cohen : 96 

A. Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXIX. Bust r., 
laureate, loricate, paludate, with aegis on 
breast. 

Hev.—\N\P. VI 1. COS. III. Victory, nude to waist, seated 
r. on shields, holding palm, and resting upon 1. 
knee a shield inscribed VIC. AVG. ; before her 
a trophy. 

This is a variety of that very frequent type, Victory 
with an inscribed shield. We have already had types 
of the same kind, with Vic. avg. in 164, with vie. par. 
in 167, with Vic. ger. in 171, in each case associated 
with a fresh Clearly it is here issued in 

connexion with imp. VI i., and it is only by accident 
that it does not appear till the beginning of 175. 97 

Besides these fresh types appearing with IMP. VI!., there 
are some important types which occur throughout the 
year. The prevailing one is the Jupiter Victor of last 
year, of which the Berlin collection has nine specimens 
for this year, only one of them inscribed IMP. vn. 
Passing over some less important types continued from 
173, we come to a new type, appearing first in the earlier 
part of the year, and persisting throughout it. At Berlin 


00 Cohen, lx. 228. 

97 Note that the occurrence of VIC. AVG. on the coins of the 7th 
salutation definitely confirms the attribution of the whole set of types 
of the “ German Victory” to the war concluded in 172. 



284 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


there are two examples with IMP. Vi, and one with 
IMP. Vli. I describe one of the former : 98 

JR. Obv. — M. ANTONlNVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII. Head r., 
laureate. 

Bev. — IMP. VI. COS. III. The emperor, togate, stand- 
ing 1., holding sceptre in 1. hand, and branch 
in r. hand. [PL XIV. 6.] 

The branch is probably laurel, and a sign of victory. 
The type would then be a sort of abbreviation of the 
ordinary triumph type, in which the tviumpliator bears 
such a branch. This is more probable than to suppose 
the branch to be of olive, comparing the type with that 
of Hercules Pacifer. The latter type appeared in 164, 
the year of the “ pacification ” of Armenia. The 
parallels already drawn between the Armenian War of 
163-164 and the German or Marcomannic War of 170- 
172 might suggest the appropriateness of such a type. 
There is, indeed, a type of 173 which might be Pax : 99 

JR. Bev. — IMP. VI. COS. III. Female figure with diadem, 
Xircov, and pernor, standing 1., holding sceptre 
in 1. hand and short caduceus in r. hand. 

But this might equally well represent Felicitas, and as 
named Pax coins of Marcus normally give not the 
caduceus but the olive branch, I think the present 
type should be called Felicitas, even though there is a 
slightly different type for this year, which is certainly 
Felicitas : 100 

M. Bev . — IMP. VII. COS. III. Female figure with diadem, 
Xmtojv, and tjaartoy, standing 1., holding in 1. 
hand cornucojnaej in r. hand long caduceus. 


08 Cf. Cohen, II. M.A., 351, which has IMP. VII. 

09 Not in Cohen; the type is usuaUy cahed by Cohen “Pax or 

Felicitas.” 100 Not in Cohen. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 285 


The type of the emperor holding a branch, then, is 
probably, though not certainly, a victory type. It is 
supported by other types with a similar reference, which 
apparently occur only in the earlier part of the year. 
The first is a Mars Victor, not given in Cohen, which I 
describe in full from an example at the British Museum, 
which seems to differ in slight details from the closely 
similar and similarly inscribed coin given by Cohen 
for 172 : 

M 2 . Olv.—U. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev . — MARTI VICTOR I IMP. VI. COS. ill. Mars, wear- 
ing plumed helmet, lorica, and cloak, standing 
r., holding in 1. hand spear, and laying r. hand 
on shield, which rests upon a captive ; the 
shield is inscribed S. C. [PI. XIV. 8.] 

The next is a new type, which I know only from 
Cohen : 101 


M. Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev . — MARTI VLTORI IMP. VI. COS. III. Mars walk- 
ing hastily 1., holding Victory and trophy. 

Unfortunately, Cohen gives no details of the costume 
worn by this Mars Ultor, but the type appears to be 
identical with that which in the preceding article, 102 on 
grounds of general probability, and on the strength of 
coins of Galba, Vitellius, and Vespasian which first 
introduce the type, I called Mars Victor. This name, 
on the other hand, is here applied to a type very similar 
to that of the resting Mars Ultor, as he is called on the 
coins of Pius and of Commodus. The present coin 


101 Cohen, II. M. A., 430. 


102 Vol. XI. p. 15 ; cf. pp. 16-18. 



286 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


differs from the best examples of the resting Mars in two 
points : (a) the spear does not point downwards, and 
(h) the shield rests upon an object which, whether it be 
a captive, or a helmet, or other piece of armour repre- 
senting the spoils of the enemy, indicates conquest. It 
is these points of difference alone that justify the name 
Mars Victor. They are little enough justification, and 
the name Mars Ultor must still hold the field as the best 
description of this personage, the present example being 
an isolated aberration. As for the so-called Mars Ultor 
of the present year, this case is less unjustifiable. For 
Mars Ultor is not a mere personification. He is a real 
person, an individual member of the Pantheon, the 
patron of the imperial house from the days of Augustus. 
He may, therefore, be specialized to various functions by 
means of special attributes, and just as Jupiter Capi- 
tolinus becomes Jupiter Victor, so Mars Ultor (= Mars 
Palatinus) may become Mars Victor. But when all 
is said, the exchange of names in this year is distinctly 
a departure, and not a happy departure, from the usage 
sanctioned by tradition. A third Mars crops up this 
year to complete the trio, the trophy-bearing Mars whom 
I have called, on the authority of Albinus and Severus, 
and by analogy with a type of Pius, Mars Pater. 103 

This list exhausts the types of the present year 
having a direct bearing on the war, for the Admntus 101 
and Profectio 105 types are evidently only repeated from 
173. The question is, whether this marked group of 
coins celebrating a victory belongs to the victory of 173, 


103 Yol. XI. pp. 18-22 : see Cohen, II. M. A., 254. 

10 * Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 3.. 

105 Not in Cohen, hut occurring on a gold coin in the British 
Museum. 



DANUBIAN WAKS OF MAKOUS ANTONINUS. 287 

commemorated by the Jupiter Victor coin of that year, 
or to a new victory won during 174 before the conclusive 
one which closed the campaign and won the seventh 
salutation. The following considerations seem to me 
to point to the former solution as the correct one : 
(i) these types are associated with that of Jupiter Victor, 
which marked the victory of 173 ; (ii) the Victory of 173 
is celebrated by this one type only, unless some one or 
two of the minor types are to be connected with it ; 
the present group of types would therefore appropriately 
supplement it; (iii) the short campaign of 174 leaves 
little room for an incidental victory to be celebrated on 
the coins before the final victory which occasioned the 
seventh salutation. 

This seventh salutation is by Dio 106 explicitly 
attached to a victory over the Quadi, the victory with 
which is associated the story of the “ Thundering 
Legion.” This reference has commonly been supposed 
to date the battle in question to the year 174, on the 
assumption that the salutation was conferred imme- 
diately on the close of the battle. If that be so, then 
the prominence given to this remarkable victory in the 
reliefs of the Antonine Column would lead one to 
expect that it would not pass unnoticed on the coins of 
the year. But, as a matter of fact, the coinage of 174 
shows no recognition of the miracle, for the types asso- 
ciated with IMP. Vil. are commonplace enough. N or can 
we look for a belated commemoration in the following 
year, for the change of titulature took place sufficiently 
early in 174 to allow for the introduction of new 
types, and, in fact, the coins of 175 do not show anything 


100 JEpit. Dion , Cass., lxxi. 10. 



288 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


fresh which might be associated with the miracu- 
lous victory. But a closer consideration of Dio’s 
account of the battle shows that it is hardly likely to 
have resulted in the critical victory of a decisive cam- 
paign. The miracle seems to have served rather to 
extricate the imperial troops from a tight place, and 
barely to avert a crushing defeat, than to achieve a 
really decisive victory. The language of the historian 
certainly suggests that the seventh salutation followed 
immediately on the battle, but, in the first place, we 
cannot trust the verbal form of the epitome in which 
Dio’s work has come down to us, and, in the second 
place, the custom by which the imperatorial salutation 
was given at the close of a campaign, and Marcus’ habit 
of deferring it to the close of a really decisive campaign, 
make it quite probable that the language of Dio’s 
epitomator is inaccurate, and that the salutation was 
given at the end of that stage in the fighting, whose 
turning-point was marked by the miraculous deliver- 
ance which changed impending defeat into victory. 
The victory of the u Thundering Legion,” therefore, 
may quite well be that of 173, if the evidence of the 
coins seems to suggest this dating. IsTow there is a 
very curious type which occurs for the first time on the 
coins of 173, and persists throughout 174, and then dis- 
appears. There are two main forms of the type, a 
simpler and a more elaborate. I give typical examples 
from the Berlin collection, in silver, and in the two sizes 
of bronze : 107 

M. Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII. Bust r., 
laureate and paludate. 


107 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A 532 sg_g_.; Eckhel, vii. p. 60. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 289 


Bev. — RELIG. AVG. IMP. VI. COS. III. Mercury, wear- 
ing petasus, chlamys , and boots, standing r., 
with head turned 1., holding in 1. hand 
caduceus , in r. hand patera. 

M 2 . Obv — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII. Head r., 
radiate (or bust r., radiate, loricate, and 
paludate). 

Bev. — RELIG. AVG. IMP. VI. COS. III. S. C. Mercury, 
with petasus , chlamys hanging from shoulders 
behind, and winged sandals, standing 1., hold- 
ing in 1. hand caduceus and in r. hand purse ; 
at his feet 1., cock standing 1. [PL XIV. 10.] 

M\ Obv.— M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXVIII. Head r., 
laureate (or bust r., laureate and loricate). 

Bev. — IMP. VI. COS. III. (margin) RELIG. AVG. (ex- 
ergue) S. C. Figure of Mercury as on HU 2 , 
standing in a small temple of peculiar con- 
struction : it has four columns in the form of 
terminal figures, and a lunar pediment, and 
is approached by four steps. The sculptures 
on the pediment vary slightly, but on the most 
perfect examples they are as follows, reading 
from 1. to r. : tortoise 1. ; cock L ; ram L, 
above which winged cap ; caduceus ; purse. 

With one or other of these types there are in the 
Berlin collection as many as eleven coins for the year 
173 and three for 174. Surely there must be some 
quite special ground for this considerable influx of a 
new type. Eckhel discusses the question, and suggests 
several explanations. The one he favours is that 
Mercury is associated with the emperor’s devotions 
( Beligio Augnsti ), because, according to an Egyptian 
theory, quoted by Diodorus Siculus, i. 16, Hermes was 
said rag twv Omv Ti/xag Kai Ovviag Siara^cu. This scarcely 
carries conviction. Much more plausible is the explana- 
tion suggested by his reference to Dio, lxxi. c. 8, 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. X 



290 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


where the miraculous rain-storra in the battle with the 
Quadi is said to have been the result of the incantations 
of the emperor’s tame magician Arnuphis, who called 
upon itWovg re TLvag Sct'ijUOVUQ xal rov pf±Y)V rbv atptov. 
If this was so, nothing could be more natural than to 
acknowledge the kindness of the god on the coinage. 
I feel convinced that this is the true explanation of 
this remarkable type, and that the battle of the “ Thun- 
dering Legion ” is to be dated to the year 173. It 
might be worth while to look among the coins definitely 
associated with the victory of this year for any indica- 
tion that it was won by divine help. The strangely 
unclassical scene on the Antonine Column, where the 
barbaric winged figure of Jupiter Pluvius shakes down 
the rain from his outstretched arms upon the discom- 
fited barbarians, could hardly be expected to find a 
reflection within the severely conventional limits of 
numismatic art. But we have seen among the types 
of 173 a remarkable representation of Jupiter Tonans 
hurling a thunderbolt at a prostrate barbarian. We are 
told by Dio 108 (quite apart from the Christian legend 
interpolated by Xiphilinus) that Kspctwol ovk oAryot and 
t Tvp £K rov ovp avov, as well as rain, were included in the 
performance. It may be, therefore, that this Jupiter 
Tonans of the coins takes the place of Jupiter Pluvius 
of the monument, and while this type would not neces- 
sarily imply a direct intervention of divine power, any 
more than does that of Minerva Bellatrix, for example, 
yet it gains point if we connect it with a miracle 
attested by the evidence as belonging to the present 
war, and it serves as one confirmation of the view that 


Epit, Dion, Gass ,, lxxi. 10. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 291 


the victory of the “ Thundering Legion 55 took place in 
173, that it was not a final, decisive victory, but marked 
the beginning of the turn of the tide, and that the 
seventh imperatorial salutation was given, not imme- 
diately upon the battlefield, but after the campaign of 
174 had made the subjugation of the Quadi final and 
complete. 

To sum up, then, we have in the years 173-174 a 
similar phenomenon to that which we have observed in 
170-171, practically a continuous two-years’ campaign, 
with incidental victories culminating at last in a new 
salutatio. This two-years’ struggle is evidently Dio’s 
7 roXsyUoe fteyag . . . h rt roac KCiXo/uivove KouaSoue. 109 Its 
official title does not appear. For convenience it may 
be styled the Quadic War in distinction from the 
Marcomannic War of 170-172. 

The remaining one of the protagonists is the Sar- 
matian tribe of the Iazyges. We have seen that a 
campaign against this tribe formed part of the strategy 
of the Marcomannic War of 170-172, but we can gather 
from the confused narrative of Dio some hints of the 
general plan of the operations against the barbarians. 
In his account of the negotiations with the Quadi, 110 
he mentions that the result of their submission was to 
separate the Marcomanni and the Iazyges. If we 
could trust the order of his narrative, it would appear 
that the victory over the Quadi was followed by a sub- 
missive embassy from the Iazyges, 111 which was rejected, 
and that a war ensued, ending in the defeat of the bar- 
barians. 112 Then follows an account of the negotiations 


100 Epit. Dion. Cass., lxxi, 8 ad mit. 
111 Ibid., 13 ad init. 


110 Ibid., 11. 
112 Ibid., 16. 

x 2 



292 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


and of the terms of peace. But the order of the 
excerpts from Dio which form these chapters is very 
doubtful, and between the rejection of the Iazygian 
embassy and the defeat of the Iazyges are inserted a 
passage recording the rebellion of the Quadi, 113 a digres- 
sion on Ariogaesus and Tiridates, 114 and an excerpt 
dealing with the Marcomannic settlement, 115 while the 
account of the Iazygian war has dropped out altogether. 
The chronology of the intervening excerpts is obscure. 110 
Still it seems clear that, according to the Dionean nar- 
rative, the emperor proceeded, after the Quadic victory, 
against the Iazyges. The evidence of the coins, in 
agreement with this, attests quite definitely a war 
against a Sarmatian tribe during the year 175, ending 
with a fresh salutation. Not only does IMP. VI II. appear 
during the year, but also two fresh titles, first Germcinicus , 
and then S<n’muticns. The proportions of coins at Berlin 
are as follows : 

With IMP. VII. 

With GERM. + IMP. VII. 

With GERM. + IMP. VIII. 

With GERM. SARM. + IMP. VI 1 1 



113 JUpit. Dion. Cass., lxxi. 13. 114 Ibid., 11. 115 Ibid., 15. 

11(5 If the text be retained in its present order, it would be possible 
to take c. 18 from ot jap Kovadoi as a parenthesis explaining the words 
vtv b rSjv KovaScov aTrarytiels, not intended to continue the chronological 
narrative, but referring back to the beginning of the Quadic war and 
its causes. The digression in c. 11 is quite natural, and the incident 
recorded in c. 15 may quite well be in place. The impression produced, 
if this view of c. 13 be correct, is that the Quadi were throughout the 
Marcomannic War regarded as “safe,” and that the intention was to 
proceed at once on the conclusion of the Bdlnm Germaniciun to the 
Bellum Sarmaticum, but a sudden rebellion of the Quadic “allies” 
made the war of 173-174 necessary before the main action could pro- 
ceed. This accords fully with the evidence of the coins, which denomi- 
nate the victories of 171 and 175 as over “ Germans ” and “ Sarmatians ” 
respectively, while the Quadic victory of 174 is simply Victoria Auyit&ti. 



DANUBIAN WARS OR MARCUS ANTONINUS. 293 

The title germanicvs is, as we have seen, not actually 
a new one, but it is during this year that it first appears 
among the titles on the obverse of the coins. Its ap- 
pearance may be dated roughly to June, and it is 
followed about three months later by IMP. VI 1 1 . , and then 
almost immediately by SARMATICVS. It would seem 
as if the German title were introduced merely to 
prepare the way for the Sarmatic, but another possible 
reason for its appearance, and a more plausible one, will 
suggest itself as we proceed. 

At all events the new title is clear evidence that the 
campaign of this year was against the Iazyges. It was 
concluded late in the year, and coins with IMP. viil. are 
not numerous in 175. Still rarer are coins bearing this 
inscription and a new type. In fact, there is only one 
fresh type, with which I am acquainted, having any 
clear bearing upon the course of the war, and this I take 
from Cohen : 117 

M. Obv.— M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev.— SECVR1T. PVB. TR. P. XXIX. IMP. VIII. COS. III. 

Securitas seated L, holding sceptre and resting 
arm on seat. 

This is a new variety of the Securitas type which last 
appeared in 173. No doubt its significance is the same 
here as in the former case. The repulse of the barbarians 
has restored the credit and. stability of the empire. 
Cohen gives another type which he doubtfully identifies 
as Pax, 118 and which may, if that identification be the 
true one, have a reference to the pacification of the last 


117 Cohen, II. M. A 587; Eckhel, vii. p. 62. 

118 Cohen, II. M, A 925. 



294 


NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 


disturbed area. But the identification is far from certain, 
and in view of the new and quite different Pax types 
which appear next year, it is most likely that the present 
coin represents some other personage, probably Felicitas. 
It is, in fact, to the coinage of the following year that 
we must look for the great body of the Sarmatian types. 
But before passing on to these, there are other types, 
belonging to the earlier part of the present year, which 
deserve attention. They have no direct connexion with 
this year’s campaign, for the only victory coins obviously 
belong to the Quadic war. Besides the Vic. avg. coin 
given above, we have only the seated Victory with palm 
and patera , 119 Ptoma Victrix, 120 and the trophy-bearing 
Mars (Pater), 121 all of which occur in 174. 

The most characteristic types of the first part of 
the year 175 (say, from December to June) are the 
following : 122 

M\ Obv.- — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXIX. Head i\, 
laureate. 

Rev. — IMP. VII COS. III. S. C. Pemale figure wear- 
ing diadem, and ifidnov, standing L, 

holding in 1. hand cot micojnae, m r. hand two 
ears ; to 1., at her feet, modi at, with poppy- 
head in the midst of four ears. 

M 2 . Obv.— M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXIX. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev. — AN NON A AVG. IMP. VII. COS. III. S. C. Modius, 
in which poppy-head in the midst of four ears. 

The first of these types is described by Cohen as Abun- 
dantia. It seems more likely that the second type is 


liq Cohen, II. M. A., 923 (but with IMP. VII. at Berlin). 

120 Ibid., 354 (but with IMP. VI 1. at Berlin). 121 Ibid., 314. 

122 Cf. ibid., 326 (but without GERM, at Berlin), 4. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 295 


intended as an abbreviation of the first, and that the 
figure is to be regarded as a personification of Annona. 
But tbe representations of these two figures are closely 
allied, and in fact hardly discriminated. In any case 
the prominence of these types seems to indicate some 
special measures this year in connexion with the 
administration of the corn supply . 123 The following type 
of the Tiber, which is numerous during these months 
(the Berlin collection has seven examples), has probably 
a similar reference : 124 

JE 2 . Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P- XXIX. Head r., 
laureate. 

Bev . — IMP. VII. COS. Ill (upper margin) S. C. Bearded 
male figure, nude to waist, reclining 1., with 
1 . arm resting on round urn, from which issues 
water ; 1. hand holding reed or sapling, r. 
hand resting on prow, L in background. 

But as these types throw no light upon the chronology 
of the war, I pass them by. The new type which comes 
in with the second period of the year, that marked by 
GERM + IMP. VII. in the legends of the coins (say, June to 
September), is a more interesting one. I describe a gold 
coin in the British Museum : 125 

Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. TR. P. XXIX. Bust 
r., laureate, loricate, and paludate, seen from 
back. 

Bev. — LIBERAL. AVG. VI. IMP. VII. COS. 111. Female 
figure wearing diadem, yyr&v, and Ipdriov , stand- 
ing 1 ., holding in 1 . hand cornucopiae , in r. hand 
abacus. 


123 Such measures are recorded (without date) in S. A ., iv. xi. 2-3. 

124 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A 348. 

125 Cf. ibid., 416 ; Eckhel, vii. p. 62. 



296 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


We have means of identifying and dating the coiigiarium 
which thus manifested the Liberality of the Emperor for 
the sixth time. Lampridius, the author of the Life of 
Commodus, informs us that Commodus assumed the toga 
virilis in 17 5, 120 and further, that it was on July 7 in 
that year ; 127 and that in connexion with this ceremony 
a congiarium was distributed, at which Commodus pre- 
sided adhue in yraeLAa queer ili, 128 i.e . at Rome, before he 
left for the limes . The date of this congiarium, then, is 
some time in June, 175, and so falls within the period 
suggested independently by the proportions of the 
coins. 129 

We are further told by Lampridius that Commodus’ 
assumption of the toga virilis took place “ eo tempore quo 
Cassius a Marco descivit” 180 We are prompted therefore 
to look for indications of the revolt in the coinage. 
Now among the coins of the earliest months of the year 
(December to June, roughly) we find the following : 131 

iE 2 . Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXIX. Bust r., 
laureate, loricate, and paludate. 

Lev. — CONCORD. EXERC. IMP. VII. COS. Ill- S. C. 

Clasped hands, holding standard surmounted 
by eagle. 


E. A., vii. 12, § 3. 127 H. A ., vii. 2, § 2. 

128 E. A., vii. 2, } 1 ; cf. iv. 22, § 12. 

120 From this time coins of Commodus become frequent. So great, 
however, is the obscurity attaching to the early coinage of this emperor 
that it is scarcely available as independent evidence, and I have pre- 
ferred to treat it in a separate article, and to use the coinage of Marcus 
alone as data for the chronology of the Danubian Wars, m order that 
this chronology may serve as a basis for a study of the coinage of 
Commodus. 

130 E, A., vii. 2, § 2 ; cf. Ejpit. Dion. Cass., Ixxi. 22. 

131 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 60, 387 ; No. 352 has the type of Concordia 
without the inscription. 



DANURIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 297 


M 1 . Obv.—M. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXIX. Bust r., 
laureate and loricate. 

Rev. — IMP. VII. COS. III. S. C. Female figure in long 
Xtroiv, standing 1., holding in r. hand short 
caduceus , in 1. hand standard apparently 
crowned with laurel wreath. 

Cohen rightly names the second of these types Fides 
Militaris. I have already observed that Concordia and 
Fides are closely associated with times of disturbance 
and rebellion, and it can hardly remain doubtful that 
they are here used with reference to the revolt of 
Avidius Cassius. This revolt, therefore, must have taken 
place during the first six months of the year, and it was 
clearly the reason why Commodus was in June summoned 
to the frontier. May not the outbreak of the revolt also 
suggest a reason why, about the same time, the title 
Germanicus begins to appear regularly on the coins ? 
Cassius disparaged Marcus as a soldier, and the emperor 
may have felt that after all a little self-assertion might 
be useful. The remaining events of the year, then, fall 
into the following order. Commodus presided over his 
congiarkm in June. On July 7 he assumed the toga 
virilis and was commended to the army. Later, about 
September, the campaign against the Iazyges came to 
a close, and the eighth salutatio was almost immediately 
followed by the assumption of the title Sarmaticus. In 
all probability we should, but for the revolt, have had a 
two or three years 5 war, like those against the Marco- 
manni and the Quadi. The literary authorities are 
unanimous that the operations w r ere cut short by the 
outbreak in the east, and that the Iazyges received more 
favourable terms than would otherwise have been the 
case. 132 

132 Ejpit. Dion. Cass lsxi. 17; H. A., iv. 24, §§5,6; 25, § 1. 



298 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


After the hasty close of the Sarmatian War follow the 
emperor’s travels in the East, and the settlement of 
affairs after the rebellion. 133 He started, no doubt, in 
the spring of 176, and there is a coin of this year which 
might have reference to his journey : 

JR. Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM- Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev . — FORT. DVCI TR. P. XXX. IMP. VIII. COS. III. 

Eernale figure wearing diadem, an d 

L/jidnov , seated 1., holding in 1. hand comm ojjnte, 
and with r. hand supportiug rudder resting on 
ball ; beneath seat, wheel. 

Cohen 134 suspects this coin. I have examined the 
Berlin example here described, and cannot see why its 
genuineness should be impugned. The inscription 
FORTVNAE DVCI occurs on a coin of Commodus 135 for 
the year 186, with a complex type which includes a 
standing figure with a cornucopiae and a rudder resting 
on a ball, like the figure of Eortune on the present coin. 
The idea of Fortune as the emperor’s Dux itineris is 
quite a natural one. In the settlement of the revolt the 
chief emphasis is laid by the historians on the dementia of 
the emperor. 136 In accordance with this we have the 
following coin : 137 

M\ Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARMATICVS. 

Head r., laureate. 


133 -BT. A., iv. 25-27. 

131 See Cohen, II. M. A., 203. 

135 See Eckhel, vii. p. 63. The coin is not in Cohen, but I have noted 
a specimen at Berlin to which no suspicion appears to attach. 

133 H. A., iv. 25, §§ 5-8 ; 26, § 1 ; vi. 7, § 9 ; 9, § 4 ; 10, §§ 2-10 ; 11, 
§§ 3-8 ; 12, §§ 2-10. 

137 Cf. Cohen, II, M. A ., 28; Eckhel, vii. p. 63. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 299 

Rev. — CLEMENTIA AVG. TR. P. XXX. IMP. VIII. 

(margin) COS. 111. (exergue) S. C. Female 
figure wearing diadem, an d t/^aVtov, 

standing L, holding in 1. hand long sceptre, 
in r. hand patera. 

The common type of Aequitas is somewhat unusually 
numerous in this year ; there are six specimens at Berlin. 
Aequitas is an own sister to dementia, and there may be 
in these coins also some reference to the treatment of 
the conquered party : I describe one, therefore : 138 

Ol V ' — m. ANTONlNVS AVG. GERM. SARMAT1CVS. 
Head r., laureate. 

Rev. — TR. P. XXX. IMP. VIII. COS. III. S. C. Female 
figure wearing diadem, and Ivanov, 

standing 1., holding in 1. hand eoniffLupiae, in 
r. hand balance. 

During the year 176 appear the hitherto missing coins 
celebrating the Sarmatian victory. I describe an 
example in the British Museum : 139 

A. Obv. — M. ANTONlNVS AVG. GERM. SARM- Bust r., 
laureate, loricate, and paludate. 

Rev. — TR. P. XXX. IMP. VI 11. COS. 111. P. P. (margin) 
DE SARM. (exergue). Trophy, at foot of 
which two captives ; on 1. apparently female 
figure seated 1. with head resting on hand ; 
on r. apparently male figure seated i\, with 
hands behind back. 

Simultaneously appears a companion German type, 
practically identical except for the inscription DE 


138 Of. Cohen, II. M. A., 932. 

139 Cf. ibid., 164. 



300 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


GERM. 140 The following coin, also in the British Museum, 
shows a simpler German type : 141 

jV. Obv . — M. ANTONI NVS AVG. GERM. SARM. Bust r., 
laureate, loricate, and paludate. 

J$ ey< __TR. P. XXX. IMP. VIII. COS. III. P. P. (margin) 
DE GERM, (exergue). Pile of arms. 

It may be a mere accident that no coins are known 
bearing the inscription DESARM. and the simpler type. 
This series of coins is evidently intended to celebrate 
not only the Sarmatian (Iazygian) victory, but also the 
conclusion of the war as a whole. There are other 
Yictory-types with no defining inscription. I take from 
Cohen the following : 142 

2R. Obv. — M. ANTON1NVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXX. 
Bust r., laureate, loricate, and paludate. 

Rev. — IMP. VIII. COS. III. Victory, seated r. on arms, 
holding palm, and on knees shield ; before her 
a trophy. 

The type is identical with that issued in connexion with 
the assumption of IMP- Vi I . in 174, except that the in- 
scription Vic. AVG. is omitted. This fact makes it pro- 
bable that the type is not merely repeated, although the 
form with Vic. AVG. appears in 175 (only in the earlier 
part, however), but that its issue is associated with the 
assumption of IMP. VI n. at the close of 175, and that the 
missing inscription would have been Victoria SAR matica. 
Cohen also gives the following coin : 143 

M. Obv. — M. ANTON1NVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXX. 
Bust r., laureate, loricate, and paludate. 


140 Cohen, II. M. A., 161 ; Eckhel, vii. p. 64. 

141 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A ., 154; Eckhel, vii. p. 64. 

142 Cohen, II. M. A., 856. 143 Ibid., 357. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 301 


Bev. — IMP. VIII. COS. III. The emperor standing r., 
holding spear, and presenting a figure of 
Victory to Rome, helmeted, seated on lorica 
and shield, and holding spear. 

The type recalls that of Rome and Verus 144 which 
appeared on coins of 164 (after the Armenian victory) 
and 167 (after the Parthian victories and the conclusion 
of the war). Its signification is obvious. 

The form of the inscriptions DE GERM, and DE SARM. 
implies a “ trianq/luis do Germctuis et Sanucdis .” But we 
know from Lampridius 145 that the triumph did not take 
place until December 23, 176 — that is, in the next tri- 
bunician year. These coins, therefore, must have been 
issued in anticipation, no doubt while the emperor was 
in the East. His enforced absence delayed the actual 
triumph, and the triumphal coins served as an interim 
celebration. Closely associated with them, as usually 
with triumph types, is an issue of coins celebrating the 
conclusion of peace : 146 

Obv.— M. ANTON1NVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXX. 

P. P. Bust r., laureate, loricate, and palu- 
date, seen from back. 

Bev.—\MP. VIII. COS. III. PAX AETERNA AVG. S. C. 

Female figure wearing diadem, an d 

lIx&tlov , standing 1., holding in 1. hand cornu - 
copiae , and in r. hand lowered torch, with 
which she sets fire to a heap of arms (an in- 
distinguishable mass, among which two shields 
can be recognized in the best examples) . 

The Bellim Germanieum et Sarmciticnm, then, is ended, 
and Eternal Peace reigns throughout the world. 


141 See Yol. XI. p. 26, and Cohen, II. L. Verus, 181. 

145 H. A., vii. 12, § 6. 

lib Cohen, II. M. A 860. I describe the type from coins of the 
following year at Berlin ; I have not seen it for the present year. 



302 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The emperor’s return is commemorated in the coinage 
of the thirty-first tribunician year (December 10, 176- 
December 9, 177) by a large issue of the following 
type : 147 

iE 2 . Olv— M. ANTON 1NVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. 
XXXI. Head r , laureate. 

Bev. — IMP. VIII. COS. III. (margin) FELICITATI AVG. 

P. P. (sujjra) S. C. (infra). Galley, with 
rowers and steersman, travelling over waves 
1. ; on prow figure standing L, holding in 1. 
hand standard. [The number of rowers 
varies, and still more the number of oars ; 
sometimes the figure on the prow is replaced 
by one standing at the stern, holding a spear 
or a trident.] 

The Berlin collection has twelve coins of this descrip- 
tion for the present year. The type is practically a 
repetition of that which appears on the coins of Verus 
for 163, with the legend felic. AVG. 148 As those coins 
celebrated the safe voyage of Veras to Syria, so the 
present issue records Marcus’ safe return to Italy. It 
gains point from the statement of the Life that on this 
voyage the emperor went through a dangerous storm. 149 
The return to Italy, then, may be dated very late in 176. 
It was closely followed by the triumph, 150 which is fixed 
by the Life of Commodus to December 23, 176 — that is, 
within the first fortnight of the present tribunician year. 
It gives rise to a large issue of coins bearing the two 
types of the trophy and captives and the pile of arms, 


147 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 188 syg. ; Eclihel, vii. p. 64. 

148 See Yol. XI. p. 7, and Cohen, II. L. Vents , 69-84. 

140 H, A., iv. 27, § 2. 

150 H. A., iv. 27, § 3. “ Boiuatn utvenit, hiumfhavit .” the inscrip- 
tion on the triumphal arch is extant ; see C. I. L., vi. 1014. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MAECUS ANTONINUS. 303 


as described above, or with slight variations, and the 
inscriptions DE germanis and de sarmatis, or abbre- 
viations of these inscriptions. 151 It will be unnecessary 
to describe these coins in full. The Berlin collection has 
in all sixteen of them. But there are even more explicit 
triumph types. Cohen gives a large bronze medallion 
as follows : 152 


Obv—Nl. ANTONiNVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXXI. 

Bust I., laureate, loricate, with aegis and 
sceptre. 

Bev . — IMP. VIII. COS. 111. P. P. Marcus and Com- 
modus in quadriga stepping L, each holding 
sceptre surmounted by eagle ; Marcus also 
holds laurel-branch ; quadriga is conducted by 
a man on foot, and above a Victory hovers. 

This is practically a reproduction of the medal of 167 
which celebrated the Armenian and Parthian triumph of 
Marcus and Verus. A similar type appears on bronze 
coins of the first denomination : 153 

Obv.—M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXXl. 
Bust r., laureate and paludate. 

Bev . — IMP. VIII. COS. III. P. P. (margin) DE GERMA. 

(exergue) S. C. Marcus and Commodus in 
in quadriga stepping 1. 

Here the exergual inscription defines closely the occa- 
sion of the triumph : it is “ triumphus de Germanis .” 
It is, perhaps, an accident that none of these coins ^re 


151 Cohen, II. M. A., 155-161, 167-176. The Berlin coUection has 
coins with DE GERMANIS parallel to No. 174, DE SARMATIS. 

152 Cohen, IX. M. A., 367 : Eckhel, vii. p. 64. 

IW Cohen, II. M. A, } 162. 



304 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


known with de sarm. On the silver coins appears 
what is clearly an abbreviation of the full triumph 
type : 154 

Obv. — m. ANTONINVS A VG. GERM. SARM. Head r., 
laureate. 

Bev . — TR. P. XXXI. IMP. VIII. COS. Ill- P._ P. The 
emperor seated 1. on curule chair, with feet on 
footstool, holding in r. hand branch, in 1. hand 
sceptre. 

The branch is no doubt of laurel, the badge of the 
triiunphatov. It is natural to connect with the triumph 
the re-issue of the types closely associated with the late 
campaigns — Jupiter Victor , 155 Roma Victrix , 156 and 
Victory with palm and wreath , 157 though it is possible 
that this last may have another reference. Finally the 
Pax Aeterna of last year is repeated , 158 along with two 
fresh types of similar intention. The first is merely the 
type of Pax Aeterna with a shortened inscription, and 
is used on silver coins. The following example is at 
Berlin : 159 

M. Obv . — M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. Head r., 
laureate. 

Bev . — TR. P. XXXI. IMP. VIII. COS. III. P. P. (margin) 
PAX AVG. (exergue). Female figure wear- 
ing diadem, x L ™ v ’ an d fyw&nov, standing 1., 
holding in 1. hand cornucopia c, in r. hand 
lowered torch, with which she fires heap of 
arms. 


154 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 950. 

155 Ibicl., 942. 

156 Ibid., 952. 

157 Ibid., 949. 

158 Not in Cohen, but common at Berlin. 

159 Not m Cohen. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. . 2p05 

The other is of different form. I describe it after Cohen V l6( h 


M. Obv . — M. ANTON1NVS AVG. GERM. SARM. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev . — TR. P. XXXI. IMP. VIII. COS. 111. (margin) PAX 
(exergue). Pax standing 1., holding olive- 
branch and t nninrr>j)i f (c. 


But the Eternal Peace was fated soon to be broken, 
for at the very end of 177 a new salutation appears on 

11,0 Cohen, II. M. A., 986. There are a few other types which must 
not be passed over in silence. The following coin at Berlin probably 
represents Fides Exercituum (cf. Cohen, II. M. A., 945) : 

JR. Obv— M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. Head r., 
laureate. 

Rev. — TR- P. XXXI. IMP. VIII. COS. III. P. P. Female 
figure in diadem and diplois standing 1., holding in 
1. hand globe, in r. hand standard. 

It may have been issued among the triumph coins by way of recalling 
the suppression of the Cassian revolt. More likely, however, it is a 
record of some fresh menace of disloyalty, the occasion of which is 
unknown to us. When these Fides types appeared in 171 we found 
that there was evidence of trouble m the African provinces, with which 
the appeal to the soldiers 7 loyalty might conceivably be connected. It 
is possible that about this period the Mauri were in insurrection, and 
it is just possible that our Fides type has reference to the menace of 
disloyalty in those regions. G. I. I/., ii. 1120, 2015, in honour of 
C. Vallius Maximianus, legatus Augu&torum duorum (Marcus and 
Commodus), allude to an invasion of Baetica and a Mauretanian war : 
“ Piuvincnun Baeticam caesis hostibus pad jptistmae restitmt ” . . . 
lt Mumcipiuni diutma obsidione et hello Mmuoium [ Uberavit 
Hiibner (C. I. L., l.c.) takes the Augusti duo to be Marcus and Verus. 
But Capitolinus (H. A . , iv. xxii. 1) narrates these events among those 
succeeding the death of Verus. If any stress is to be laid upon his 
order, the troubles cannot be dated before 178, when again there were 
two Augusti. If, however, this Moorish invasion is identical with that 
which occurred during the quaestorship of Severus (H. A., x. ii. 4) it 
must be put earlier, since Severus was praetor designate in 178. 

Gohen gives the name of Fides also to his type (No. 943) of a female 
figure with two corn-ears and a basket of fruit. It belongs rather to 
the Abundantia family. Finally there is a fairly numerous issue of 
coins inscribed LI BERALITAS AVG. VII., and bearing the usual types 
of Liberality with coi nutupiae and abacus , and the Congiayium scene. 
I shall consider this Congianum in dealing with the contemporary 
coins of Commodus. 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 


Y 



306 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


the coins, testifying to a renewed outbreak of war in the 
later months of this year. The proportions of coins at 
Berlin are as follows : 

With IMP. VIII 52 j59 

With IMP. VIII! 

But some allowance must be made for the unusually large 
issues of special types at the beginning of the year in 
connexion with the emperor’s return and the triumph. 
A large bronze coin at Berlin exhibits an interesting 
new type accompanying imp. viiii. : 

Obv.—M. antoninvsavg.germ.sarm.tr. p. xxxl 
Bust r., laureate. 

Hev. — PROPVGNATORI IMP- Villi- COS. III. P. P. S. C. 

Jupiter, nude, standing r., extending 1. hand, 
and with r. hand brandishing fulmen ; at his 
feet r. a small figure lying on ground r., lean- 
ing on 1. elbow, and slightly raising r. arm, 
as in supplication. [PI. XIV. 11.] 

This type is a more purely symbolic one than the Jupiter 
Tonans in combat of 173 ; it presents the same idea 
reduced to its simplest terms. In form it is not unlike 
the Jupiter Defensor Salutis Aug. of the coins of Corn- 
modus’ sixteenth tribunician year. 161 A certain amount 
of suspicion, however, attaches to this coin. Cohen gives, 
a similar example, 162 which he thinks “lharre” and 
“ pavtieulier” About the Berlin specimen, too, the 
curators feel some doubt, though its appearance certainly 
does not merit the epithets employed by Cohen. The 
British Museum does not possess an example of this type. 
One would look for a Jupiter type of some kind this. 


161 See Cohen, III. Comm . 

102 Cohen, II. If. A., 50 4; of. Eckhel, vii. p. 64. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 307 


year, in view of the type which, although not given by 
Cohen, occurs on comparatively numerous middle bronze 
coins at Berlin, and to which, so far as I know, no doubt 
attaches : 

JEP. Obv.—M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXXI. 
Head r., radiate. 

Rev. — IMP. VIII!. COS. III. P. P. S. C. Winged 
fnhnen, upright. [Pl. XIV. 12.] 

Th e fnhneii appeared in association with types of Jupiter 
Tonans and Jupiter Victor in 173. In itself, however, 
it may be merely a symbol of power, as when it appears 
as an attribute of the emperor in a victory type of 172. 
There is no other coin giving any help towards identify- 
ing the victory of 177. Nor are things much better if 
we turn to the nest year. The main types here are 
those of Minerva Pacifera with an olive branch, 163 and of 
the resting Mars Ultor, 101 types which denote rather a 
settlement than the outbreak of a war. The Roma 
Victrix 165 which accompanies them is repeated from the 
preceding year, and in fact has been constant practically 
since 172. The vague type of Victory with palm and 
wreath 1GG appeared in the early part of 177, but it may 
all the same be associated with the fighting which won 


1G3 Cohen, II. M. A . , 955. This type appears very early in the year. 
According to Cohen it is one of the very few types of 178 which appear 
with the inscription GERM. SARM. I have not seen any coins of 17S 
with this inscription ; it must have disappeared very early in the year. 
Is it possible to trace in the omission the emperor’s sense of disappoint- 
ment at this renewal of the war ? He had assumed the titles in honour 
of a finished conquest, and when resistance again broke out he felt that 
his task was still incomplete, and dropped the honorific titles. 

101 Cohen, II. M. A., 953 (the spear is quite clearly reversed on the 
examples I have seen at Berlin) . 

1(35 Ibid, 960. 


1CG Ibid , 372. 



308 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


the ninth salutation. In any case it gives us no help 
towards identifying the present victory, which is indeed 
a very puzzling one. Unless this indefinite Victory coin 
be connected with the campaign in question, there seems 
to be no hint of fighting before the appearance of the 
salutation which marks its successful close. There is 
indeed a type similar to that of the Profectio Augusti , 
which I describe after Cohen : 167 

M. Oh M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXXI. 
Bust r., laureate, loricate, paludate. 

Rev . — IMP. VIII. COS. III. P. P. The emperor on horse- 
back, raising r. hand. 

It seems impossible, however, to make this coin refer to 
a departure of the emperor from Borne for this campaign, 
for the Life of Comniocliis m dates the profectio for the 
last war to 178. This is confirmed by an issue of coins 
of the following type : 169 

M\ Obv. — M. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. P. XXXI. 
Head r., laureate. 

Rev. — VOTA PVBLICA IMP. V1I1I. COS. III. P. P. S. C. 

The emperor, togate, with cinctus Gabinus, 
standing L, holding in 1. hand scroll, in r. 
hand patera over flaming tripod. 

Coins of this type appear to occur only with IMP. villi . 170 
The type of Voia Publica appeared last in 167, preceding 
the Profectio for the cxpeditio Genua nica of the autumn 
of that year. In this case, too, one would expect it to 


107 Cohen, II. M. A. } 360. 

168 jff. A., vii. 12, § 6. 163 Cohen, II. M. A 1026. 

170 In my notes of the Berlin coUection I have a coin of this type 
inscribed IMP. VI 1 1 . Cohen, however, gives it only with IMP. VI 1 1 1 ., 
and the Berlin curators agree in the reading, so it is probably an error 
on my part. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 309 


have been struck before the emperor left Rome, to com- 
memorate the vows taken in preparation for his Profeet io. 
Here, as in the former case, there is a special reference 
in the literary authorities 171 to the religious rites which 
preceded the emperor’s departure for the front- These 
coins, therefore, thoroughly confirm the statements of 
the historians about the date of this last Profeetio , and 
make it all the more impossible to find in the type of 
the emperor on horseback an allusion to a Profeetio 
before the closing months of 177. The coin might be 
taken in connexion with the question raised on the 
types of 173, as suggesting that a Profeetio on the coins 
is not necessarily an actual departure of the emperor 
from Rome, but merely the opening of a war. But 
the present coin is probably not a Profeetio after all. 
Compare the following coin of Com modus : 172 

N. Obv. — COMMODO CAES. AVG. FIL. GERM. SARM. 
Youthful bust r., loricate and paludate. 

Bev. — ADVENTVS CAES. Commodus on horseback r., 
raising r. hand. 

I shall show, in considering the coinage of Commodus, 
that this coin probably belongs to the latter part of 176, 
and commemorates the return from the East which on 
coins of Marcus is celebrated by the Felicitas coins of 
the early part of 177. The type now under considera- 
tion seems clearly to be identical with that on the coin 
of Commodus, and represents Advent ns Augusti . We 
may take it therefore that the present coin was issued 
in association with the Felicitas coins. They celebrate 


171 Epit. Dion. Cass., lxxi. 33. 

172 See Cohen, II., Comm., 1-2. 



310 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


the safe voyage of the emperor from the East to Italy, 
and this coin celebrates his entry into the city. 173 

But we are no nearer an identification of the victory 
of 177. The discussion, however, has served to suggest 
a parallel with the opening of the wpeditio Gcrmctnica 
of 167-169. In this case, as in that, the victory 
which occasioned the sululatio must have been won in 
the absence of the emperor by one of his generals in 
the provinces. The literary authorities imply that the 
victory of 175 was very incomplete, and that fighting 
continued in spite of the conclusion of peace. Dio 171 in 
fact traces the outbreak of the last war to the non-success 
of efforts made by the Quintilii to “ bring the war to a 
close ” (rov TrbXsjuov Travcxai). It may be that the victory 
of the present year is one gained by these Quintilii. 
Their failure finally to crush the resistance need not 
rule out of the question an incidental victory of sufficient 
importance to justify the assumption of imp viii., for 
they were, says Dio, men of considerable ability, courage, 
and experience. 175 Conjecturally, therefore, this Victory 
may be identified as one gained by these provincial 
governors against the barbarians, while the emperor was 
at Borne. I lay no stress, however, on this particular 
identification. In all probability there was other fighting 
during the year in the Danube region, and others besides 
the Quintilii may have won some incidental success. 176 

173 Tliis is the return recorded by Dio (Ixxi. 32) when be says that 
Marcus had been absent eight years. The coins have shown that he 
was probably in Rome at least onoe during that time, in 172. Perhaps 
the meaning is that now after eight years of almost continuous absence 
the emperor was returning to settle at home in peace. Such seems to 
have been his intention, but the renewal of the war prevented it. 

174 Epit. Dion. Cass., Ixxi. 33. 

L.C. (j>pdv7]fj,a KCcl CLpdpiCCV €/J.7T€lpLCt,U Te TTOWfyy €^OPT€S. 

K ‘ An inscription (0. I. L., vi. 1599) records that M. Bassaeus Rufus, 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 311 

The coins at any rate make it clear that a victory was 
won late in the year in the absence of the emperor. 
They suggest that the outbreak was unexpected, for 
there is no clear trace of it at all until the issue of the 
coins of the ninth salutation ; and so far they confirm 
the impression derived from Dio that the determination 
of the emperor to go to the front again in person was a 
sudden one, due to unexpected disquieting news from 
the provinces. 

The victory of 177 introduces the last of the Danubian 
wars, which properly begins with the Profectio of the 
emperors 177 on August 5, 178. It is called by Dio 
rd S/cudf/cci, 178 and by Lampridius “helium Qtnnunl- 
cmn” 179 while Capitolinus describes it more precisely as 
a three-years’ war against the Marcomanni, Hermunduri, 
Sarmatae, and Quadi. 180 Its official title in inscrip- 
tions is normally “ expeditio Germanics ^cuiclt, 181 as 


pi acfccLus praetorio, was rewarded “ ob victoiiam Gci mmucuni et Sat- 
maticam Antonini et Commodi Augg .” Bassaetis Rufus is mentioned 
as zTmpxos in the German War by Dio (lxxi. 5, iu r$ rod Mdpicov 

ru irpbs robs Tep/jLavobs). This victory, however, cannot be in the earlier 
war, because Commodus is Augustus. It might be thought that the 
victory of this inscription is the one which gained IMP. VII 1 1 . But, as 
I shall try to show in dealing with the coinage of Commodus for these 
years, that prince was not Augustus until 178. The victory of the 
inscription, therefore, would seem to be some unknown one in 178 or 
179. The phrase “ Gu maaicani et Sctnnatiuun” is curious; it ought 
to belong to the “ Bellitm Gci mameum at Sat maticum .” 

177 For Commodus was raised to the full rank of Augustus some time 
during 178. Probably his marriage with Crispina took place at the 
same time, and this is to be dated shortly before the Pi ofcctio. See my 
essay on the Coinage of Commodus during the Reign of Marcus. 

178 Epit. Dion. Cass., lxxi. 33. 

179 H. A., vii. 2, § 5. 

180 PC, A., iv. 27, § 10. <c Tnennis bdlum postea cum 2Ten comannis, 
Hcrmundm is, Sarmatis, Quadis etiam eegit, et, si anno uno sitperfmsset , 
provintias ex his t'e^isset.” The Uicnnium must be counted from the 
renewal of hostilities in 177 to Marcus’ death m March, 180. 

181 See, e.g ., G. I. L ii. 4114, where Tiberius Claudius Candidus is 



312 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


contrasted presumably with the tc expeditio Germanicq ” of 
167-169. The two wars are at any rate parallel in the 
paucity of the coinage. The falling off in the number 
of extant coins from the middle years of the reign is 
most marked, 182 and the falling off in interest no less so. 
For 178 there is no single type indicating any fresh 
phase of the war. 183 Even the Profeciio of the emperors 
leaves no trace on the coinage. There is no new saluta- 
tion, and unless we place the victory of Bassaeus Bufus 
in this year, there is no evidence that anything at all 
was done. 

The coinage of 179 is the smallest for the whole 
reign. The Berlin collection contains only ten specimens. 
Of these eight bear the inscription IMP. X. The fight- 
ing, therefore, resulted quite early in the year in a 
victory. The characteristic type with the new inscrip- 
tion is as follows : 

JR. Olv.—M. AVREL. ANTONINVS AVG. Bust r., laureate 
and loricate. 


2>ostt!fb cujjim inn Germaincae svLiindae also C . I. L,, 

x. 40S. Sometimes, however, it is styled <c expcditio Sannatica as in 
C. I, L. } x. 408, where Bruttius Praesens, father of Crispina Augusta, 
is “ comes Ant[onim et CommocLi Aucjg.~\ expeditioms Sar- 

mahcae and sometimes apparently “ helium Germanicum et Sar- 
viuticinn ,” if the inscription of Bassaeus Rufus quoted above really 
refers to the present war. 

182 That a financial crisis followed the exhaustion of the German 
War is clear. Dio, lxxi. 32, records an extraordinary remission of 
debts to the Jlscus and cie) ut iuin ; tqls 6<pet\ovo'i tl Ttp flcccriXuccp Kal t&J 
drjfjLoa-lq) 7r a<ri t avra t« b^eiXi^va, acprjtzej/. Cassiodorus dates the remis- 
sions to 178 (Ed. Migne, vol. Ixix. p. 1234). Orosius (vii. 15) describes 
the burning of the records of public debts. 

183 Minerva Pacifera and Mars IJltor I have taken to belong to the 
victory of 177, and Pax goes with them : see Cohen, II. M. A., 955, 953, 
3T1. Cohen gives a coin of Virtus Aug. with the inscription IMP. X. 
(Ibid., 1002), but this is clearly an error. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 313 


Bev. — TR. P. XXXIII. IMP. X. COS. III. P. P. Victory, 
wearing advancing L, with feet on globe, 

holding in r. hand wreath, in 1. hand palm. 

Cohen 184 gives a variant in which a trophy takes the 
place of the palm. The other types are mostly old 
ones, the resting Mars Ultor and Felicitas being the 
most prominent. Cohen gives two more types as occur- 
ring first with imp. X. The first is a Fortuna Eedux : 185 

M. Obv. — M. AVREL. ANTONINVS AVG. Head i\, laureate. 

Bev, — TR. P. XXXIII. IMP. X. COS. III. P. P. Fortune 
seated 1., holding rudder and cornucojjicie ; 
beneath her seat, a wheel. 

This type has recurred twice since its appearance in 
the second year of the <f expedite Germanica” 168. 
With slight variations it occurs in 169-170, 186 and in 
176. 187 In each case I think its reference is to a 
“ return of good fortune 55 in the war. A reference to 
the emperor’s return would be possible in 176, but im- 
possible in 169, and impossible again here, for in each 
case the coins in question follow more or less closely on 
a project to of the emperor, at a time when a return could 
hardly be thought of. The other new type has no 
apparent relation to the war : 188 

TR. Obv. — M. AVREL. ANTONINVS AVG. Head r., laureate. 

Bev. — 1VSTIT1 A AVG. TR. P. XXXIII. IMP. X. COS. III. 

P. P. Justice seated 1., holding patera and 
sceptre. 

There may be a reference to the humane legislation 
which had been effected during the emperor’s stay in 

ls ‘ Cohen, II. M. A., 969. 

1815 Ibid., 204-207. 


188 Ibid., 835. 


185 Ibid., 967. 
187 Ibid., 210. 



314 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Rome. The S. 0. Orfitianum, his most celebrated 
reform in the region of private law, is dated to 178 (Dig*, 
XXXVIII. xvii. 1). Cassiodorus (ed. Migne, yol. lxix. 
p. 1234) mentions Marcus’ legal reforms under the same 
year, and Orosius (vii. 15) couples them with the remis- 
sions of debts in that year. There is no coin of the 
earlier part of this year worthy of mention, unless a 
genuine coin underlies the following description in 
Cohen : 189 


JE 1 . Obv. — M. AVREL. ANTONI NVS AVG. TR. P. XXXIII. 
Head r., laureate. 

Rev.— FIDES EXERCITVVM INfP. VII!!. COS. III. P. P. 

S. C. Fides militaris standing 1., holding 
Victory and legionary eagle. 

As it stands the inscription is impossible. Very likely, 
however, the IMP. Vim is a mere error. A practically 
identical type occurs next year with no descriptive 
legend, but with a correct inscription. What the refer- 
ence may be I cannot say. Did the growing weakness 
of the elder emperor and the comparative inefficiency of 
the youthful heir give rise to some conspiracy which 
has not been recorded — perhaps in favour of Claudius 
Pompeianus, the husband of Lucilla, or his son, who with 
his stepmother was implicated in the first conspiracy of 
the succeeding reign ? If so, an appeal to the Loyalty 
of the Troops would be in place. 

The victory of the early months of 179 is identified 
directly by the statement of Dio 190 that the tenth 

160 Gohen, II. M. A., 20 2. 

lfl0 Ejpit. Dion. Cass., lxxi. 33 ad fin. Ecu' rep Tlarepvcp dobs %€tpa 
p.eydXw, €7T€fj.^€v avrbv ds rbv rrjs fidxv^ dyccya. Kal ol pdpPapot dvrireivay 
Bid T7 )s 7j{j.4pas d-KdffTjs, Kar6fc67T7}crav 8e virb rccy C P oofiaicay icdvres. Kcd 
o Ma pKOs r b dercaroy avroicpdrcap t rpocrrjyopevdTj . R al dye irXeov efiefi lukci. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 


315 


s «' lntdi/o followed a great victory won after a whole 
day’s fighting by Tarrutenius Paternus, the pretorian 
prefect. The narrative passes on at once to the death 
of Marcus. This may be due only to the work of the 
epitomator. In any case Marcus lived till the next 
year. He died on March 17, ISO, p. 0. 

The coinage of the last three months is naturally not 
very numerous, though proportionately it is fuller than 
that of the preceding year. The following is a new type 
so far as the coinage of Marcus is concerned. There are 
three examples at Berlin, out of a total for the year 
of twelve : 191 

Obv. — M. AVREL. ANTONINVS AVG. TR. P. XXXIII!. 
Bust r., laureate and loricate. 

Rev. — VIRTVS AVG. IMP. X. COS. 111. P. P. S. C. 

Female figure, wearing helmet, short tunic, 
and boots, seated 1., holding in 1. hand para- 
zonium , in r. hand spear with point downwards. 

The Valour of the Emperor was celebrated previously 
on the coin of 172, after the first victory of the helium 
Germameum et Sunuuticnm. Here the reversed spear 
associates the type with the “ pacific ” group of types. 
The Valour of the Emperor rests after the achieved 
victory. Another factor in the success was the Loyalty 
of the Troops, and this is celebrated on a coin bearing 
(probably) the types of Eides with Victory and standard, 
without explanatory legend. 192 


irayra r a e/ceT e/ceXef/WTcr vvv 5e rf} kTTTaKaiSeKcLrri rod Maprlov 
fAer-fiWaj-ev. 

101 Cf. Cohen, II. M. A. } 1003. This is probably the coin which is 
intended in the erroneous description 1002, with TR. P. XXXII. 

132 Cohen, II. M. A 973. Cohen, for some unknown reason, calls 
the type Concordia Militaris. It is identical with the type of Fides in 
179 and 171. Like them it may refer to some unknown treason. 



316 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


The following large bronze medallion is peculiar : 193 

Obv. — M, AVREL. ANTONINVS AVG. GERM. SARM. TR. 
P. XXXI 1 1 1, Bust r. 3 laureate and loricate. 

Rev. — IMP. X. COS. III. P. P. Bearded male figure, 
nude to waist, with flowing robe over lower 
limbs, reclining 1. with 1. elbow on round 
vessel lying on its side, from which issues 
water; and with r. hand resting on prow; 
above, to r., curved line, perhaps represent- 
ing cave. 

The type is closely similar to the ordinary Tiber type, 
which appears, for example, in 175. The trouble is 
caused by the curious curved object which spans the 
reclining figure. Cohen calls it, though doubtfully, the 
arch of a bridge. If this were possible the type would 
be more likely to be Danube than Tiber, the bridge 
being associated with the conquest. But I feel certain 
it is not a bridge. The coin of 172 inscribed virtvs AVG. 
shows how differently a bridge appears in Roman 
numismatic art, and this corresponds closely with other 
representations, as on the column of Trajan. More 
probably the curved object represents a cave, as it 
appears in the types of the Wolf and Twins, of Hercules 
and Cacus, and the like, 194 and the type has reference 
simply to the Ostian corn-trade, as in the case of the 
Tiber coin of 175. But why, in this case, the river 
should be represented as issuing from a cave it is not 
quite easy to say. 

Our study of the war is brought to a close by the 
death of Marcus on March 17 of this year. The war 


103 Gf. Cohen, II. M. A., 383. 

104 There is some discussion of bridges and caves in numismatic art 
in Prof, van Euren’s article on “A Medallion of Antoninus Pius” in 
J. B. S., vol. i. pt. 2, pp. 187 sqq. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 317 


itself was not finished, and its last stage will appear 
again in the coinage of the first year of Commodus. It 
will be well to sum np briefly the general view of the 
operations on the Danube that we have arrived at. The 
pressure of the barbarians on the frontier became irre- 
sistible about the middle of 166. The Parthian war was 
but just over, but the case was urgent, and with such 
troops as were at their immediate disposal the emperors 
advanced against the invaders. The barbarians, never 
at this date capable of prolonged offensive operations* 
soon retired. The emperors advanced across the Alps, 
secured the most vulnerable positions against a repeti- 
tion of the invasion, and returned to Pome to raise 
troops and make preparations for the war of conquest. 
Verus died, and his removal was probably no hindrance 
to the survivor in the prosecution of the war. After 
the preparations of 169 were complete, Marcus proceeded 
to a systematic series of campaigns designed to end in 
the annexation of the territories of the Marcomanni and 
Iazyges. It is not asserted that the Quadi were included 
in the scheme of conquest. The projected provinces 
mentioned are Marcomannia and Sarmatia. 195 Accord- 
ingly, the first blow fell on the Marcomanni, the most 
formidable of the aggressors, a side attack on the Iazyges 
preventing them from assisting their allies. Three years 
of hard fighting reduced the Marcomanni to subjection. 
But in the moment of victory came a rebellion of the 
Quadi, hitherto regarded, by virtue of their hostility to 
the Marcomanni, as “ safe.” 196 Two more years’ fighting 

105 H. A., iv. 24, § 5. The Quadi were old “clients” of Rome; cf. 
the coin of Pius with REX QVADIS DATVS. 

106 Epit. Dion. Cass., lxxi. 83. I regard the passage ot yap Kovadoi 
. . . avsvedo&aro as a digression, explaining how the Quadi had originally 



318 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


reduced them to submission ; they asked for terms, and 
were granted, it appears, tolerable conditions, “ in order 
that they might be detached from the Marcomanni.” 197 
The emperor was now free to proceed against the 
Iazyges. But in the midst of his first campaign he was 
interrupted by the news of Cassius’ revolt in the East 
Granting comparatively easy terms to the Sarmatians, he 
hastily left the Danube for the East. The result of this 
interruption was that the great aim of the war remained 
unfulfilled. The barbarians had only been reduced to 
submission, and not completely subjugated. In conse- 
quence they were able to renew hostilities, and after 
unsuccessful attempts on the part of the imperial generals 
to put an end to their aggressions, Marcus determined 
to make another vigorous effort to accomplish his pur- 
pose. He left Borne again, won an important victory, 
and was about to complete the conquest when he died, 
leaving his unfinished task to his son and successor. 

In conclusion, I will exhibit the results of the inquiry 
in tabular form. 


I. First War , Expeditio Germanica, 166-169. 

166, about midsummer 

or later .... Barbarian inroads. 

166, later .... Sack of Opitergium, siege of 

Aquileia, &c. 


broken faith with the emperor, and caused him to be distrustful of 
barbarian overtures : see note 116. 

197 Epit. Dion. Cass., lxxi. 12. The tone throughout suggests that 
the Quadi are rigidly distinguished from the Marcomanni and Iazyges. 
The latter are the enemies of Home, to be resisted to the bitter end. The 
Quadi are normally and naturally the enemies of Rome’s enemies, and 
capable of much useful service in keeping them in check. Thus, in 
spite of their fickleness, they are treated as the “most favoured nation.” 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 319 


167, April .... Victory over the barbarians (won by 

legates, possibly by V index and 
Candidus, the emperors being still 
at Rome). 

167, about October . Profectio Anyubtoruiu : they reach 

Aquileia ; the barbarians retire. 

167- 168, winter . . The emperors winter at Aquileia ; the 

barbarians send in their submission. 

168, about February . The title IMP. V. officially adopted in 

token of the submission of the 
enemy. 

168, summer . . . The emperors cross the Alps; settle- 

ment of the Danube provinces. 

168- 169, winter . . The emperors winter at Aquileia. 

169, January . . . The emperors start for Rome ; death 

of Verus ; Marcus returns to the 
city. 

II. Second War , Bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum, 


169-175. 

169, autumn . . . Profectio Auyusti. 

170-172, Bellum Germanicum sive Marcomannicum. 

170 Inconclusive campaign against Mar- 

comanni, with incidental victory. 

171 . . . . , Fighting continued, ending in com- 

plete victory ; salutation IMP VI. 

172 Pacification of Marcomannia. 

172, autumn . . . Adventus Avytibti (probable). 

173-174, Quadic War. 

173, spring .... Profectio Auyusti (probable). 

173, summer . . . Campaign against Quadi; victory of 

the “ Thundering Legion ” ; result 
indecisive. 

174, about June . . Fighting issues in decisive victory; 

salutation IMP. VII. 



320 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


175, Bellum Sarmaticum. 

175, about April . . News of Cassian revolt reaches the 

Danube. 

175, July .... Commodus receives the toga virilis on 

the frontier. 

175, autumn . . . Victory over the Iazyges; conclusion 

of peace ; intended pacification of 
Sarmatia deferred by necessity of 
expedition to the East. 


III. Interlude : The Cassian Revolt and Snared iug 
Events 175-177. 


175, spring . 
176 . . . 


176, autumn 

176, December . 

177 .... 

177, late autumn 


Outbreak of the Be volt. 

The emperor’s tour in the East, and 
settlement of the disturbed pro- 
vinces. 

The emperor's return from the East. 

Trhi)npltns de Germanis et Sm-mati*. 

Renewed fighting on the Danube. 

Victory (? of the Quintilii) over the 
barbarians on the Danube : saluta- 
tion IMP. VI III. ; Marcus and Com- 
modus decide to go to the front ; 
public vows for their safety. 


IV. The Third War , Expeditio Germanica secunda, 
178-180. 


178, August 

179, spring . . 

179-180 . . . 


180, March 17 . 


Profeciio Augu&torum. 

Victory of Tarrutenius Paternus ; 
salutation IMP. X. 

Further operations preliminary to 
pacification and annexation of 
territory. 

Death of Marcus. 



DANUBIAN WARS OF MARCUS ANTONINUS. 321 


KEY TO PLATE XIV. 

1. A/. London. Tr. P. XXVI. Imp. VI. Cos. III. See p. 188. 

2. M\ Berlin. Tr. P. XXVI. Imp. VI. Cos. III. See p. 187. 

3. JE 1 . London. Tr. P. XXV. Concordia Exercituum Cos. III. See 
p. 196. 

4. M 1 . Berlin. Germanico Aug. Imp. VI. Cos. III. See p. 190. 

5. M 1 . London. Eides Exercituum Cos. III. See p. 196. 

6. London. Tr. P. XXVIII. Imp. VI. Cos. III. See p. 284. 

7. M. med. Berlin. Tr. P. XXVII. Imp. VI. Cos. III. See p. 277. 

8. JE 2 . London. Tr. P. XXVIII. Marti Victor! Imp. VI. Cos. III. 
See p. 285. 

9. M. med. Berlin. Tr. P. XXVII. Imp. VI. Cos. III. Adventus 
Aug. See p. 280. 

10. iE 2 . London. Tr, P. XXVIII. Belig. Aug. Imp. VI. Cos. III. 
See p. 289. 

11. iE 1 . Berlin. Tr. P. XXXI. Propugnatori Imp. VIII. Cos. III. 
P. P. Seep. 306. 

12. iE 2 . London. Tr. P. XXXI. Imp. VIIII. Cos. III. P. P. See 
p. 307. 

C. Harold Dodd. 


VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 


z 



XII. 


THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON 
COINS AND ORNAMENTS. 1 

On Tuesday, June 12, 1894, whilst a labourer named 
J ohn Stephen was working at the foundations for a house 
on the Woodbourne estate in the Derby Road, Douglas, 
Isle of Man, his pick displaced the top of an earthenware 
vessel, which fell to pieces and disclosed a number of 
coins, rings, and armlets, or ornaments. The spot where 
this hoard was discovered was about six yards from the 
high-road and the vessel was about 18 inches below the 
surface. Stephen, who appears to have had no idea of 
the value of the find, not only gave away a number of the 
coins to various people, some of whom were not known to 
him, but allowed the bystanders, amongst whom were 
several children, to pick up what they could find. Besides 
that much of the soil in which the treasure was buried 
was carted off to a tip, where many more coins were 


1 The description of the coins was written in 1895, when the hoard 
came to the British Museum for selection; but as I was unable to 
obtain particulars of the discovery of the hoard at the time, my manu- 
script was put on one side and escaped my memory, till I came across 
it a short time ago. I had therefore to turn to the local papers of the 
Isle of Man. In the British Numismatic Journal , vol. v. (1909), pp. 85-96, 
Mr. Carlyon-Britton has given descriptions of some of the coins of the 
tenth century found in the Isle of Man. In this article he mentions 
a few specimens which occurred in the find of June, 1891, all of which 
are here described. 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 323 

picked up. Notice having been given to the police, 
who do not appear to have shown much activity in the 
matter, a warrant was issued on June 18 to the coroner 
to summon a jury in order to enquire into the dis- 
covery and to settle who was the lawful owner of the 
property. Enquiries were held on June 23 and 30, when 
full particulars were elicited. In the course of his 
evidence Stephen asserted that there were hundreds 
of coins and nine or eleven bracelets, torques or portions 
of such.” In attempting to clean the coins, of which 
he had many dozens, a large number were broken, and, 
moreover, every one who had got hold of any treated 
their coins in a similar manner and with the same 
disastrous results. The effect was that only a small 
portion of the hoard survived the ordeal. The enquiry 
was adjourned for some time, and on November 30 the 
court met for the third time, and the jury decided that 
the coins and ornaments were treasure-trove and therefore 
the property of the Crown. The result of this enquiry 
seems to have elicited that the hoard consisted of 180 
coins or pieces of coins and of 11 ornaments comprising 
7 armlets, one of which was of gold, the rest of silver, 
a torque, a ring, the head of a pin, &c. Of these 95 
coins and the ornaments were sent by the Treasury to 
the British Museum for examination and selection. 2 
Stephen, the labourer, alone is said to have secured no 
less than 93 coins and nine ornaments, so that not much 
trouble appears to have been taken by the police to 

2 By special request of the Treasury the selection of coins made for 
the Museum was small, only 19 pieces out of 95 ; and of the ornaments 
eight were retained, which included four armlets (one of gold), a ring, 
the head of a pin, and the pin of a hrooch. Five coins went to the 
Royal Mint, and the remainder of the hoard was returned to he placed 
in the Mans Museum at Douglas. 

z 2 



324 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 


recover the remainder, which were evidently not brought 
into the coroner’s court, but only accounted for by those 
who had to give evidence. 

The discovery of Anglo-Saxon coins in Scotland and 
in the Isles occurs but very rarely and very sparsely. 
A few, mostly traceable to Danish occupation, have been 
described, but mostly of no great importance. Perhaps 
the chief of all is the hoard which was found on the shore 
near the Storr Pock in the Isle of Skye in January, 1891. 
Mr. A. B. Richardson gave a full account of this hoard 
in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 
for 1891-1892. It consisted of 90 coins of Edward the 
Elder, Aethelstan, Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and Sitric of Northumberland, embracing the period from 
a.d. 901-942 ; but what was of greater interest to the 
historian and the numismatist is that it included, besides 
the above, 18 Oriental dirhems issued with one exception 3 
by three rulers of the Samani dynasty, Ismail ibn 
Ahmad, a.d. 892-907 ; Ahmad ibn Ismail, a.d. 907-913 ; 
and Nasr II ibn Ahmad, a.d. 913-942, who ruled over 
Transoxiana and Persia, and whose reigns corresponded 
in date to those of the Anglo-Saxon rulers whose coins 
were in the hoard. These Oriental coins, which were 
struck in the cities of Esh-Shash and Samarkand, 
had travelled along the trade-route across Asia to the 
Caspian Sea, and thence northwards through Russia to 
the Baltic and onward to the shores of Denmark, whence 
they were carried by the invaders to England and north- 
wards to the Isle of Skye. The mixture of these Oriental 
coins with the Anglo-Saxon is not altogether unusual. 


3 The single exception was a coin of the Abbasids, which was so 
much worn that not even the name of the king or that of the mint 
could be read. 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 325 

We need, however, only mention two other notable 
examples, viz. the Cuerdale (Lancashire) hoard which was 
unearthed in 1840, 4 and the G-oldsborough (Yorkshire) 
find in 1858. 5 Like the Skye find all these Oriental 
pieces were of the Abbasi and Samani dynasties. 

In 1852 five pennies of Aethelstan, Eadred, and 
Eadgar were found at Knowe in the Island of Islay. 6 
In April, 1889, in the Island of Burray, Orkney, over 
136 silver torques, and armlets and portions of such 
ornaments were unearthed, but only three coins were 
identifiable. These were of Edward the Elder, Eadgar, 
and Aethelred II. 7 Previously in the same year there 
was found at Tarbat in Rosshire a hoard which consisted 
of two armlets and thirteen coins, only one of which was 
Anglo-Saxon, viz. of Eadgar ; the rest were of Louis le 
Begue (a.d. 877-879), son and successor of Charles le 
Chauve, 8 the Prankish king. 

It is interesting to note that whilst the Cuerdale and 
Gi-oldsborough hoards were of a similar nature to that 
found in the Isle of Skye, the two last mentioned, of 
the Island of Burray and of Tarbat, were allied to the 
Douglas Find, each one containing besides coins a 
proportionate number of ornaments. 

I will now proceed to describe the coins in the 
Douglas Find. 


4 Nitm. Clnon., 1845, pp. 1 ff. 

5 Ibid ., 1861, pp. 65 ft. 

6 Proc. Soc. of Ants, of Scot., 1852, p. 218. 

- Ibid., 138S-I389, pp. 818 ff. 

8 Ibid., 1888-1889, pp. 314 ff. 



326 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


AETHELSTAK 

a.d. 925-941. 

WITH MINT-NAME. 

Chester. 

Type v. d 

1. Obv /EOELNTAN REX TO BRT Kosette of pellets. 

Bev. — ^AVLFXTAN M— O LEGE Small cross pattee. 

B. M. Gcit., ii. p. 109, 40, PI. ix. 10. 


Langport. 

Type mil. 

2. Obv . — /E-DELNTAN REX Bust r., crowned and draped. 
Bev. — PYNXIGE MO LANGPORT Small cross pattee. 
B. M. Gat., ii. Pl. x. 2; Bud., PL 17, 10. 


WITHOUT MINT-NAME. 

Type i. 

3. Obv . — /EDELSTAhRO^ {sic) Small cross pattee. 

Bev. — EADM VND in two lines divided by three crosses * 
above and below, three pellets (broken). 

Cf. B. M. Gat, ii. p. 116, 104, PI. x. 6 : Bud., 
Pl. 17, 14. 


0 The references are to the Types in the B. M. Cat. Anglo-Saxon 
Coins , vol. ii. 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 327 


EADMUND. 
a.d. 941-946. 

WITHOUT MINT-NAME. 

Type i. 

4. Obv. — EADMVND REX Small cross pattee. 

Bev. — SARA WARD in two lines divided by three crosses ; 
above and below, three pellets. 

Cf. B. M. Cat., ii. p. 138, 125, PI. xi. 2 ; Bud., 
PL 18, 7. 

5. — Similar; king’s name, . - EADMVN . . . ; moneyer’s 

name .... MONE 10 (j'rayuicnt ; halfpenny V). 

EADBEE. 

a.d. 946-955. 

WITH MINT-NAME. 

Exeter (?). 

Type v . 

6. Obv.—>Z* EADRED REX Bust r., crowned and draped. 

Bev. — CLAt HONE . . MONE. 11 Small cross pattee. 

Cf. B. M. Cat., ii. p. 155, 112, PI. xii. 1 ; Bud., 
PL 19, 1. 

WITHOUT MINT-NAME. 

Type V . 

7. Obv. — EADRED REX Bust r., crowned and draped. 

Bev. — MAW/1A MO 1/1 ETA 12 Small cross pattee. 

JB. M. Cat., ii. Pl. xii. 1 ; Bud., 19, 1. 


10 Perhaps ELAC MONE (see B. M. Cat., ii. p. 128, 36). 

11 Probably a moneyer of Exeter, as there is a specimen in the 
British Museum (B. M. Cat., ii. p. 155, 112) which reads ELAC 
HONE HONE HON EX. 

12 Manna was a Norwich moneyer (B. M. Cat., ii. p. 144, 1), and 
this coin and the one in the British Museum bearing the mint-name 
are precisely of the same work and style, especially in the lettering. 



328 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Type i. 

8. Obv . — E ADR ED REX.*. Small cross pattee. 

Rev. — BALD R1CMO in two lines divided by three 
crosses ; above and below, three pellets. 

B. M. Cat ., ii. p. 145, 14, PL xii. 4 ; Bud. , 
Pl. 19, 9. 

9-10. — Same type ; moneyer’s name, HVN RED MO or WO 
B. M. Cat ., ii. p. 149, 53, 54. 

11-12. — Same type; moneyers’ names, BALDRIC and 
H VN R E D ( fragments ; halfpennies ?). 

Type L, var. a. 

13. Obv. — EADRED REX Small cross pattee. 

Rev . — PVLCA RES MOT in two lines divided by three 
crosses ; above and below, .rosette of dots. 

B. M. Cat , ii. p. 153, 89, Pl. xii. 3; Bud., 
Pl. 19, 12. 

14. Similar type; moneyer’s name, EADM[VND]M. (frag- 

ment; halfpenny ?). 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 147, 33. 

EADWIG. 

a.d. 955-959. 

WITH MINT-NAME. 

York (?). 

Type ii. 

15. Obv. — EADVVIC RE Small cross pattee. 

Rev . — FREO DERI or+NO 13 in three lines ; above and 
below, rosette of pellets. 

Cf. B. M. Cat, ii. p. 159, 10, Pl. xii. 9 ; 
Bud., Pl. 20, 6. 


13 This is evidently a blundered coin of York. Fretheric, or Freo- 
therie, was a moneyer of that city. There is a coin in the National 
Collection which reads FROD R1C M-0 ON + ETO, which is assigned 
to York (B. M. Cat., ii. p. 159, 10). 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 329 
WITHOUT MINT-NAME. 

Type i. 

16. Obv. — Eft D WIG RE Small cross pattee. 

Rev. — EftDV LFMO in two lines divided by three 
crosses ; above and below, three pellets. 

B. M. Gat., ii. PI. xiii. 2 ; Bud., PI. 20, 4. 

17-21. Same type; obv. legends, EftDPIG REX : or 
REX ft ; money er, HERIG ERMO ( four frag- 
ments). 

B. M. Cat., ii. pp. 161, 162, 27-29. 

EADGAR. 
a.d. 957-975. 

WITH MINT-NAME. 

Axminster (?). 

Type Hi. 

22. Obv. — EADGftR REX ftNGLOR Small cross pattee; 
above which, another similar cross. 

Rev. — FLODVIN MONET ftC* 14 Small cross pattee. 

B. M. Gat., ii. p. 189, 185, PL xiii. 5 ; Rud., 
Pl. 21, 19. 


Chester. 

Type ii. 

23. Obv . — EADGAR . . . Small cross pattee. 

Rev.—OEOR VLFMO or»pEO in three lines; above 
and below, rosette of pellets ( broken ). 

B. M. Gat., ii. p. 171, 23, Pl. xiii. 10 ; Rud., 
Pl. 21, 13. 


14 This is the same moneyer as was read FI0DVAN MONETftC 
(J3. M. Cat., ii. p. 189, 185), For its attribution to Axminster, see 
below, p. 341. 



330 


NUMISMATIC! CHRONICLE. 


24. Same type; obv. legend * EADG7IR RE; names o£ 
moneyer and mint, TLOD VLFMO 15 OL»pEO 


25. Same type and obv. legend ; names of moneyer and 
mint, -DVR MODM OL*EO 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 172, 32. 


Derby. 

Type iv. 

. 26. Obv.—* EADCXR REX TO BR Rosette of pellets. 

Bev .—* FRE-DIE IN DEORABI 16 Rosette of pellets. 

R. M. Cat., ii. p. 169, 7, PI. xiii. 6; Bud., 
PI. 21, 21. 


Hertford. 

Type v. 

27. Obv. — * E[ADD]AR REX ANC.LORV Bust i\, wearing 

crown and draped ; all within line of inscrip- 
tion. 17 

Bev.—* HA[NNA MO]NETA HIRTFOR Small cross 
pattee (chipped). 

B. M. Cat., ii. PI. xiii. 8 ; Bud., PL 20, 2. 

London. 

Type v . 

28. Obv. — * EADE7IR REX Bust r., crowned and draped. 

Bev.—* /E-DERED MON ETA LVN Small cross pattee. 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 172, 36, PL xiii. 8 : Bud., 

20 , 2 . 


15 This moneyer is not previously mentioned of this reign. 
le In the B. M. Cat. this name is read Eredicin ; hut it should be 
Eredic m, i.e. of Derby. 

17 This coin is not only an unpublished variety having the bust 
entirely surrounded by the legend, but the mint is new to Eadgar’s 
reign. The moneyer’s name was probably “Manna,” though written 
“ Hanna.” 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 331 


Newark or Newport. 

Type Hi. 

29. Obv.— * EADG[KR REX AjNGLORV Small cross pattee. 

Rev. — . ... MONETA NIPE [?] 18 Small cross pattee 

( fragment : halfpenny '?). 

B. M. Cat., ii. PI. xiii. 5; Rud ., PL 21, 20. 


Southampton. 

Type in • 

30. Obv . — * EADGAR REX ANGLORVM Small cross pattee. 

Rev. — * GIN AND MONETA HAM 19 Small cross pattee. 
B. M. Cat., PI. xiii. 5 ; Rud., PI. 21, 20. 


Tamworth . 20 
Type ii. 

31. Obv.—* EADGAR REX TO BRIT Rosette of pellets. 

Rev.—* DEORVLF IN TOMPER Rosette of pellets. 

B . M. Cat., ii. PL xiii. 6 ; Rud., PI. 21, 21. 

Wallingford. 

Type Hi. 

32. Obv. — * EADGAR . . . . RVM Small cross pattee. 

Rev. — >j< MONETA PELE Small cross pattee 

( broken ) . 

B. M. Cat., ii., Pl. xiii. 5 ; Rud., PL 21, 20. 


18 For the identification of this mint, see below, p. 841. 

10 This is a new moneyer, and an unpublished type of this mint, 
“ Ginand,” seems quite an unusual name. 

20 When the B. M. Cat., ii., was published the Museum had no coin 
of this mint. One was subsequently acquired at the Montagu sale. It 
bears the same moneyer’s name, is of the same type, but the mint reads 
TOM El (Montagu Sale Catalogue, November 23, 1895, lot 729). 



332 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


WITHOUT MINT-NAME. 

Type i. 

33. Obv. — *b E A DEAR REX Small cross pattee. 

Bev . — ADELA VERMO in two lines divided by three 
crosses ; above and below, three pellets 
(chipped). 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 176, 61, PI. xiv. 1 ; Bud., 
PL 21, 9. 

34. Same type and moneyer ; obv . legend >b EADGAR RE+X 

B. M. Cat,, ii. p. 175, 57. 

35. Same type; obv. legend, *£* EADGAR REX§ ; moneyer, 

/ENCV LF MO (broken'). 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 176, 65. 

36. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR RE; moneyer, 

/EOEL ZIGMO 

B. M. Cat.) ii. p. 177, 69. 

37. Same type ; obv. legend, * EADGAR REX S; moneyer, 

ALBY TIEMO. 

Cf. B. M. Cat., ii. p. 177, 70. 

38. Same type; obv . legend, * EADGAR REX; moneyer, 

ANA 21 MON 

39. Same type ; obv. legend, >b EADGAR RE+ X; moneyer, 

ASFER -DMON 

Cf. B. M. Cat. : ii. p. 177, 74. 

40. Same type; obv . legend, EADGAR RE; moneyer, 

AZNA 22 HEM 

41—42. Same type ; obv. legend, EADGAR REX; moneyer, 
CNAP EMOI. 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 178, 82. 


31 A new moneyer’s name. 

22 Asman was a moneyer of Lincoln under Aethelred II, 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 333 


43-44. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR REX'-' ; moneyer, 
EANV LFMO. 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 178, 85. 

45. Same type and obv. legend ; moneyer, GRID MONE 

(shipped.) . 

Cf. JB. M. Cat., ii. p. 180, 95. 

46. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR RET; moneyer, 

GRID MONE (chipped). 

Cf. JB. M. Cat., ii. p. 180, 96. 

47. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR REO; moneyer, 

HARE ERMO 23 (chipped). 

48-57. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR REX; moneyer, 
HERIG ERMO (some chipped ; two fragments). 
Cf. B. Jtt. Cat., ii. p. 180, 99 ff. 

58. Same type and moneyer; obv. legend, EADGAR 

REX m 24 

59. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR REX I ; moneyer, 

HERIG ERM:: 

Cf. B. M. Cat., ii. p. 180, 103. 

60. Same type and obv. legend; moneyer, HILDO . . . . 

(broken; halfpenny 9). 

61. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR REX; moneyer, 

IVEM ONET 

Cf. B. M. Cat, ii. p. 182, 114. 

62. Same type and obv. legend ; moneyer, MAN NAMO 

63-64. Same type and obv . legend; moneyer, MAN AMMO 
(one, a fragment). 

Cf. B. M. Cat, ii. p. 182, 122. 


23 A new moneyer. 

2i “Rex Merciorum”0 ) ). M occurs not infrequently in the field of 
Eadgar’s coins of this type (see No. 72), but no other specimen 
appears to he published with this letter after the title REX. The 
letter JU may therefore be the initial of “ Merciorum.” Eadgar was 
King of Mercia, a.d, 957-959. 



334 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


65. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR RE::X; moneyer, 

MAN 711 MO. 

C£. B. M. Cat , ii. p. 182, 123. 

66. Same type ; obv. legend, EADGAR RE ; moneyer, 

MAN! NGM ((hipped). 

C£. B. M. Cat , ii. p. 183, 127. 

67. Same type and obv. legend; moneyer, MAN NETMO 

(< hipped ). 

68. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR REXv ; moneyer, 

MORG EMAI 

Cf. B. M. Cat , ii. p. 183, 130. 

69. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR REX; moneyer, 

REN NVVO 23 

70. Same type; obv . legend, EADGAR REX*. ; moneyer, 

VW BE \\A\AO 

71. Same type; obv. legend, EA[DG]AR REX ; moneyer, 

FINE MN . . 26 (broken). 

Cf. IB. M. Cat , ii. p. 184, 137. 


Type A, var. c. 

72. Obv . — EADGAR REX Small cross pattee ; infield on 

r., M 

Bev. — /E-DELVL- FEXMOT 27 in two lines divided by 
three crosses ; above and below, rosette of 
pellets. 

B. M. Cat., ii. PI. xiv. 3 ; Bud., PI. 21, 10. 

73. Same type and obv. legend ; M in field omitted ; 

moneyer, LAN[D] FER-B 28 (broken). 


25 Another new moneyer, “ Renwald ” or “ Regenward.” 

20 Probably “ Winern ” or “ Winelm.” 

27 A new moneyer to this reign. The letter M on the obverse may 
be the initial of “ Merciorum ” (see above, p. 388, note 24). 

28 This moneyer is new to this reign. He appears to have held office 
under Eadred (B. M. Cat., ii. p. 150, 63). 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 335 


74. Same, and obv. legend as No. 72, with M in held above 
the cross pattee ; moneyer, LEFMAN EXMON 29 
(broken). 


Type i ., var. d. 

75-76. Obv . — E A DEAR RE Small cross pattee. 

Rev. — /ELF RED in two lines divided by cross 
between two annulets ; above and below, 
rosette of pellets (one broken). 

Cf. B. M. Gat., ii. p. 185, 147, Pl. xiv. 4 ; 
Bud., Pl. 21, 12. 

77. Same type; obv. legend, EADGAR REX; moneyer, 

/ELFZ 1GMO 90 

78. Same type; obv. legend, EAD[GAR] RE; moneyer, 

ALDE P I l/I E (broken). 

B. M. Cat. , ii. p. 185, 149. 

79. Same type and obv . legend ; moneyer, DEOR VLF MO 31 


Type i., var. g. 

80. Obv— * EADGA[R R]E Rosette of pellets. 

Rev . — MAN IN MO in two lines divided by three 
rosettes of pellets ; above and below, cross 
pattee (broken). 

B. M. Cat., ii. PL xiv. 7 ; Bud., Pl. 30, 23. 


2S) Another new moneyer to this reign. 

30 Moneyers of this name occur at the Bedford, Exeter, Leicester, 
Stafford, Wilton, and Winchester mints. The coins of Leicester bearing 
this name are of precisely the same type and show the same neatness 
of design. The above piece is probably therefore a product of that 
mint. 

31 A moneyer of Tempsford. The coins of that mint which bear this 
name are of the same type and fabric (see B. M. Cat., ii. p. 173, 45). 



336 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Type in. 

81. Obv. — E A DEAR - REX A Small cross pattee. 

Rev. — *J< DVR ■ A • N • D ■ EX MO Small cross pattee ; 
on 1. triangle of pellets. 

B. M. Cat ., ii. p. 188, 168, PI. xiv. 8 ; Riicl., 
PI. 21, 14. 

82. Same type and moneyer’s name, and triangle of pellets 

on rev. ; obv. legend, >b E A DEAR REX AN 

83. Same type and moneyer’s name, and triangle of pellets 

on rev.; obv. legend, [d< EA]DEAR REX ME 32 
(broken). 

84. Same type ; no pellets in field on rev. ; obv. legend, 

E A DEAR REX; moneyer’s name, *b FAXTOLF 

* MOI 

Cf. B. 31. Cat., ii. p. 188, 170 ff. 

85. Same type; obv. legend, >b EADEAR REX'-' ; moneyer, 

* FAXTOLFI MON 

Cf. B. 31. Cat., ii. p. 188, 174. 

86. Same type; obv. legend, EADEAR; REX>; moneyer, 

* FAXTOLF • MONE 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 188, 174. 

87. Same type; obv. legend, >b E A DEAR REX S; moneyer, 

F[A]XTOLF * MON 
B. 31. Cat., ii. p. 188, 173. 

88. Same type; obv. legend, EADEAR REX TO; moneyer, 

* FAXTOLFE .... ( broken ) 

Cf. B. 31. Cat., ii. p. 188, 179. 

89. Same type; obv. legend, .... RY REX D 03 ; moneyer, 

* [FAXTOL]FEX MO (fragment). 

90. Same type ; var. two pellets in field on rev. ; obv. legend, 

* EADEAR [REX]) ; moneyer, FAXTOLF 

(fragment). 


32 This must be the initials of Mereiorum (see above, Nos. 58, 72). 

33 Evidently a blundered specimen. 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. S37 


91. Same type ; no pellets on rev. ; obv. legend, * EADGAR 
REX T; money er, * HE ROLF MONE 
Cf. B. M. Cat., ii. p. 189, 187 ff. 


92. Same type and moneyer ; obv. legend, * EADGAR REX 


93. Same type; obv. legend, * EADGAR REX AND; moneyer, 
* IGOLFERDEX MO T (broken). 

B. M. Cat., ii. p. 159, 194. 


Type iv. 

94. Obv—* EADG[AR RE]X TOb Rosette of pellets. 

Bev.—[* IGOL]FERO MONE Rosette of pellets 
(broken). 

B. M. Cat . , ii. PI. xiv. 9 ; Bud., PI. 21, 21. 


Nvrtlmuibi hi. 

ANLAF. 

a.d. 941-944 ; 949-952. 

York. 

Type vi. 

95. Obv . — * ON LAF • REX ■ O - Small cross pattee. 

Bev — * INGELGAR • O - 34 Small cross pattee. 

B. M. Cat., i. p. 236, 1103, PI. xxix. 7; 

Bud., PL 11, 6. 

Before considering the circumstances, which may 
account for the burial of this hoard in so unexpected a 
spot as Douglas, Isle of Man, it may be well to say a 
few words about the individual pieces in connexion with 
their types and mints. It will be seen from the notes 
to the descriptions that several new names of money ers 

34 Keary ( B . M. Cat., i. p. 236 note) identified this coin as being 
struck at York ( Eufct icit). 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 2 A 



338 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE, 


are met with. The numerous references to the British 
Museum Catalogue of Anglo-Su.rou, Coins show that so 
far as the types are concerned the hoard presents only 
one actually unpublished variety. Here and there we 
meet with a new obverse type in connexion with a mint 
such as a bust instead of a cross or a cross instead of a 
rosette ; but we must not consider these as varieties of 
type in their full meaning. The one variety is met with 
in No. 27, on the obverse of which the bust of the king 
is placed wholly within the legend, whereas in all pre- 
viously known pieces of Eadgar of this type, the bust 
at its base divides the legend. This coin, which is of 
Hertford, also supplies a new mint to this reign. 

The mints represented under each reign are : — 

Aethelstan — Chester and Langport. 

Eadred — Exeter (?). 

Eadwig — York. 

Eadgar — Axminster, Chester, Derby, Hertford, London, 
Newark or Newport, Southampton, Tamworth, and 
Wallingford. 

Most of these were well-known mint-places ; but we 
may select as being of somewhat special interest those of 
Langport, Axminster, Hertford, Newport, and Tamworth, 
for a few remarks. The hoard seemed to contain speci- 
mens of the earliest issues of those places. I will take 
them in the order of the descriptions. 

Langport (Somerset). — The history of this small 
town in Somersetshire has lately been given in a work 
entitled Langport and its Church by the Bev. D. M. Boss. 
It was of very old Saxon foundation, certainly not later 
than the middle of the seventh century, and perhaps 
earlier, as the name of Llongborth, supposed to be the 
ancient name of Langport, occurs in an early poem by 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 339 

Llywarch Hen, a prince poet of Cumberland of the sixth 
century. This identification is, however, somewhat un- 
certain ; but there is ample evidence that Langport 
existed a century later. Situated on the river Parrett 
and accessible by water from the Bristol Channel, it 
formed at an early date a port in the fighting line 
between the Saxons and the Britons. It was on the 
Parrett near Langport that King Ine defeated the British 
king Geraint, and we know what an important position 
it held when Alfred withstood the attacks of the Danes, 
having taken refuge at Athelney situated only a few 
miles, and plainly visible from the hill at Langport. It 
was at Aller, a couple of miles distant, now only a small 
village, that G-uthrum and his followers were christened. 

The importance of Langport as a defensive position 
made it necessary to surround it with earthwork fortifi- 
cations, so that the town was raised to the dignity of a 
burgh, and in the eighth century it was assigned 600 
hides of land though it was within the hundred of 
Somerton, where King Ine had a royal residence. There 
is no indication that it possessed a mint in its early 
days, and so far as we know its first issue of coins was 
in the reign of Aethelstan, when under the enactment of 
the Synod of Greatley each burgh was entitled to have 
one moneyer, and certain places of greater importance 
two or more. Langport was evidently entitled to one 
moneyer only ; so that under Aethelstan we possess 
only two names, Wynsige (the Winner of Victory) and 
Byrhthelm (the Polished Helmet), evidently retainers of 
the king, and holding high positions. After this time 
Langport appears to have only exercised its right of 
coinage under three subsequent reigns, viz. of Cnut, 
Harthacnut, and Edward the Confessor ; but even then 

2 a 2 



340 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


to a very limited extent, as under the first we have tlie 
names of four moneyers ; under the second, two ; and 
under the third, one only. After Edward the Confessor 
Langport disappears as a mint-town, though it always 
remained an important trade centre on account of its 
accessibility to the sea. 

As the Douglas find did not extend beyond Eadgar, 
the only reign represented by the Langport mint is that 
of Aethelstan, and by a single coin. The moneyers 
name is Wynsige, and his coin supplies a new obverse 
type to this mint, viz. the crowned bust of the king. 
Previously known coins of this moneyer had on both sides, 
obverse and reverse, a small cross pattee. The reading 
/Ef> ELSTAN REX instead of /E0 ELXTAN REX TO BRIT is 
also unusual for Wynsige. It is very interesting that 
so rare a mint should be identified with this small 
hoard which was concealed at a distance of so many 
hundred miles, and also that it should offer at least two 
new varieties. The name of the town is spelt as now 
laneport instead of loneport as on Wynsige’s pre- 
viously known coins. Pyrhthelm, who evidently suc- 
ceeded Wynsige at the mint, always gives the name as 
LANEPORT. 

Axminstee (Dorset).— The attribution of the coin of 
Eadgar (No. 22) to this place is somewhat doubtful. 
Like Langport it was an early Saxon place as Aethel- 
stan founded there a minster. It is probable that it had 
already existed as a burgh, though no coins are known of 
it before Eadgar, if the attribution is correct. It is 
quite possible that time may show that a mint existed 
there under Aethelstan. Its situation on the Axe must 
have rendered it a stronghold against the attacks of 
the Danes, who made the coasts of Dorset their more 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &0. 341 


immediate landing-places. The late Mr. Montagu was, I 
believe, the first to claim this place as a mint-town, for in 
his collection there were three coins of Eadred which he 
assigned to it, viz. one reading VINE MONET AX ; the two 
others, M£NN£ MONETS. In the Brit . Mus. Gat (A. 8 ., 
vol. ii. p. 189, No. 185) is also described a coin of 
Eadgar reading FIGDVSN monet. ah, which is practically 
a duplicate of the Douglas piece, though not struck 
from the same dies. The Museum coin was not assigned 
to any particular mint; the legend MONETAE being 
looked upon more as a blunder for MON eta R. In the 
Montagu collection there was also a coin of Cnut 
reading leofpine on sex, which was also assigned to 
Axminster. It is very possible that this piece induced 
Mr. Montagu to give the three coins of Eadred also to 
that place. It could very reasonably be suggested that 
these coins belong to Exeter, the first letter of the name 
being accidentally omitted. This might well be ; but, 
nevertheless, Mr. Montagu’s view is quite worthy of 
careful consideration as Hildebrand ( Ang-ScicJis . My) it, 
p. 203) describes a coin in the Copenhagen Museum, also 
of Cnut and of the same moneyer, which reads LEOPIN ON 
aexepo, which sounds more like Axminster than Exeter. 
Hildebrand has not ventured to give this coin to any 
particular place ; he puts a mark of interrogation as if 
he was in doubt. Evidently he did not think that it 
related to Exeter. As this is a point which still wants 
clearing I have in the hoard assigned the coin to Ax- 
minster, since it is thus more likely to attract attention 
than if assigned to Exeter. 

Hertford (Hertfordshire). — I have specially noted 
this mint because the coin (No. 27) of Eadgar in the 
Douglas Find belongs to one of its earliest issues. 



342 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


There was in the Montagu collection a coin of Eadwig 

ABE 

which reads on the reverse + H + IR + i.e. Abenel HIR, 

NEr 

and which the owner assigned to Hereford. It might, 
perhaps, with more reason he given to Hertford, 85 We 
may therefore conclude that this place received the 
right of coinage under Aethelstan, though at present 
there appears to he no coin known so early. Mr. Carlyon- 
Britton 36 states that Eadmund also struck at Hertford, 
but he does not mention his authority. The piece in the 
Douglas Eind, reading HA[NNAMO]NE ta hirtfor may 
without question be given to Hertford, and not Hereford. 
The former mint was in operation subsequently during 
the reigns of Aethelred II, Cnut, Harold I, and Edward 
the Confessor, and under the Norman kings ; but at no 
time were the issues large. 

Newark or Newport. — The right attribution of the 
coin of Eadgar described under No. 29 is also fraught 
with some difficulty. Unfortunately it is only a fragment, 
the name of the moneyer being lost. The legend reads 
. . . . MON eta nipe. Are we to assign this piece to 
Newport in Monmouthshire or to the town of the same 
name in Shropshire or to Newark in Northamptonshire ? 
In the Brit . Mus . Cat . (A. 3., vol. ii. p. 160) is given 

CL AC 

a coin of Eadwig reading + he + pe. i.e. clac mone nepe. 

MONE 

It is there assigned doubtfully to Newark in North- 
amptonshire. In the Introduction (op. cit ., p. cxvii) some 
doubt is expressed, and it is suggested that the coin may 
have been struck at Newark in Nottinghamshire, in which 


33 This com is now in the National Collection. 
30 Biit. Num. Journ vol. vi. p. 175. 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C, 343 

city a castle is said to have been built by Ecgbeorht. 
This manor was subsequently held by Leofric, Earl of 
Mercia, and in Domesday G-odiva, his countess, appears 
as paying the danegelt for it. As, however, the Douglas 
coin reads NiPE and not NEPE, we are disposed to 
associate it with Newport ; but the question again is, 
with which Newport? In the JSfum. Chron 3rd Series, 
Vol. Y. pp. 256-258, Sir John Evans has described a 
number of Anglo-Saxon coins, which formed part of a 
hoard unearthed in London in 1872, and which is 
known as the “ City Hoard.” In that find there were 
two coins of Edward the Confessor reading S/EPAN on 
NIPEP, which he attributed to Newport in Cornwall after 
considering the claims of the other Newports in England, 
including the towns of that name in the Isle of Wight 
and in Monmouthshire. That the coins represented a 
town named Newport there can be no question, for others 
of Edward the Confessor, which were in the Chancton 
Find read sired on nipeporte and c/uredd on nipepo 37 . 
Sir John Evans, however, was not quite satisfied with 
this attribution because he said we cannot with certainty 
determine the date when Newport in Cornwall changed 
its name from Lanstephadon or the town of St. Stephen’s 
Church. 

It is dangerous to differ from a man of Sir John Evans’ 
calibre, but I do not think that he was altogether happy 
in his selection. There are two other Newports which 
seem to me to have better claims for the privilege of 
a mint, viz. Newport in Shropshire and Newport in 
Monmouthshire. Sir John Evans’ objection to the 
former was that it was too near Shrewsbury, the distance 


37 Brit. Mus. Cat ., A. S., vol. ii, p. 4=18, Nos. 1087-1088. 



344 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


between the two towns being about 17 miles. 38 This town 
was situated near the line of the Roman Watling Street 
in the north-east border of the county. Its charters go 
back to Henry I, but it was evidently an early founda- 
tion. The objections raised to the claims of the Mon- 
mouthshire town were that it was a modern town in the 
time of Giraldus Cambrensis, and that Edward the 
Confessor does not appear to have had any mints in 
Wales. 39 These objections may be overruled because 
Monmouth was close to the border of Gloucestershire 
and Giraldus called it the Novus bmrgus or the New 
Town, in contradistinction to the more ancient town of 
Caerleon. There is no question of the antiquity of its 
foundation ; but it did not come into great prominence 
until the decline of Caerleon, which had no mint. This 
was towards the end of the Anglo-Saxon period. It 
was in the reign of Henry I that Robert of Gloucester 
erected a castle there for the defence of his posses- 
sions, which was called the Castle Newydd, or New 
Castle , no doubt to distinguish it from the one at 
Caerleon which was of earlier date. I am therefore 
disposed to give these Newport coins to the town in 
Monmouthshire 40 and to the one in the Douglas find 
may be added another piece, also of Eadgar, reading 
on the reverse */ELF sice mo no nipanpo. This coin, 


3S Langport is only fourteen miles from Taunton, and Taunton about 
the same distance from Watchet ; and all had mints during the Anglo- 
Saxon period. Sir John Evans’ objection as to distance does not 
therefore appear to hold. 

_ 30 Brit- Num . Joicrn., vol. ii. pp. 31 ££., Mr. Carlyon-Britton has 
since described a coin which he attributes to Howel king of North 
Wales (see below, p. 346). 

4a Mr. Carlyon-Britton (Brit. Num. Journ vol. vi. pp. 32-84) is in 
favour of Newport in Buckinghamshire, a town mentioned in 
Domesday. 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 345 

now in the British Museum, came from the Montagu 
collection. The early name of the town was evidently 
N1PEPORTE or NIPANPORTE. 

Of Tamworth (Staffordshire) I have nothing to add to 
Mr. Andrew’s account of this mint in the Num. Chron . 41 
The earliest coins of that town at present known are 
of Eadgar, and from the two specimens in the National 
Collection the early spelling of the town’s name was 
TOMPORO. As the burgh there was built by Ethelfreda, 
Lady of the Mercians, in a.d. 913, we shall expect 
some day to come across coins of Aethelstan struck 
there. 

The discovery of this hoard of Anglo-Saxon coins so 
far north as the Isle of Man may at first seem surprising ; 
but when we consider the events which occurred during 
the latter part of the reign of Eadgar, this burial can 
possibly be accounted for. There is no Isle of Man 
series of this period. What currency did then exist 
must have consisted almost entirely of Anglo-Saxon 
coins with a preponderance of such as were issued in 
Northumbria and by the Hiberno-Danish kings. It is, 
therefore, remarkable that only one Northumbrian coin 
(a piece of Anlaf, see No. 95) existed in the hoard, 
whilst there were proportionately so many which had 
come all the way from the south of England. Let 
us, however, see whether this circumstance can be 
accounted for. 

It is well known that the sixteen years’ reign of 
Eadgar was one of the most peaceful of the Anglo-Saxon 
rule. His policy towards the Danes was of the most 


4th Ser. Vol. I. (1901), pp. 415 ff. ; and pp. 430 ff. 



346 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 


conciliatory nature, and that population lived peacefully 
under his supremacy. He carefully forebore from inter- 
fering with their customs and internal affairs, and in his 
own laws he said, “ I will that secular rights stand 
amongst the Danes with as good laws as best they may 
choose.” In consequence the realm was undisturbed by 
invasions from abroad. We cannot, therefore, well 
associate the burial of the Douglas find with any Danish 
incursion as has been possible with many of similar date. 
Eadgar’s military expeditions were connected mostly 
with disturbances in North Wales and in Northumbria. 
He divided the latter into two separate kingdoms, vest- 
ing the southern part, Deira, in Earl Oslac with York 
as his capital, and to Earl Osulf was assigned the country 
beyond the Tees. To ensure peace from outside, how- 
ever, he kept up a great fleet which was always sailing 
about the coasts. 

In 965 on account of quarrels between the petty 
kings of North Wales Eadgar w 7 ent north to assist 
Howel against his uncle Jago, who, on the other hand, 
received help from the Norse, amongst whom were 
Magnus (or Maccus), king of the Isle of Man, and 
Seferth, lord of the Isles. Howel was successful in 
driving out his uncle, and seized his kingdom of 
Gwynedd. For this assistance he did homage to 
Eadgar and promised to be his fellow-worker by sea 
and land. 

Eight years later Eadgar was crowned “King of All 
Britain ” at Bath by Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and Oswald, Archbishop of York, on May 11 (Whit- 
sun Day), 973. Shortly afterwards he sailed round the 
north coast of Britain with a large fleet and landed at 
Chester. Here he was met in accordance with his orders 



THE DOUGLAS FIND OF ANGLO-SAXON COINS, &C. 347 

by eight 42 tributary kings, who were Kenneth, King of 
the Scots ; his son Malcolm, King of the Cambrians ; 
Magnus or Maccus of the Isle of Man ; Seferth of the Isles ; 
Dunwaller (Dafonal) of Strathclyde ; and three other 
princes, Howel and Jago of North Wales and Juchil of 
South Wales. These all swore fealty and bound them- 
selves to military service by land and sea. Attended 
by them Eadgar one day went on board a boat, and 
whilst they plied the oars he took the helm, and steered 
skilfully down the course of the river Dee, and followed 
by the whole retinue of earls and nobles, pursued the 
voyage from the palace to the monastery of St. John the 
Baptist. Having paid his devotions there he returned 
to the palace in the same pomp. 43 

We have thus two occasions on which the coins in the 
Douglas hoard could have been brought to the Isle of 
Man, viz. in 965 when Magnus helped Jago the Welsh 
king, or in 973 when Magnus joined Eadgar at Chester. 
At first sight one would be inclined to connect the 
coins with the first event as perhaps being the greater 
of the two ; but from the fact that the hoard represented 
all the main types of the coins of Eadgar, and therefore 
must have been buried at the end of or very shortly after 
his reign, we would associate it with the excursion 
on the Dee in 973. Eadgar died two years later. The 
absence with one exception of Northumbrian coins shows 
pretty clearly that the hoard was not locally made, and 
so strengthens the supposition that it came from a more 
southern district. Most of the coins being in fine condi- 
tion, though many were broken, the burial of the hoard 

43 The Anglo-Saxon Chrojiicle and Henry of Huntingdon count only 
sis of these tributary kings. 

43 Florence of Worcester, s a. 973. 



348 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


must have occurred not much later than a.e. 975, or 
perhaps even a year earlier. It seems, therefore, quite 
possible that it was the property of one of the retinue of 
Magnus, the king who accompanied him to Wales in 
the year 973. 

H. A. Grueber. 



XIII. 

ENGLISH MINT ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR 
AND STUART PERIODS, 1485 TO 1688. 

It is, I believe, an accepted proposition that the coins 
and medals of these two dynasties include the great 
majority of the finest examples of the die sinker’s art 
as practised in this country. That being the case, I 
venture to hope that a complete list of the gravers and 
their deputies, when the latter have been recorded, will 
be a not unwelcome addition to our numismatic history ; 
so that, given a coin-type of which the date is known, it 
may be possible to indicate with reasonable certainty the 
person who was responsible for it. 

Ruding, it is true, has included a number of gravers 
in his chapter on the “Constitution of the Mint,” but 
there are unfortunately many blank spaces. 

In the chronological list which I have prepared some 
names will, of course, be recognized as old friends, and 
there are others who may be greeted as new acquaint- 
ances, but it has been possible, in the course of an 
investigation extending over two years, to append to 
each name the date of the appointment. In some 
instances there was a joint grant of the office, under 
which the Crown obtained the services and advice of two 
artists for one annual fee, which appears to be scarcely 
an equitable proceeding. 



350 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


A few introductory words as to the duties of these men 
may prove useful. The chief graver was invariably 
appointed by the king or queen, the under-graver some- 
times by the Crown, and, in some reigns, by the head of 
the Mint, the practice not being uniform. 

The gravers were strictly bound not to work else- 
where than in one house assigned by the warden for 
that purpose within the Tower. The irons when graved 
were to be delivered by indenture (i.e. with a written 
statement) in the presence of the warden, the master- 
worker, and the controller, to the clerk of the irons, 

to whom it was ordained to have the keeping thereof.” 
The last-named official was to make a true account of 
blank irons delivered to the graver, and all worn-out or 
faulty dies were to be defaced in the presence of the 
warden, &c. 

During the two hundred years of which I am speak- 
ing, the term cuneator , one of high antiquity, is not 
found in any original grants or Exchequer papers. It 
would seem that the title and the office, with all that 
the latter implied, had fallen into disuse long before the 
advent of the Tudors, the word being then always 

employed. 

The salaries attached to the appointment, varying 
from £10 to £40, may appear to be small, having regard 
to the responsibilities involved, but it should be borne 
in mind that these sums covered routine business only ; 
whenever any new coins, seals, or medals were ordered 
the additional payments were very substantial. Under 
the Stuarts the deputy-graver’s annual fee generally 
exceeded that of his chief, but it would appear that the 
former did not share in the occasional windfalls. 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 351 


Henry VII. 

Nicholas Flynt . 

A writ directed to the Barons of the Exchequer dated 
October 27, 3 Henry VII (1487), recites, inter alia , that 
by letters patent of May 17 then last past, the office of 
graver of the irons for coining gold and silver within the 
Tower of London and elsewhere in England had been 
granted to Nicholas Flynt during his life, to be exercised 
by himself or by a sufficient deputy from the preceding 
Easter, and with a fee of £20 yearly as has been paid to 
William Wodeward, formerly graver of the irons to 
Henry VI (K. R. Mem. Roll. Mich. 3 Henry VII). 

It is to be feared that this individual was a pluralist 
of the worst order, seeing that the above grant also 
appointed him as controller of the exchange and assayer 
of the moneys within the Tower, and that in 1490 he 
received the additional offices of controller and surveyor 
of the mints in Dublin and Waterford, during good 
pleasure. Flynt is entitled, nominally at all events, to 
the credit of having produced the dies for the second, 
or arched-crown, coinage of the king’s eighth year, but 
his tenure of the office had ceased in, or just before, 1494. 

It will be recalled that the silver coinage of the third 
issue of Henry VII departed from the customary full- 
face representation of the king, and introduced, among 
other changes, a profile head which marks the beginning 
of real portraiture upon our English currency. 

Mr. C. F. Keary, writing in Goins and Medals (1894), 
describes this profile portrait of the first of the Tudors as 
“ being a work of the highest art in its own kind. 
Nothing superior to it has appeared since.” The 
identity of the graver who gave us this new type has 



352 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


hitherto remained undiscovered, and I feel glad to have 
rescued his name from the shadows of the fifteenth 
century. 

Alexandre cle Bruehsella. 

It must, however, be confessed that the artist was 
probably not an Englishman ; his name, which bears 
a phonetic resemblance to Bruxelles, or Brussels, 
suggests that he was a Fleming by birth, but I find 
no letters of naturalization as in the case of Briot in 
later times. The document which appointed Bruehsella 
to the Mint contains several features of interest, and 
is worth quoting more fully than the majority of similar 
grants. 

Letters of privy seal were issued at “ our monastary 
of Abendon 55 on December 31, 16 Henry YII (1500), 
and directed to the Barons of the Exchequer, wherein 
it was recited that the king in the Feast of Michaelmas 
in his tenth year ( i.e . 1494) had appointed “by our 
mouth ” Alexandre de Bruehsella to the office of graver 
of the coining irons within the Tower of London, during 
pleasure, with a fee of £10 yearly payable at Easter and 
Michaelmas. This amount had been paid to the grantee 
by William Stafford, the warden, for six years then past, 
and the Barons were instructed to allow such sums when 
passing the Mint accounts. The letters go on to say 
that as the business and labour of the said Alexandre 
daily increased, for as much as the king had restrained 
the mints of Canterbury, York, and Durham for a certain 
season, he should receive convenient wages for his 
labour in the said office until the contrary was ordered 
(K E. Mem. Roll. Hil. 16 Henry YII). Bruchella, to 
mention one of several variants of his name, performed 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 353 


his duties at the Tower until the end of Henry’s reign, 
a period which included the third issue coinage of 1503 ; 
we may, therefore, with confidence believe that it was he 
who designed and prepared the dies bearing the profile 
portraits. The latest mention of his name which I can 
find is on the occasion when he sealed a receipt for a 
half-year’s salary on April 16, 1509, five days before the 
king’s death (Exch. Accts. 296/2). His grant did not 
authorize him to employ a deputy, and therefore he may 
be regarded as the father of English medallic portraiture. 


Henry VIII. 

There is no evidence that the new monarch retained 
the services of the talented Flemish engraver; on the 
other hand, there is good reason for thinking that 
Henry VIII nominated, as soon as might be, one of his 
own favourites. But whether Bruchella was dead or 
only in retirement, his handiwork was not discarded ; 
the son continued to display his father’s lineaments for 
some eighteen years, if the change in the portrait of 
Henry VIII has been assigned to the correct date. 

John Sharp. 

The earliest appointment in this reign was on 
February 12, 1509-10, when John Sharp, who was after- 
wards knighted, received a grant as graver of the irons 
for gold and silver coins in the Tower, in the realm 
of England and in Calais, during pleasure, from Michael- 
mas then last. The office was to be exercised by him- 
self or a sufficient deputy, at a fee of £20 per annum . 
This occupant of the post can have influenced the work 
at the Tower in only a very slight degree, seeing that 

VOD. XIII., SERIES IV. 2 B 



354 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


the dies in current use for the silver coinage were repro- 
ductions of his predecessor’s skill, and that the types 
of the gold pieces were but little altered from those of 
previous rulers. 


Henry Howes . 

On February 20, 1518-19, the office of graver (“now, 
by the death of John Sharp, knight, in our hands ”) was 
conferred upon Henry Norres, or Norreys, anuiger , in 
terms almost identical with those of the last grant, 
saving only that it was to be for life. In the king’s 
13th year the Tower mint was ordered to supply to 
Durham trussels and piles for pence ; paying for every 
dozen of irons as of old time (Harl. MSS. 660). In 1523, 
April 24, further letters patent were issued to Honeys, 
his annual fee of £20 being payable from the revenues 
of co. York (Pat. Bolls, 10 H. 8, part 2, and 15 H. 8, 
part 1). This officer had an excellent opportunity of 
proving his capabilities, or those of his deputy, when 
Henry Till issued his second coinage in 1526. On 
that occasion the silver coins were provided with another 
portrait, viz. of the reigning king, and gold pieces of 
new types and denominations were devised ; these 
alterations, coupled with certain minor amendments, 
must have employed the workers in the graving house 
for a considerable period. On the whole, I think it will 
be agreed that Norreys acquitted himself well. There 
was, in 1530, another warrant to deliver coining irons 
to the bishop’s mint at Durham, and a similar order was 
made in 1532 with respect to the Archbishop of York. 

Norreys is, as far as I am aware, the only occupant of 
the post, during these two centuries, who met with a 
violent death while serving upon the staff of the Mint. 



ENGRAVERS OE THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 355 


The month of May, 1536, saw him beheaded on Tower 
Hill, for a reason, good or bad, altogether unconnected 
with the industry carried on within a bow-shot of the 
scaffold. 


Thcnitctb Wriothcsley . 

The vacancy thus created was filled on May 29, 1536, 
by a grant of the same privileges to one who in later 
years held several high positions in the State, including 
the Lord Chancellorship (K. E. Mem. Koll, 316,29 H. 8). 
Wriothesley’s tenure of the post at the Tower continued 
until, at least, Michaelmas, 1543, so that we shall pro- 
bably be correct in assigning to him, or to his agency, 
the introduction of Henry’s full-face portrait on the 
debased coinage of 1542, among which was the first issue 
of the teston. 

During the year 1544 there was a reorganization of 
the whole establishment, one result being that the 
deputy or under-graver, for the first time, obtained a 
definite status , his name generally appearing in the 
accounts and other records of subsequent years. 

The name “ Demaire ” occurs in Euding’s list for this 
reign, but I have failed to trace any one who could be 
the same person. Possibly he was a deputy under 
Sharp or Norreys. 


Henry Bayse . 

Under the new regime Henry Bayse, or Basse, capitalis 
sculptor ferrorum monete , received letters patent of 
November 5, 1544, which were to be effective from Lady- 
day then last, during good conduct. The absence of 
any concession as to performing the duties by a deputy 

2b 2 



356 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


is a little significant, and may have been the cause of 
an increase of £10 in his annuity which was allowed in 
April, 1545, by a second grant (Pat. Roll, 36 H. 8, part 24). 
The under-graver, Robert Pitt, was installed in 1546, 
at a fee of £10, and was soon joined by a colleague, of 
equal rank, named John Lawrence. This trio, Basse, 
Pitt, and Lawrence, formed the official staff during the 
remainder of Henry’s reign. There were, in addition, 
two supernumeraries, Jerham and Frauncis Bennold, 
employed by command of the king “ for the experiment 
of their knowledge.” For a period of three months after 
26 March, 1545, they received meat, drink, and pay at the 
rate of £40 per annum. It is at all events curious that the 
adjoining entry in the account refers to certain gold and 
silver coins which were delivered to His Majesty, that 
he might view the print and stamp (Exch. K. R. Accts. 
302/27). Before leaving Henry VIII it is necessary to 
add the fact that by letters patent of April 5, 1546, 
Giles Evenet became graver at the newly opened mint 
in Bristol, a departure from the practice usually obtaining 
at that time in respect of country mints. 


Edward VI. 

Basse continued to work as chief graver after Edward’s 
accession, but it may be expected that he was more 
engaged in adding to the number of Henry’s dies than 
in preparing new irons for the young king’s portraits 
and titles. One of the accounts tells us that the chief 
became aged and weak, and that Pitt “ did sustaine thole 
travell of the said service ” which otherwise “ cold not 
have ben done.” 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 357 


Robert Pitt . 

The old man retained his position until Michaelmas, 
1549, when he was succeeded by Robert Pitt, who 
obtained his formal grant in March, 1549-50. John 
Lawrence still kept his post as assistant. At this point 
there was another importation of an expert from the 
Continent. Anthony Levers, “a Frenchman,” was 
employed for some time between October, 1547, and 
the same month in 1550, and was apparently accom- 
panied by “ certain French and Dutch men set about the 
graving of irons within the Tower.” The “prentyses” 
of the graver and under-graver are now mentioned, 
and we also learn that 593 dozen and 2 of coining 
irons at 7s. 3d. the dozen were provided during the 
three years in question (Audit Office Accts., 1670/495). 

Pitt did not live to enjoy his promotion for any length 
of time ; on August 19, 1551, Sir Edmund Peckham was 
ordered to stay from giving the office of graver of the 
Mint, and to see the workmanship of John Gramvett, 
and to certify whether he was fit or no (Acts P. C.). I 
cannot regret that the candidate was unsuccessful, as 
his election would have barred the way to one of the 
family of graver-goldsmiths who bore the surname of 
Anthony. 

The mint in Ireland requires a passing word. Harry 
Coldwell was engaged at Dublin Castle during a con- 
siderable portion of this short reign, but no record of his 
appointment is now forthcoming. He also engraved 
the great seals of England and Ireland, and other public 
but less important seals (Acts P. C. 1547). 



358 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Derich Anthony . 

Under the date June 1, 1552, I find letters patent 
addressed to Diric Anthony bestowing upon him, as 
from Michaelmas then last, the post at the Tower 
recently held by Robert Pitt, deceased, with an annuity 
of £30 during good pleasure. This official was the first 
of three successive generations of the same family, who 
controlled the graving house for a space of 67 years in 
the aggregate, with credit to themselves, and gain to the 
art of their country (Herald’s Visitation, London, 1567, 
Harl. Society). 

A somewhat difficult point now arises. Robert Pitt 
had apparently died shortly before August, 1551, Anthony 
succeeded him at Michaelmas in the same year, and the 
striking of Edward the Sixth’s fine silver coinage was 
in progress during the autumn and early winter, October 
to December, 1551. To whom ought we to attribute the 
new designs? A consideration of the dates seems to 
indicate Pitt, but I am disposed to think that the dies 
were the handiwork of his successor, Anthony. 

Mary. 

The queen made no change in the existing arrange- 
ments, either before or after her marriage with Philip of 
Spain, so Derick Anthony, with John Lawrence as 
under- graver, remained at the Tower, and was responsible 
for all the English and Irish moneys, as far as their types 
were concerned. 


Elizabeth. 

The last of the Tudors was also content to rely upon 
the skill of the chief engraver who had been in the 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 359 


service of her half-brother and half-sister, and the position 
remained unaltered for 41 years. Meanwhile, William 
Cure had been engaged to assist Lawrence the under- 
graver, and the latter after a few years gave place to 
Humphry Cole. The queen at one time thought of 
consolidating the two offices after Anthony’s death, but 
eventually refrained from taking that step. There was 
also a proposal that if the graver or the sinker negli- 
gently omitted the privy mark or the rose from any 
puncheon, though only two or three pieces might be 
struck, the master-worker should forfeit £2000. There 
was naturally a protest against such a penalty, and it 
was withdrawn (Harl. MSS. 698). 


Charles Anthony. 

The time then came for Derick Anthony to be 
gathered to his fathers, and Charles his son was appointed 
in his stead, the letters patent of July 12, 1599, autho- 
rizing him to make the coining irons for England during 
his life. He was also to be cutter and engraver of signets, 
badges, seals, shields, stamps, and royal arms. There 
was permission to exercise the office through a deputy, 
thus reverting to the old practice, but such evidence as 
is available shows that he, a goldsmith, did not take 
advantage of the proviso. For example, he had been 
bound over to appear at Newgate Sessions for refusing 
to collect funds for Christ’s Hospital, but the Privy 
Council absolved him on the ground of his daily attend- 
ance at the Mint. In 1601 John Rutlinger was acting 
as under-graver, but retired temporarily in favour of 
John Baptist van Landen, who continued to assist 
Anthony until the end of the queen’s life. About this 



360 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


date a sum of £12 was disbursed for “ patternes, pon- 
cbions and workmanshipp ” for the pieces of 5s. and 
2s. 6d. } and £221 for making seals, &c. (Excb : Accts., 
passim,) 


James I. 

The accession of the Scottish king found Charles 
Anthony and his last-named assistant still in charge of 
their department at the Tower. The chief graver, in 
addition to his work in preparing dies for the new English 
coinage, received warrants in 1603 and 1604 to make 
the dies for the Irish currency, the portraits on which 
differ in some degree from those on the larger series. 
The occurrence of several varieties of the king’s bust on 
the English coins during the earlier years of the reign 
suggests that Anthony was at first unable to satisfy the 
royal wishes with regard to a likeness. John Rutlinger 
had now returned, and apparently worked with John 
Baptist van Landen until the latter’s decease or retire- 
ment in 1606. After that year, Rutlinger and John 
Dycher were inferior tb sculptores , with a salary of £40, 
until the former died in 1609, when Dycher worked for 
about ten years without a junior colleague. 

At a date shortly before Michaelmas, 1615, Charles 
Anthony died, his will being registered in P.C.C., 
105 Rudd. 


Thomas Anthony. 

His son and successor, Thomas, immediately took over 
the duties, as may be learnt from the Mint accounts of 
the period, but the enrollment of the letters patent 
appears to have been omitted. The grandson of old 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 361 


Derick Anthony survived for about three years only, as 
his name disappears from the salary list after March, 1618. 
His will may be found in P.C.C., 42 Meade. 


William Holle. 

The next chief graver was William Holle, generosus , 
his grant being issued on May 29, 1618. He was to hold 
the office on the same terms as those under which his 
three (named) predecessors had held it. The Numismatic 
< 'Chronicle , Series IY. Vol. VII. p. 346, contains an article 
from Mr. Grueber’s pen, describing many incidents in 
the life of this official and alluding to the coins which 
might be considered to represent his work. Miss Par- 
quhar, in the succeeding volume, p. 273, contributed 
a supplementary note on the same topic. 

Holle, or Hole, received the help of John Dycher until 
1620, when Charles Greene, to whom the junior post had 
been already granted in reversion, took his place. It 
will have been observed that the mortality among the 
gravers during the first quarter of the seventeenth cen- 
tury was, indeed, remarkable, and Holle was scarcely 
an exception, but during his time he had at least one 
opportunity of proving his fitness to be a successor to 
the Anthonys. In the twelve months ending March 31, 
1620, he was paid £120 for making twenty-six patterns, 
stamps, and irons for the coining of the newly made gold 
moneys ; this occupied him for half a year. 

In 1623-4 gravers w r ere “prest upon extraordinary 
occasion of service,” at 5s. a piece per diem. This, I 
presume, refers to copyists only, as no one is mentioned 
by name. 



362 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


John Gilbert an cl Edward Greene. 

Letters patent of September 24, 1624, disclose the fact 
that William Holle had then departed this life, and that, 
in consequence, John G-ilbert and Edward Greene were 
jointly appointed to fill the vacancy, as from midsummer 
in that year (Audit Office Accts., 1595/5 to 1597/24). 


Charles I. 

This reign begins with John Gilbert and Edward 
Greene as chiefs, and Charles Greene as their assistant. 

In the twelve months ending March 31, 1626, Edward 
Greene received £220 for making patterns for six kinds 
of gold and seven kinds of silver coins, and for his pains 
during eight months. These probably represent the 
first issue of money by the new king. 

On April 16, 1625, a warrant directs Edward Greene 
to make and engrave the great seals of England and 
Ireland and other smaller seals; a second order autho- 
rizes him to take up four men for the more speedy 
despatch of the work. A strange contradiction of these 
two warrants arises on September 4, 1626, when the king 
instructs Briot to make the seal of England, an incident 
quite typical of the cross currents which developed at 
the Tower. 

The subsequent history of the gravers on the staff of the 
Mint is so interwoven with that of the supernumeraries 
brought in by the king, and by parliament, as to render 
a description of their respective spheres of work almost 
impossible within the compass of this paper. Abraham 
Yanderdort was one of those who were thus favoured by 
Charles I, and presented with offices which encroached 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 363 

upon the privileges of other servants of the State ; he 
was appointed to be embosser of medals in April, 1625, 
and in the next month was ordered to devise patterns for 
the king’s portrait. In July, 1625, he was to view the 
stamps for coins and to lend aid to the engraver, duties 
which would cause him to be regarded with unfriendly 
eyes. Vanderdort, although never formally associated 
with the Mint, did in fact produce a 205. gold piece 
which was commended in high quarters, but the Tower 
authorities promptly rejected it in 1626 as being un- 
suited for general circulation. There I may leave him, 
in order to discuss another royal favourite who exercised 
a lasting and beneficial influence over the coinage and 
kindred productions. 

Although this is not an occasion for attempting a 
sketch of Nicholas Briot’s life, even in bare outline, I 
would crave leave to quote the essential parts of two 
recorded episodes, hitherto unprinted, which should not 
be neglected by any future biographer. The first relates 
to his genius as an artist, the other to his skill as a 
mechanician. 

The earliest reference to Briot appears to be in a 
signet warrant of April, 1626, which transfers to him a 
sum of £100 for making pieces of largesse, but obviously 
this must have been preceded by instructions to sink the 
dies in question. 

I do not propose to set out any of the edicts, letters, 
commissions, warrants, and other verbal missiles which 
accompanied every stage of Briot’s quarrel with the 
resentful Mint officers, but to pass on to the letters 
patent which are commonly known as the “ free denizen ” 
grant. Rymer, in vol. xix. p. 40, accords to this docu- 
ment the briefest of head notes, but numismatists may 



364 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


prefer to know something of its contents, which run as 
follows : — 

Patent Roll, 4 Charles I, part 11, m. 5. 

Nicholas Briott “ borne in the realme of Fraunce ” is 
made a free denizen of England in consideration of good 
and acceptable services done and that he might be 
capable of holding such preferment as his Majesty 
intended to bestow upon him. And whereas the king 
found by experience that the graver of his moneys was 
not at all times and places provided with such good and 
proportionable forms and patterns of his effigy as were 
necessary to frame imitate and conform his irons and 
stamps for all coins, and that the imperfection and dis- 
equalities that appeared in the fabrication of the said 
moneys, besides their deformity, caused and offered 
facility and boldness unto false minters to counterfeit 
all sorts of money. And having resolved to remedy all 
such imperfections and considering the good report 
made of the said Nicholas and the particular knowledge 
of his dexterity, whereof there was testimony already 
during the space of three years by divers work perfected 
by him at the royal command, the king had referred a 
petition touching the office of graver to the mint to 
two officers of the Household who had certified that 
Nicholas should not “intermeddle with the graving of 
anything that carried our arms,” but that he might 
safely make and frame the first designs and effigies of 
the king’s image in such sizes as would serve for all 
coins of gold and silver, u to be put into the hands of 
our graver thereby to conform their work together ; ” 
with medals of all sorts and metals representing the 
king’s or his consort’s effigies, and all other coined pieces 
which might convey to posterity the mark or char&Qter 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 365 


of worthy successes, accidents or great actions in that 
time. Wherefore the king granted to the said Nicholas 
the privileges aforesaid and the profits arising therefrom. 
All other persons were prohibited from engraving, 
imitating, casting or selling any medals which had 
been or should be made by the said Nicholas, who had 
authority to keep in his sole custody all engines or 
devices for framing the coins and medals. Provided 
always that Nicholas should covenant to deliver the first 
designs and effigies into the hands of the gravers of the 
mint and to use the same for no other purpose. And 
the king having weighed the petitioner’s services there- 
tofore done and to be performed in the future, granted 
to him the wages and fee of £250 by the year, from 
Michaelmas that was in the year 1626, by equal quarterly 
payments, and during pleasure. The enrollment of the 
letters patent was to be sufficient warrant for payment 
by the Exchequer. Dated, 16th December (1628). 

After such a tribute to the “ Frenchman ” and such a 
caustic indictment of John Gilbert and Edward Greene, 
can it be a matter for surprise that the Mint officials 
were actively hostile to the intruder ? Unless this order 
was revoked, of which there is at present no evidence, 
the two engravers at the Tower and their successors 
were reduced to an entirely subordinate position as 
regards portraiture. 


Edward Greene. 

Eeturning to the main subject, in the latter half of 
1628 Gilbert retired, with a pension of £50 as a solace. 
Thereupon Edward Greene became sole chief graver, and 
received on October 14, 1630, another patent, with £30 
annually for life, the surrender of the joint letters 



366 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 


being recited in his new grant. Charles Greene was 
still assistant. 

The second of the two incidents in Briot’s history to 
which I have previously alluded shows him in another 
character, viz. as a working moneyer at his bench in the 
Tower, striking coins according to his own method, and 
competing with the representatives of the Provost and 
Company of Moneyers in a trial of skill between the 
new system and the old, the press versus the hammer. 

From the accounts of the master-worker I have 
extracted the following details : — 

Among the disbursements during the year ending 
November 30, 1632, there is a charge " for a dinner for 
the officers of the Mint when Bryott did work, it being 
no mint day.” Then, later on, Sir Thomas Aylesbury 
delivered to the king “ fair silver moneys,” viz. three 
crowns and three half-crowns of Bryott’s moneys, and 
three crowns, three half-crowns, and ten shillings of the 
moneyer’s making, in all 55s. During the same twelve 
months, the French graver made 26 lbs. 11 ozs. of crown 
gold coins at 2s. 5cl. the lb., and 221 lbs. 4 ozs. of 
silver coins at 8 cl. the lb., the total cost of his work 
being £15 2s. 3 id. The corresponding figures from the 
moneyers were 2946 lbs. gold and 28,310 lbs. silver. 

Briot next made coins in the year ending July 31, 
1639, when he struck 930 lbs. 1 oz. of silver moneys 
only, for which work he received £31 Os. 0 (Audit 
Office Accts. 1628/220-4). 

The foregoing extracts prove that Briot worked at 
his own coinage on certain unnamed days within two 
stated periods only, viz. (1) between November 30, 1631, 
and the same date in 1632, when the mint-marks Bose 
and Harp were successively used, and (2) between July 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 367 


31, 1638, and the same date in 1639, when the Anchor 
and the Triangle were the current marks, the latter 
being in use for about three weeks (. Num . Ghron 4th 
Series, Yol. X. p. 393). 

Nicholas Briot. 

By the resignation of John Gilbert the path was left 
open for Briot, who was granted on January 22, 1633-4, 
the office of “ one of the chief gravers,” with an annuity 
of £50 from Christmas, 1632, during good pleasure. 
Thus he became at last officially attached to the Mint, 
but the appointment was not a joint one with Edward 
Greene. 

On the next day, January 23, 1633-4, another patent 
conferred the post of under-graver upon John East, for 
life, in succession to Charles Greene, then recently 
deceased. 

There was no further change in the position until 
the year 1641, when I find that Nicholas Burgh, a graver, 
was employed at the Tower, by reason of the great 
quantity of bullion brought in, for 46J days ending on 
November 27 of that year, at 5s. the day. John Decroso 
was also assisting for 12 days only. Abraham Preston, 
a third graver, was similarly engaged for 235 days ending 
on November 5, 1642. The aggregate sum paid to these 
three men was £97 2s. 6 cl. We have some evidence that 
Briot’s appliances were used in 1642, as there is a 
payment in that year of £115 to Thomas Bichardson, 
clothworker, for “eleven iron presses for coinage of 
moneys, and one great iron mortar and pestle ” (Audit 
Office Accts., 1599/42). 

Between November, 1642, and March, 1642-3, 
Abraham Preston was again working for 24 days. 



368 


NUMISMATIC CHKONICLE. 


Burgh also reappeared and graved the coining irons on 
306 days between September, 1643, and the same month 
in 1644, for which he was paid £76 10s. (Pipe Office 
Accts., 2186). 

Any variations which appeared on the Tower dies of 
1641 to 1644 might be due to the introduction of these 
supernumeraries, one of whom afterwards became a 
member of the staff. 

Edward Greene died shortly before Christmas, 1644, 
to which day his salary was paid ; he was succeeded by 
Nicholas Burgh, according to Pipe Office Account 2186. 
The name of John East still appears as under-graver. 

Edwaul Wacle and Thomas Simon . 

If Burgh did succeed to the higher place he held it 
for about three months only, because Edward Wade and 
Thomas Simon were jointly appointed by letters patent 
on April 4, 1645, during the pleasure of Parliament. 

In December, 1646, Briot died (A r um. Chron ., 4th 
Series, Vol X. p. 397). Edward Wade, too, was soon 
removed by death ; his last fee was entered in the 
accounts at Christmas, 1648, when the word “late” was 
prefixed to his name (Audit Office, 1601/51). 

Before quitting the complications of this disturbed 
period I must add a few lines as to that elusive person 
Thomas Rawlins. 1 The Diet . JSfat. Biography tells us that 


1 St. Mary Woolnoth, London. 

Baptism. 

1618. 11 Oct. Thomas, son of Wm. Bawlins, goldsmith. 

Having regard to the fact that the majority of the gravers were 
connected with the Goldsmiths’ Company it is probable that this 
baptism refers to the Oxford artist, who, as the son of a goldsmith, 
may have been associated with such work from boyhood and may have 
inherited his father’s skill. 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 369 

lie was formally appointed chief graver of the Mint in 
23 Charles I, 1647-48, and other writers say that he was 
working at the Tower at varying dates. As far as the 
Tower is concerned there is no trace of any one bearing 
that name either before or after the political troubles 
began, and it is most improbable that Parliament would 
give any office to a pronounced royalist after November, 
1642, when a receiver was appointed to annex the king’s 
revenues at that Mint. Nevertheless, the tradition was, 
in one sense, founded on the truth. I have been so 
fortunate as to discover a small collection (as yet un- 
indexed) of warrants for letters patent and similar grants 
issued by Charles when his headquarters were at Oxford. 
These papers include one at least which is of value in 
this enquiry, and therefore it shall be quoted textually. 

Thomas Rawlins . 

“ The office of cheife graver to his Ma ts mints in the 
Towre of London and els where in England and Wales, 
with the fee of 30 11 p’ ann and all other p’fitts belonging 
to that place, graunted to Thomas Rawlins gent for his 
life And alsoe the office priviledge and authority of 
sole makeing graving and cutting of all seales stampes 
and escutcheons whatsoever wherein his Ma ts royall 
ensignes of armes are to be engraven and all profitts 
thereunto belonging With comand to all others not to 
intermeddle with any worke belonging to the said office 
of his Ma ts cheife graver. Subscribed by M r Sollic r 
genall by warr* under his Ma ts royall signe manuall. 
April 1645 ” (Privy Seal Warrants, &c., Yol. 7). 

There is also a brief memorandum or abstract of the 
letters patent which passed the G-reat Seal on May 7 then 
next. 

2 c 


VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 



370 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


While it is clear that Rawlins’s appointment to the 
“ Tower of London ” was only the assertion of a right 
which, under the existing circumstances, could not have 
been exercised by the grantee, there is a further point 
of interest in this warrant. To my mind, the unusually 
wide phraseology, “ England and Wales,” suggests that 
the Oxford grayer was to make, as he probably had been 
making, the dies for the royalist mints, excepting York 
and Aberystwith, which had been established before the 
troubles became acute. There is, however, one other 
mint, viz. Exeter, which may have engaged a local or 
West-country artist for the graving of its dies, as can 
be inferred from a document to be presently cited. 

The series of legal instruments drawn up when the 
king no longer controlled the central government also 
includes three commissions of some historical importance, 
two of which are not strictly germane to the subject now 
under discussion; but, seeing that we know so little 
about the inception of the Civil War mints, I will take 
the opportunity to record in the pages of the Chronic/c 
the general terms of these instructions by Charles to his 
lieutenants in other parts of the Kingdom — 

(1) A commission directed to Sir Richard Yyvyan, 
knt., giving him authority by himself or a deputy to 
erect one or more mints within the counties of Devon 
and Cornwall and the city of Exon, and to make and 
engrave irons and stamps with his Majesty’s effigies 
inscriptions and arms, and therewith to imprint and 
instamp all ingot bullion and plate of gold or silver 
brought to him. The moneys so made and stamped to 
be of the same specie weight and goodness as are his 
Majesty’s moneys in the Tower of London ; Sir Richard 
to receive for his pains and charges the same allowances 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 371 


as are paid in tlie said Tower, and to pay the money so 
made to Sir John Berkley, knt., or such other person as 
his Majesty may appoint. To continue during pleasure. 
3 January, 19 Charles I, 1643-4. 

(I wish that I could add the name of the grayer 
employed at Exeter by Sir Bichard Yyvyan, but at 
present it is not feasible.) 

(2) A commission directed to Sir Thomas Cary, knt., 
authorizing him to erect one or more mints within the 
counties of Hereford, Worcester, Salop and Chester, and 
to coin moneys in such a manner as in the Tower of 
London, and to receive for his pains and charges such 
allowances as are paid in the Tower, without account. 
And to pay so much of the money as shall be made of 
ingot bullion or plate delivered to his Majesty’s use, to 
Prince Bupert or such as he shall appoint. At Oxon, 
22 May, 20 Charles I (1644). 

(3) A commission for Edward, Lord Herbert, to erect 
and set up one or more mints for the coining of plate or 
bullion into the several sorts of gold and silver usually 
current within any of his Majesty’s dominions. 

At Bowe, 29 July, 20 Charles I (1644). 

The three mandates are entered in Crown Office 
docquet book, No. 3, at the Public Becord Office ; the 
original docquets were deposited in the Ashmolean 
Museum in 1686 under a bequest by Sir Wm. Dugdale, 
and they are now in the keeping of the Bodleian library. 


The Commonwealth and the Protectorate. 
Thomas Simon . 

This period opens with the appointment of Thomas 
Simon as chief graver on April 25, 1649 ; John East was 



372 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


still his assistant, and Nicholas Burgh was perhaps 
associated with the latter. 

Who engraved the dies for the Commonwealth 
coinage? It is rather difficult to believe that the 
man who gave us Cromwell’s coins, the Petition crown, 
and the finely chiselled portraits on the hammered 
money of Charles II, was also the designer of the 
“harp and cross” pieces of 1649. I think that in this 
case there was a departure from established usage, 
and that either East or Burgh prepared the irons in 
accordance with a sketch provided by the Parliamentary 
Committee for the Mint. 

In February, 1649-50, there were undoubtedly com- 
plaints as to these coins. Also, an account exists of work 
done by Simon, but as it begins in 1650, and is silent 
as to the Commonwealth moneys, it does not help us 
to decide the question with any certainty. The remain- 
ing written evidence is very conflicting ; an account by 
the master- worker, running from May, 1649, to November, 
1653, mentions Burgh as being then “graver,” and does 
not refer to Simon (Audit Office Accts., 1629/234). On 
the other hand, in the course of litigation in 1663 between 
Aaron Gourdain, the late master-worker, and some 
ejected Mint officers, the former states that East was 
“graver” from May, 1649, to December, 1651, when he 
was succeeded by Burgh, who remained in possession 
until November, 1657 ; again Simon is not mentioned 
(Exch: Commissions, 6313). 

These apparent contradictions suggest that there was 
much overlapping in the duties to be performed, and 
strengthen the possibility that one or other of the 
juniors worked the Commonwealth dies. Be that as it 
may, John East’s fee was not paid after Ladyday, 1652 ; 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 373 

from that date the payment was made to Burgh as his 
successor. 

Thomas Simon was confirmed in his office of sole chief 
graver by Oliver Cromwell, as Lord Protector, on July 9, 
1656, at a salary of £30 from Ladyday, 1655, for life. 
He was authorized to make all badges, seals, &c., and 
to appoint a sufficient under- graver or deputy. The 
post of medal-maker was also conferred upon him by 
the same letters patent, with an additional annuity of 
£13 6s. 8 d. 


Charles II. 

After the restoration of the monarchy on May 29, 
1660, the king was confronted with an embarrassing 
situation in Mint affairs, as there were two persons then 
living who held patents for life to exercise the office of 
chief engraver at the Tower, viz. Thomas Eawlins by 
virtue of the royal grant from Charles I, and Thomas 
Simon by successive grants from Parliament and the 
Lord Protector. In the result, as will be seen, a com- 
promise was effected and both artists were retained, but 
in different capacities. 

Thomas Raivlins. 

I will speak first of Eawlins. It is not at all easy to 
indicate the nature of his duties, or to define the extent 
to which he participated, if at all, in the cutting of the 
dies for the earliest issue of coins. I have been unable 
to learn that new letters patent or any other form of 
grant were issued to him after the Eestoration, save only 
a Treasury note that he was to be reinstated in his place* 
and therefore we may infer that the Oxford patent of 

2 c 3 



374 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


1645 was regarded as being good and valid. There is, 
moreover, abundant proof in the Mint accounts that he 
was deemed to be “chief graver,” and that he received 
the customary annual fee of £30 from the time of the 
king’s return to England. The printed calendar of 
Domestic State Papers mentions, under June, 1660, a 
warrant to Parkhurst and others instructing them forth- 
with to cause Rawlins to engrave the dies with the royal 
effigies, but an inspection of the original document 
shows it to be only a draft, without signature or stamp, 
and without the day of the month. Consequently, this 
paper is of very little worth as evidence that Rawlins 
was the designer of the hammered moneys of Charles II, 
and it need not, I think, disturb our belief that the work 
was in fact executed by Simon. 

The first regular appointment made in this reign was 
to the office of under-graver, which was given to a man 
whose name has hitherto been unnoticed, but who was 
employed at the Tower for at least seventeen years. A 
patent roll of 12 Charles II (part 36, No. 13) includes a 
grant to Thomas Astell of the office of under-graver of the 
irons for money, during his life ; with an annuity of £40 
from the time of the death of John East, deceased, as he 
had held it (June 22 (1660)). 

Thomas Simon . 

Turning now to Thomas Simon, he had been directed 
in August and September, 1660, to lay aside other work 
and prepare the coinage dies, and although he was pre- 
sumably so engaged during several months, it was not 
until the summer of 1661 that his functions were pre- 
cisely settled by letters patent. A grant was then made 
to him of the office of “ one of the chief gravers of the 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 375 

irons for money ,” with the right to cut and grave all 
signets, badges, seals, arms, and medals upon which the 
royal arms were to be engraved ; to be held by himself, 
or by a sufficient deputy, for his life, with an annuity of 
£50, and the emoluments, diets, and profits as formerly 
held by Nicholas Briot, deceased (June 2, 13 Charles II 
(1661) ; Pat. Roll, part 12, No. 9), 

John Routt ter. 

On May 19, 1662, two warrants were issued to John 
Roettier as “ one of the chief gravers ; ” the first ordering 
him to make puncheons, &c., for coins to be struck by the 
mill and press, the second fixing his remuneration at £50 
yearly, with a convenient dwelling-house (Dom. State 
Papers, Charles II, vol. 54). So, at that date the Mint 
was served by a chief graver and under-graver in ordinary, 
and by two supernumeraries each described as “ chief,” 
and receiving a higher rate of pay — an array of talent 
which did not make for peace in the Tower workshops. 
The cost of the rival methods of striking the currency 
is shown in two sets of working expenses, the moneyers 
being paid 18<:Z. for the pound troy of milled silver, and 
14 d. for hammered silver. Pive presses for coining cost 
£300 in 1670. 

Thomas Simon died on an unknown day within the 
three months ending at Michaelmas, 1665, and it is said 
that he fell a victim to the Great Plague of that year. 
It is also not improbable that the Tower Mint suffered 
from the same visitation, as I find an item in the accounts 
to the effect that a watchman in the house of Mr. 
Woodward, the assay-master, was taken to the Pesthouse 
for the Tower Hamlets on July 11, 1665, and that the 
assay -master himself died shortly afterwards. 



376 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


We have seen that only one member of the Eoettier 
family was appointed in 1662, but seven years later John 
and his two brothers received an enlarged grant, the 
terms of which followed the words used in Briot’s patent 
of 1628, as far as they were applicable. It will therefore 
be unnecessary to cite more than a brief abstract of the 
essential portions. 

John , Jostj'h, and Philqj Roettier. 

The king having had long experience of the great 
skill and knowledge of John, Joseph, and Philip Eoettier, 
brethren in the arts of graving and cutting in stone and 
also in divers other arts, and as they had at the king’s 
desire quitted their native country and were willing to 
settle themselves in his kingdom and to employ their 
whole time in the said arts for the royal service, There- 
fore the king granted to them for their lives and the life 
of the survivor the right to make frame and engrave 
the designs and effigies of his image for all sorts of coins, 
together with medals representing his own or his con- 
sort’s effigies, and that no one else should do so ; and to 
have in their sole keeping all engines and instruments. 
And the said Eoettiers were to receive for the execution 
of the office of making the first designs of the king’s 
effigies the yearly sum of £450, and after the decease of 
one the survivors were to receive £350, and after the 
decease of two the survivor was to be paid £250. To 
take effect from Christmas, 19 Charles II (1667). Dated 
July 3, 21 Charles II (1669), Pat. Eoll, Part 1. 

Thomas Eawlins died in the early part of 1670, but his 
post was left vacant, and Thomas Astell continued alone 
as under-graver in ordinary. 

There was a grant on January 11, 1670-1, to Henry 



ENGRAVERS OF THE TUDOR AND STUART PERIODS. 377 


Harris of tlie office of chief graver of signets, seals, 
arms, &c., during the king’s good pleasure. This would 
appear to be a direct encroachment upon the privileges of 
the Roettier family. In any event, I cannot trace Harris 
as being concerned with coinage matters at this time, 
and the same should be said of George Bowers, the 
medallist, who was appointed to be “embosser” in 1664. 


James II. 

John Roettier was probably the sole designer of the 
coins during this short reign, as the Mint accounts tell 
us that he alone received the annual fee under the 
letters patent of 1669. His two brothers had then 
apparently returned to the Continent, and there is no 
mention of any other person. It may be, however, that 
John was unofficially assisted by his sons James and 
Norbert Roettier, as the latter afterwards put forward a 
statement that they had been employed at the Mint 
under Charles II and James II. 

Henry Symonds. 


MISCELLANEA. 


Helena N. E. — M. Jules Maurice has written an interesting 
commentary on the recent article in the Numismatic Chronicle 
wherein I ventured to differ from his attribution of the coins 
inscribed Helena N. F. to Helena, the wife of Crispus. He 
says — 

4C I have read with great interest your article on Helena 
N. F., and you have shaken my convictions. 

tc Nevertheless, I still find the head of young Helena 
much younger, I still see in the existence of a Constantia 
N. F. and of Helena N. F. a connexion, and I still ask 



378 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


myself if Constantine had some coins of his mother struck 
before he crowned her Empress. It is certainly a much less 
honour. Finally, Fausta is described in books, notably in 
Julian, as Nobilissima Femina ; but St. Helena is never so 
described. St. Helena was repudiated by Constance Chlore. 
Her reinstatement could only come from her crowning, as 
Theophanes points out. These commemorative medals were 
probably struck afterwaid^ with those of Theodora, but only 
afterwards. All these reasons still leave me somewhat in 
doubt. 

t£ Further, why are the coins of St. Helena only struck in 
the port of Thessalonica, where Crispus was preparing his 
fleet for the war in the East in that year, 323-321 ? It is 
not proved that these coins were struck elsewhere.” 

His final point is certainly an effective one, and I am 
inclined to go even further than he does, and say that the 
fabric of the coins shows, almost beyond doubt, that the 
unmarked specimens are from the mint of Thessalonica. 
If this corroborated the other facts available it would be 
very important, but if it contradicts, then it does not seem 
weighty enough to overcome them. 

Did the coinage of Helena N. F. stand alone, its issue at 
Thessalonica would be very significant. It is, however, diffi- 
cult to believe that Crispus made himself responsible for an 
issue in honour of his wife and Ms step-mother, the reigning 
Empress. Such extraordinary conduct would almost have 
given colour to the scandalous allegations which were after- 
wards made against him, and would probably have been 
recorded by Constantine and his apologists. 

I submit that no real difficulties arise from the other 
points raised by M. Maurice. St. Helena, because she had 
been repudiated by Chlorus when he became Caesar in 292 
a.d., sank into obscurity, from which she was only raised by 
her son Constantine, when he found himself firmly seated 
on the throne. 

M. Maurice admits that the first numismatic honour which 
he accorded to his wife, the reigning Augusta, was by coins 
bearing the title H. F. Why should he not also do so to his 
mother, who had not then reached the Augustan dignity, 
and why should he not have reinstated her in honour as 
FTobilissima Femina before he raised her to the higher rank ? 
It was the usual course for those who were designated for the 
Imperial throne to bear first the title of Hobilissimus Caesar 
and then that of Augustus. It may even be that the N. F. 
series was the Emperor’s first attempt to honour two ladies 
without offending either. Again, if J ulian and other writers 



MISCELLANEA. 


379 


had spoken of Helena the younger as Xobilissima Femina, 
and had not so designated St. Helena, that would have been 
evidence against rue, but their silence as to both Helenas at 
least proves nothing. When it was desired years afterwards 
to honour Constantia, not then Augusta, what more likely 
than the revival of the H. F. series ? 

And I am still quite unable to accept the view that the 
portrait of Helena X. F. shows a younger face than those on 
the Augustan series. If further evidence than that afforded 
by Plate XXI. in the current Nituii&mniu Chronicle is 
required, I would refer to the coins of Helena figured by M. 
Maurice in vol. iii. of Numismatique Constantinienne , Plates 
ii., vii., and xi. 

P. H. Webb. 


The Boulton Copper Coinage. — The following letters formed 
part of a correspondence between Matthew Boulton and John 
Southern, F.R.S. (1758-1815), who was the most scientific 
member of the Soho staff. The originals are in the possession 
of the present writer. The proclamation authorizing the new 
coinage was published in the London Gazette for July 26, 1797. 
It was only then that the penny piece became a current coin ; 
although, as is well known, copper penny tokens issued by 
private individuals were very common previously. The pro- 
clamation directs that the penny shall weigh one ounce ; but 
nothing is said as to the size of the new coins, and it appears 
to have been Boulton's own idea to make the diameters of the 
coins serve as standards of length. The letters are eminently 
characteristic, and furnish a good illustration of Boulton's love 
of accuracy. As will be seen from the second letter, he took 
the trouble to obtain from the Royal Society a copy of the 
standard foot in order that the diameters of the coins might 
be quite exact. 

Writing to Southern from London on May 19, 1797, Boulton 
says : — 

“ As I intend there shall be a coincidence between our 
Money, Weight and Measures by Makeing 8 two-peny pieces 
1 lb or 7000 gr and to measure 1 foot ; 16 peny pieces 1 lb, 
and 17 to measure 2 feet ; 32 half-pence 1 lb, and 10 to 
measure 1 foot; 64 farthings 1 lb, and 12 to measure 1 foot, 
I therefore beg that Bush would turn an original Die & an 
original Coller of the peny size & Strike 17 blank pieces in 
them to see that 17 are an exact foot & if too long or too 
Short let them be adjusted untill the size is exact & then let 
those original dies & Collers be kept as an exact Standard 



380 


NUMISMATIC CHEONICLE. 


for the whole Coinage of pence. When that is adjusted then 
let the same be done for two-peny pieces (viz inches) for 
unless they are turn d perfectly exact to the same Standard 
my Gages will be of no use. 

“ I also wish you would tell Kellet that the thickness of the 
metal must be perfectly exact for if the Money is too light it 
will be returned upon my hands & if too heavy the loss of the 
Copper will fall upon me as they will be rated by tale. 

“ I will also thank you to tell Mr. Foreman that I am 
obliged by his letter & that I have dined with Col 1 Fullerton. 
I hope you have not lost sight of the new Mint, for I am per- 
swaded it will be far more compleat & harmonious than the 
present one, & the more I think of it the more I am pleased. 

“I am glad to hear that the Founders are shaped into 
smooth Boreing. 

“ I have been with the Duke of Portland two hours today 
assisting & divising new Laws to prevent the Counterfeiting 
the Coin of this & all other Countries & have seen such a 
Collection of base money & base Arts as would astonish you 
& convinces me that all which Mr Colquhoun says in his 
Book is true. 

“ I am to present my Specimens to the Kg. on Monday next 
at Windsor but shall go on Sunday. I fear Bush is behind- 
hand with the air pumps, the Cranks & Counter or recoil 
pumps at the Mint.” 

W 7 riting on May 28, 1797, Boulton says further: — 

“ I have obtained a Standard foot from one in y e possession 
of the Boy 1 Society & also a french foot which I have sent 
herewith p 1 Coach, 

“Sir George Shuckborow [Shuckburgh] is preparing to go 
before Park with the subject of weights & measures but he 
will not be ready before next Sessions I have seen his appa- 
ratus which is accurate & expensive I will tell you y e par- 
ticulars when we meet being now in haste.” 

The concluding paragraph of the first letter has reference to 
the machinery for the new Boyal Mint which Boulton was 
then constructing. The Mr. Colquhoun mentioned above is 
no doubt Patrick Colquhoun, author of A Treatise on the 
Commerce and Police of the Piver Thames (1800), and other 
works. 


B. B. Prosser. 



XIY. 


SOME CRETAN COINS. 

(See Plate XV.) 

The coins illustrated in PL XV. are a selection from the 
cabinet of Captain J. S. Cameron of the Royal Sussex 
Regiment. They belong for the most part to the ob- 
scurer mints of Crete, but one or two of them have been 
chosen for publication as varieties of well-known issues, 
and the stater of G-ortyna is an important addition to 
the series of that mint. 


Apollonia. 

1. Obv . — Head of Apollo r. ; border of dots. 

Rev . — Akrostolion ; border of clots. 

M. 13 mm. f Wt. 25*3 grs. (1*64 grm.). 
[PI. XV. 1.] Cp. Svoronos, Upocr^Ktu, Pl. xi. 6 
(akrostolion and branch). 


Chersonesos. 

2. Obv.— Head of Athena r., in crested Corinthian helmet. 

Rev . — Prow of galley 1. ; above, head of trident 1. ; on r. 
X ; border of dots. 

JE, 13 mm. f Wt. 32*4 grs. (2T0 grms.). 
[Pl. XV. 2.] Cp. Svoronos, PI. iv. 8, where 
the object above the prow seems to be a trident- 
like monogram (instead of, as here, an undoubted 
trident), and the mint-initial X is not visible. 

YOL. XIII., SEEIES IY. 2 D 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


382 

3. Obv . — Head of Artemis or nymph r., liair tied in knot 

behind. 

Bev. NAXiQN Dolphin r. ; below, trident r. 

2E. 16 mm. f Wt. 65*9 grs. (4*27 grms.). 

[Pl. XV. 3.] Obtained in Crete. 

CvDONIA 

4. Obv . — Head of nymph 1. 

Bev. — Kydon standing ]., stiiugmg bow; on r. down- 
wards, KYA } in held 1., A 

JR. 23 mm. ^ Wt. IGo-S grs. (10*74 grms.). 
[PI. XV. 5.] A variety of Svoronos, PL ix. 15. 
Prom the site of Polyrhenion. 

5. Obr . — Dolphin r. 

Bev . — Bitch seated 1. ; in field L, crescent ( 

JEi. 10 mm. ^ Wt. 12*5 grs. (0*81 gun.}. 
[PI. XV. 4.] From Western Crete. 

6. Obv . — Male head r. (Hermes ). 

Bev . — Dolphin r. ; below, Y>| 

M. 11 mm. ^ Wt. 15*7 grs. [1*02 grin.). 
[PI. XV. 6.] Cp. Svoronos, ITpocr^v kou, Pl. xi. 22. 

Gortyna. 

7. Obv . — Europa riding r. on bull. 

Bev . — Head of Hermes r., wearing winged petasos with 
narrow brim ; in front, caduceus ; inscription 
on r. upwards, - - VT SOA Dotted incuse 
circle. 

JR. 25 mm. f\ Wt. 182*6 grs. (11*83 grms.). 

[Pl. XV. 11.] 

This extremely interesting coin furnishes in the 
Hermes head a new type for Gortyna, or at least for 
Gortynian silver. The obverse is from the same die as 



SOME CRETAN COINS. 


383 


the Naples and Paris specimens of the stater with the 
lion’s scalp reverse published by Svoronos, p. 160, No. 25, 
PI. xii. 35. The coin was actually restruck on a stater 
of that kind ; for below the bull may be seen one corner 
of the old incuse square reverse, with some of the hairs of 
the scalp. It is more difficult to identify the traces of 
the old obverse, although they may be discerned. The 
head of Hermes is of very fine, severe style. The stater 
may be dated towards the end of the first period, before 
430 13.0. 


Latos-Eteka (*?). 

8. Obv. — Pull’s head facing. 

Bev. — E in incuse square. 

M. 9 mm. f \\ t. 5 7 grs. (0*37 grm.). 
[PL XV. 7.] From Crete. Captain Cameron 
knows of another specimen having been ob- 
tained in the island. Cp. the coins attributed 
to Latos-Etera, Svoronos, PI. xx. 23 ff. 


Heracleion (?). 

9. Obv . — Head of Apollo r., radiate ; border of dots. 

Bev. — Eight-pointed star ; border of large dots. 

JE. 18*5 mm. Wt. 42*8 grs. (2*77 grms.). 
[PL XV. 8.] From Cnossos. This is of thin 
spread fabric , others, of thicker fabric, were 
also seen in Crete by Captain Cameron. 

10. Obv . — Stem of vessel L, decorated with a round shield j 

above, N ; border of dots. 

Bev. — Eight-pointed star. 

JE. 13*5 mm. Wt. 31*7 grs. (2*05 grms.). 
[PI. XV. 9.] From Crete. Cp. Svoronos, 
pp, 150 f. and Pl. xvii. 4, 5. There appear to 
be traces of letters on the r. edge of the ob- 
verse ; possibly the coin is overstruck. 

2 d 2 



384 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


It will be observed that the letter oh the obverse is 
clearly N. Tlie specimen described by Svoronos, how- 
ever, seems to have H , on which account he suggests 
Heracleion as the mint. The new coin throws doubt on 
the attribution. Whether N os. 9 and 10 belong to the 
same mint may be doubted, in view of the fact that the 
star is so common a type. The N and the H are so dis- 
tinct that it does not seem possible to suppose that they 
are two forms of the same letter ; otherwise we might re- 
gard them as attempts to represent the initial cligamma 
of Axos. 


Hierapytna. 

11. Obv . — Female head r. 

Bev. — Palm-tree between I A ; border of dots. 

JE. 11*5 mm. Wt. 22*3 grs. (1*45 grm.). 
[PI. XV. 12.] Cp. Svoronos, PI. xxii. 33. 
There can be no doubt about the reading of 
Captain Cameron’s coin. Do those described 
by Svoronos on p. 252 really read n A ? 


Itanos. 

12. Obv. — Sea-monster r., wielding trident. 

Bev . — StaL of eight large and eight small rays, in linear 
circle, in incuse circle. 

JR. 2(5 mm. Wt. 118*5 grs. (7*68 grms.), 
[PI. XV. 10] Varying in the details of the 
reverse from the specimens figured by Svoronos, 
PI. xviii. 21 £fi The coin is badly worn, hence 
its low weight. 

13. Ob v . — Head of Athena 1., in crested Athenian helmet. 

Bev . — Eagle standing r., head reverted ; above, IT 

JE. 13*5 mm. f Wt. 31*4 grs. (2*03 grms.). 
[PI, XV. 13.] Cp. the types of the silver given 
by Svoronos, PL xix, 17 ff. (with the eagle to 1.). 



SOME CRETAN COINS. 


385 


Latos. 

14, 15. Obv. — Head of Artemis r., hair in coif (?). 

Rev. — Hermes, nude, moving 1., r. hand extended, 
1. holding caduceus ; across field, A A 

ZE. 17 mm. f Wt. 42-6 grs. (2*76 grms.). 

[PL XV. 14.] 

JR. 15 mm. f Wt. 65*9 grs. (4*27 grms.). 
The A obliterated by oxide. [PL XV. 15.] 

16. Obv. — Head of Artemis r., hair tied in knot at back. 

Rev. — Hermes wearing short chiton, moving L, r. 

hand extended, 1. holding caduceus ; across 
field, A A 

JR. 13 mm. Wt. 26*0 grs. (1 *09 grm.). 

[Pl. XV. 16.] 

Lisos (?). 

17, 18 Obv. — The caps of the Dioscuri ; border of dots. 

Rev — Bow and quiver crossed , in field L, C ; border 
of dots. 

ZE. 16*5 mm. ^ Wt. 45*5 grs. (2*95 
grms.). [Pl. XV. 17.] 

ZE. 15 mm. f Wt. 35*6 grs. (2*31 grms.), 

Tor the types, cp. Svoronos, Pl. xx. 37. But these 
coins did not come from anywhere near the site of Lisos, 
and may belong to some other mint. 

Lyttos. 

19, 20. Obv. — Head of Zeus r., bearded, laureate; border 
of dots. 

Rev. — Eagle standing r., flapping its wings ; inscrip- 
tion, AY TT I QN 

M. 15 mm. f Wt. 34*3 grs. (2*22 
grms.). [Pl. XV. 18.] 

iR. 16-5 mm. f Wt. 30-6 grs. (1-98 
grm.). [Pl. XV. 19.] 



386 


NUMISMATIC) OHLIONIULE. 


The inscription is less clear than on the preceding, 
and the reverse shows traces of a laurel-wreath surround- 
ing the type ; but the coin was, perhaps, restruck on 
another, to which the wreath belongs. 

Of these two coins, the former was obtained, in a much 
osydized condition, near Chersonesos, for the sum of 
half a drachma ; the latter also in Crete, but some years 
later. They appear to be from the same reverse die, and 
there is no doubt of their authenticity. 

Olotjs. 

21. Obv . — Head of Artemis Britomaitis r , hair tied in knot 

behind ; irregular border of dots. 

Be v . — Zeus seated L, holding eagle in r., resting 1. on 
sceptre ; in field 1., ^ j border of dots in 
* incuse circle. 

16 mm. Wt. 41*7 grs. (2 ’70 grms.), 

[Pl. XV. 20.] 

Orion (?). 

22. Obv. — Vase, with two neck handles (or deeply fluted 

neck) and a handle on the body. 

Bev . — Incuse square of Aeginetic pattern ; in one com- 
partment, traces of a letter (?). 

7R. 13 mm. Wt. 19*4 grs. (1*26 grm.). 

[Pl. XV. 21.] From the province of Mono- 
phatsi in Crete. Cp. Svoronos, p. 331, Nos. 3, 4, 
Pl. xxxi. 10. 

Captain Cameron believes that the coin came from the 
village of Ini, and local tradition appears to attach the 
name of Inatos to the neighbouring ancient site. In 
one of the compartments of the reverse there is trace of 
what may have been a letter or monogram, or is perhaps 
merely a flaw, 



SOME CRETAN COINS 


OQ“ 

oo < 

The imitation of the Aeginetic reverse (as at Or- 
chomenos in Boeotia) is of great interest. The very 
specnlative attribution to Orion is suggested by Svoronos 
for the other coins with the same vase because the 
dolphin (which they have as reverse type instead of the 
Aeginetic reverse of our specimen) closely resembles that 
on another Cretan silver coin which is inscribed OP 

Piiaestus. 

23. Obv . — Talos, winged, running 1. 

Rev. — Palm-tree between A Incuse circle. 

M. 11*5 mm. f Wt. 12-2 grs. (0*70 grin.), 

[Pl. XV. 22.] 

Roman Province. 

24. Obv. ZEBA . TEPMANl Head o£ Hero r. 

Rev. — Zeus, with himation round waist and over L 
shoulder, standing to front, holding thunder- 
bolt in r., resting 1. on sceptre 3 at his feet, 
eagle ; around the field, the seven stars of the 
Great Bear ; border of dots. 

JR. 23*5 mm. jWt. 129-7 grs. (8*40 grms.). 
[PI. XV. 23.] Cp. Svoronos, PI. xxxii. 21. 


PERC4AMENE COINS CoUNTERSTRUCK. 

25, 26. Obv . — Head of Athena r., in crested Athenian 
helmet. 

Tier. —[Coiled serpent and inscription <t»IAE TAIPOY. 

This type is more or less obliterated by a 
large countermark representing a] male 
figure moving 1., holding a flower 0 in his 
extended r. hand ; border of dots. 

JR. 16 mm. Wt. 45*4 grs. (2*94 grms.). 
AETA legible. [PI. XV. 24.] 

JR. 17 mm. Wt. 48*3 grs. (3*13 grms.). 
AETAl legible. [Pl. XV. 25.] 



388 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


These two coins came from Eastern Crete, probably 
near Ayios Nikola (Gulf of Mirabello). Svoronos figures 
the reverse of another among the Uncertain of Crete 
(p. 332, No. 13, PL xxxi. 22). The obverse of that 
specimen seems to have been entirely obliterated in 
countermarking, since he describes it as having no type. 
Captain Cameron has two others, one, perhaps both, of 
which were, like Nos. 25 and 26, struck on coins of Per- 
gamum, similar to those described by Wroth, in B. 3f. C. ; 

p. 121, Nos. 75 ff., or by H. von Fritze, Miinzeu 
von Pertjamon , Taf. I. 28. Among the coins seen by 
Captain Cameron in Crete were four of that very class. 
They are dated by von Fritze (p 23) to the middle of 
the second century b.c. Cretan mercenaries were in 
great demand in the wars of that period, 1 and it is pro- 
bable that those who served under the Attalids would 
bring back Pergamene money with them. Otherwise it 
is unlikely that such insignificant bronze coins would 
find their way so far afield in the ordinary course of 
trade. . 

J. S. Cameron. 

G. F. Hill. 


1 Niese remarks ( Gesch . d. rjriech. u. malted. S tauten, III. p. 68) that 
when Eumenes II made alliance in 184 or 183 b.c. with thirty-one 
^derated Cretan cities, he was doubtless reckoning on the opportunity 
this alliance would provide of getting Cretan soldiers into his service. 
Cp. also Niese, pp. 321 ff. Captain Cameron makes the suggestion that 
the type of the countermark may be a debased copy of the Hermes 
who appears on some coins of Latos ( e.g . Svoronos, PI. xx. 20) ; Latos 
was one of the cities which made an alliance with Eumenes. 



XY. 


COUNTERMARKED COINS OE ASIA MINOR, 

A hoard of copper coins of Kyme which I obtained 
recently from Smyrna suggests some interesting problems 
with regard to the use of countermarks as exemplified 
by some of the coins present in the hoard. The following 
is a summary description of the hoard, giving in the 
case of each specimen the size (in millimetres), weight 
(in grammes), and position of the reverse die relatively 
to the obverse. 


Obv . — Eagle r. 

Rev. — Vase; infield, K Y [Series, B. M. 01, 16-20.] 
1. 10 mm. 1*00 grm. — > 


Obv , — Eagle r. ; on 1., magistrate’s name upwards, roughly 
parallel to back of eagle. 

Rev . — Vase; in field, K Y ; sometimes monogram below. 

[Series, B. M. O., 27-39.] 

2. ANTIKPATH[£ 13 mm. 2*00 grms. <- 

3. EPMHSIAAS : no monogr. 15 „ 1*84 „ f 

4. AAXAPHZ 14 „ 2*19 „ f 

5. MEriCTAfOPAC : EY (?) 14 „ 1*28 „ 



390 


NUMISMATIC CHKONICLK 


Obv . — Foiepart of horse r. ; above on 1., KY ; below, magis- 
trate’s name. 

Iiev. — Yase ; in field 1., monogram [Series, B. M. G 4-0-52.*] 


6. 

ATTINAI 


17 

mm. 

2-83 

grms. 

\ 

7. 

AlONYZIOS 

R 

16 


2-62 

3 1 


S. 

AIONYCIOC 


17 

ji 

05 

CO 

33 

t 

9. 

EnAPITO£ 

A 

16 

33 

3*07 

33 

t 

10. 

EniKPATHC 

N<(?) 

16 

3 3 

3-26 

3 3 


11. 

33 


17 

■*3 

3-91 

3 * 


12. 

AAXAPHE 


17 

33 

4-14 

33 

t 

13. 

53 

N(f) 

17 

33 

3-19 

3 3 


14. 

EENOTIMOZ 

: ps 

17 

33 

3-12 

33 

t 

15. 

I1APMENITHC 

: IVE 

17 

33 

4-11 

33 

t 

16. 

TANY^innos - : 


15 

33 

4-23 

33 

t 

17. 

]PATHC ; 

: N 

16 

33 

2-82 

33 


18. 

lYSinnoz 

:|Y 

17 

33 

3*57 

33 

K 

19. 

? 

: R 

16 

3 3 

3*59 

33 

t 

20. 


: n 

15 

33 

3*47 

33 



Obv . — Female head r. 

Rev . — Yase ; in field, K Y ; below, magistrate’s name. 

[Series, B. M. G., mb] 

21. HPAIOZ 12 mm. 0*9G grm. f 

Obv . — Female head r. 

Rev . — Forepart of horse r. ; above, KY ; tol., vase; below, 
magistrate’s name. [Series, B. M. C.> 54-57.] 


22. APIETOMAXOZ 

L4 mm. 

3'35 grms. 


23 

33 

15 „ 

2-93 „ 

t 

24. AESBIOS 

H „ 

3-81 „ 


25. 

14 „ 

4-OS „ 

t 

26. 

15 „ 

2-16 „ 


27. 

u „ 

2-95 „ 

t 

28 

U ,, 

2*24 „ 

t 



COUNTERMAUKED COINS OF ASIA MINoU. 


39 L 


Ohv . — Female head r. 

Rev . — Horse r, ; above, KY , in front, vase ; in exergue, 
magistrate s name. [Series, J>. M. G. : 59-/2.] 



nnu. 

■.nil 4 ' 


cmk. on obv. 

29. 

AP12TO<t>ANH2 ; in place ot( 

22 

(>•94 

f i 

bust of 


vase, bP 0)' f 



X 

Artemis r. 

30. 

AA0NIK02; below horse, P 

21 

7*08 

t 

55 

31. 


21 

8*74 

S' 


32. 

VE 

20 

7*35 

t 

55 

33. 


19 

6*63 

t 


34. 

” & 

20 

8*05 

t 


35. 

55 55 7? 

21 

7*11 

t 

5* 

36. 

55 55 55 

20 

7*92 



37. 

nY0AS ( K ™AI above) 

22 

8*72 

f 


38. 

meiON 

20 

6*15 

f 

5 5 

39. 

55 

23 

6*16 

/ 


40. 

TIMH2IAA02; in place of j 

21 

7*54 

t 



vase, HP ) 




41. 

9 

20 

6*45 

•t 


42. 

1 

19 

5*43 


5 5 

43. 

? 

21 

8*33 

t 



Obv . — Bust of Artemis r. 

Rev . — Yase between branches of laurel; above, KY ; in 
field, magistrate’s name. [Series, B. M. G 8/ -92.] 

44 . ^ ^ 16 mm. 4-07 grms. f 

0 2 

Ohv . — Artemis standing r., clasping hand of Amazon stand- 
ing 1. 

Rev .— Quadriga v . ; in it, two figures. 

4 f h 17 mm. 2*68 grms. ^ 

It will be observed that the countermarked coins in 
this hoard belong entirely to one series; and coins of 
this series similarly countermarked with the bust of 
Artemis are not uncommon. For instance, there are 



392 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


two specimens in the British Museum Catalogue (Nos. 
71 and 72), both bearing the name of Pythion ; the 
Bibliotheque Nationale has three, on all of which the 
original magistrate’s name is illegible ; and there are 
three at Berlin, one of Pythion, the other two with 
names effaced. Another countermark occurs on coins of 
the same series in the form of the monogram : there 
is one example of this in the Bibliotheque Nationale, and 
another at Berlin, on neither of which can the magis- 
trate’s name be deciphered. (There is also in the Berlin 
Collection a coin of Py thas with an obscure countermark.) 

The two countermarks used thus can be definitely 
connected with issues of copper coins at Kyme which, 
according to the classification of the British Mu^cmn 
Catalogue , are ascribed to the period immediately suc- 
ceeding that of the series to which the countermarked 
coins belong ; the bust of Artemis is the obverse type 
of some fairly common coins (B. M. 0., 87-92), and the 
monogram appears conspicuously on the reverse of 
another coin (. B . M . C ’, 83). There can be no doubt that 
the countermarking was done during the issue of these 
later series, and by the authorities responsible for the issue. 

But it is by no means clear why these authorities 
should have countermarked coins of their own city, nor 
why, if they wished to do this, they should have selected 
for the purpose coins of one series only, and that the 
latest in point of date of previous issues. The earlier 
series are, so far as I have been able to discover, never 
countermarked with the marks under discussion. 1 

1 Imhoof-Blumer lias published (Z. f. N , xx. p. 277) a coin of the 
earlier series of Kyme with obverse eagle, reverse vase, which is counter- 
marked with a star on the obverse and a bunch of grapes on the reverse ; 
and I have a similar specimen with the same countermarks ; but these 
countermarks cannot be connected with the city of Kyme. 



GO UNTERM ARKEL) GOINS OF ASIA MINOR. 


393 


Warwick Wrotli suggested, in a note on the counter- 
marked examples in tlie British Museum ( B . 21. C ., 
p. Ill), that the object of the countermark might be to 
give the coin currency with the later series. But it 
does not appear why it should have been necessary to 
countermark a coin for this purpose ; it was not the 
usual custom of Greek states to demonetize their own 
old issues ; in fact, in many places the gradual deprecia- 
tion of the coinage seems to have led to a preference on 
the part of the public for the oldest coins available ; 2 
and, while a city might reasonably be expected to 
countermark the coins of another city in order to give 
them currency in its own territory (though even this 
was apparently regarded as superfluous, as counter- 
marked coins are comparatively rare, while uncounter- 
marked coins are commonly found elsewhere than in the 
dominions of the issuing state), it would seem to have 
been an absolute work of supererogation for a city to 
countermark its own coins in order to give them 
currency. Moreover, so far as can be concluded from 
the composition of the hoard under consideration, the 
uncountermarked coins circulated concurrently with 
countermarked ones of the same series. 

The fact last mentioned appears also to weigh against 
the possible supposition that the series of coins to which 
the countermarked examples belong had for some reason 
fallen into disfavour. There is no obvious ground in 
the coins themselves to account for such disfavour ; as 


2 This preference on the part of the public for old coins when the 
currency was depreciating is very marked in the composition of 
hoards found in Egypt ; see my paper on the t£ Roman Coinage of 
Alexandria” in Histoncal Studies (British School of Aicliacology in 
Egyjpt), p. 32. 



394 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


will be seen from the weights given, it is not the lightest 
examples, or those only which fall below an average 
weight, which are countermarked. It might indeed be 
suggested that the condition of most of the counter- 
marked specimens would offer some excuse for requiring 
a kind of reauthorization by the city magistrates if they 
were to continue in circulation ; they are so worn as to 
be almost illegible, and the name of the magistrate 
originally responsible for their issue is in most cases 
either entirely defaced, or only to be restored by com- 
parison with other coins. But although this particular 
series seems to have stood the wear and tear of circula- 
tion worse than others, there are still difficulties in sup- 
posing that it was necessary for the defaced coins to be 
countermarked in order to secure their acceptance, having 
regard to the condition in which G-reek copper coins are 
commonly found ; a considerable proportion of the copper 
in circulation in ancient Greece must have been practi- 
cally illegible, and probably was accepted, notwithstand- 
ing its condition, as readily as defaced coins are in Asia 
Minor at the present day. 

The phenomenon of copper coins countermarked by 
the issuing city is not, however, peculiar to Kyme ; 
other cities on the western coast of Asia Minor appear 
to have been moved with a desire to countermark a 
particular series of their own coins at some period. Thus, 
at Erythrae, a countermark of a star, presumably used 
by that city, is commonly found on coins of one series, 
and one series only (represented in the British Museum 
Catalogue by Nos. 84 to 87) ; one series of Klazomenae 
is countermarked with a head of Athene, examples of 
which are fairly frequent (e.g. B. M. C., Nos. 87, 88, 89) ; 
and rarer instances of countermarking occur on a series 



(JoUNTKliMAKlvEJL) COINS OF ASIA MIXOK. 


395 


of Kuidos stamped with the head of Aphrodite ( B . M. C., 
87, 89). It would perhaps be easier to find an explana- 
tion for this practice if a date could be assigned for the 
use of the countermarks, and if that date were approxi- 
mately the same in the case of every city ; but, while 
the countermarking at Kyme seems to fall probably about 
190 B.o., and the same date might apply at Erythrae and 
Klazomenae, the series of Knidos on which the counter- 
marks occur is not supposed to have been issued in the 
first instance till the first century b.c. Under the 
circumstances, I do not feel able at present to carry 
the solution of the problem further. 

It is possible to arrive at a more definite conclusion 
with regard to the reason for countermarking in con- 
nexion with another hoard of copper coins, of the types 
of Alexander the Great, which I got from Smyrna, but 
have good authority for believing to have been found at 
Ephesus. The coins in this hoard are as follows : — 


Obv . — Youthful head of Herakles r. ; border of dots. 

Bev. — Above, bow and quiver ; below, club 1. ; between, 
AAEEANAPOY ; sometimes mint-mark. 

1. No mint-mark 17 mm. <— 

2. „ 17 „ f 

3. Below, P 17 „ 


Obv . — As last. 

Bev. — Above, club r. ; below, bow in case 1. ; between, 
AAEEANAPOY; varying mint-mark. 


4 . 

5. 

6 . 


Below, E 

Above, bunch of grapes and 0 




18 mm. 

19 „ 

18 „ N* 





396 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Obv .— As last. 

Bev. — Above, bow in case 1. ; below, club r. ; between, 
AAEZANAPOY • varying mint-mark. 


Obv.- 


7. Below, ear of corn 1. 

17 mm. 


k* 7? 75 ,, 

18 „ 


9 

v • 77 77 77 

18 „ 


10. „ 

17 „ 


11. Below, g; 

CO 

-> 

12. Above, © (?) 

19 „ 


13. Below, M 

18 „ 


14. „ A 

18 „ 

t 

15. „ 

17 „ 

«- 

16. „ ? 

17 „ 

t 

-As last. 



-Above, bow m case L ; below, club r. ; between, 

BAIIAEHZ ; varying mint-mark. 



17. Below, race torch 1. 

21 mm. 

-> 

IS- ,, „ „ 

20 „ 


1 9 

• LUt 7? 5 7 7? 

19 „ 


20. „ grasshopper (?) 1. 

19 „ 

— 


The last four coins are countermarked on the reverse 
with a lion’s head right. 

Greek copper coins are hardly ever found in quantity 
far from the place of their mintage. Single specimens 
may; and do frequently, occur sporadically in almost any 
part of the Greek world without any obvious relation to 
the spot where they originated. But; as a general rule, 
even a small hoard of the issues of a particular town 
would not be discovered outside the immediate vicinity 
of that town ; and the countermarked coins in the hoard 
under discussion practically fall into the category of an 
issue. The presence of these four similarly counter- 
marked coins thus gives a fair ground for supposing that 



COUNT Eli MARKED COINS OF ASIA MIN ON. 397 

the countermarking was done at or near the place where 
the hoard was obtained, which, if my information is 
correct, was Ephesus. 3 

The countermarked coins in this hoard are only those 
struck with the simple title BAXIAEQX, which are generally 
accepted as having been issued during the struggle for 
supremacy among the Diadochi, and probably before any 
of them had assumed the title of King. None of those 
with the name of Alexander are similarly treated ; which 
suggests that whoever was responsible for the counter- 
marking regarded the name of Alexander as sufficient 
to secure the circulation of these coins, but thought it 
desirable to give an additional authorization for those 
which bore no name by adding his own countermark. 

If, then, the coins in question were countermarked at 
Ephesus shortly after 306 b.c. — and, as the four specimens 
are all in excellent preservation, they cannot have been 
long in circulation — it seems most natural to refer the 
countermark of a lion’s head to Lysimachus, and to 
suppose that the countermarking was done either during 
his short occupation of Ephesus in 302 B.c. or, more 
probably, during his longer mastery of the town which 
lasted with one or two interruptions from 295 to 280. 
The countermarking of the nameless coins, while those 
of Alexander were left untouched, would be in accord- 
ance with the position of Lysimachus ; and the lion’s 
head would be a convenient abbreviation, for the restricted 
field of a countermark, of his familiar badge. 


J I have a coin hearing the same countermark of a lion’s head and of 
identical types with Nos. 17-19 which I obtained among a number of 
ooins from Cyprus. But the occurrence in Cyprus of an isolated example 
of the countermark is no guide as to the place where it was struck ; and 
the same lot contained a few specimens of coins of Ionian cities. 

VOL. XIII., SERIES IV. 2 E 



398 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


I have to express my obligations, to Mr. E. D. Barft* 
of Smyrna, through whom I heard of and obtained the 
two hoards ; to M. Babelon, for facilities granted me in 
examining the coins in the Bibliotheque Rationale ; and 
to Dr. Itegling, for kindly answering inquiries with 
reference to the coins of Kyme at Berlin. 

J. G-. Milne. 



XVI. 


epigraphical data eor the ARRANGE- 
MENT OF THE COIN-TYPES OF WILLIAM II, 
HENRY I, AND STEPHEN. 

(See Plates XVI.— XIX.) 

The coinage of the Norman kings of England lias not 
up to the present been examined from the point of view 
of the lettering, or rather, the punches from which the 
inscriptions were made. This subject has been so suc- 
cessfully exploited in the issues of later reigns 1 that 
it seems not unreasonable to expect that it may also 
be possible by this means to throw some light on 
the difficult question of the chronological order of the 
coin-types of this earlier period. 

As the types of William I and the first two types of 
William II (Hks. 244 and 246) have already been 
arranged on the evidence of finds, mules, and over- 
strikes, almost, I venture to think, beyond possibility 
of doubt, 2 it is from this point that I shall now 
commence my investigations; for this purpose I must 
first show to what conclusions we are brought by the 


1 See Mr. Shirley Pox’s article on “ Die-maLiny m the Twelfth 
Century,” in Brit. Num. Journ ., vol. vi. pp. 191-196; and “Edward I, 
II, and III,” by Messrs. Pox, in op. c%t ., vols. vi and foUowing. 

2 See Mr. Carlyon-Britton’s articles in Brit. Num. Journ., vols. ii. 
and following. 


2 e 2 



400 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


evidence that is at present to be got from finds and 
mules . 3 

The following finds 4 contained coins of William II 
and Henry I : — 

Shillington, 5 1871 ; four types of William II, omitting only 
Hks. 248 ; of Henry I, 4 or 5 coins of the “ Quatrefoil 
and Pyramids” type (Hks. 25*2). 

Bermondsey, 6 1820 ; of William II, 3 coins of Hks. 246 and 
5 of Hks. 250; of Henry I, 5 coins of “Annulets” type 
(Hks. 251). 

The following contained coins of Henry I only ; — 

Bari, 7 circa 1891 ; 3 coins of the “Annulets and Pyramids” 
type (Hks. 257) and 24 of the “ Voided Gross and Pleurs ” 
type (Hks. 267). 

Canterbury, 8 circa 1901; 3 coins of the “Full face — Cross 
fleury ” type (Hks. iv.), 1 of the “ Lozenge fleury enclosing 

_ Hks. 265 _ , _ , 

Star type (Hks. 26o), 1 mule ->0o > 35o °f the 

“ Pellets in Quatrefoil” type (Hks. 262). 

Lowestoft, 9 1905; 6 coins of the “Pellets in Quatrefoil 5 ’ 
type (Hks. 262) and 6 of the “ Quadrilateral on Cross 
Fleury 55 type (Hks. 255). 


J The only overstrike known of this period is that of William II, 
mentioned "below, p. 403. 

1 The number of coins given in each find is the number given in the 
description of the hoard ; it must be remembered that it is only in very 
few cases that the complete hoard has been examined and described ; 
references to the original descriptions are given and fuller details may 
be got from them. I here omit mention of Scottish, Irish, and foreign 
coins and of English coins that are not of regular types ( e.g . baronial 
coins of Stephen, &c.), as they do not affect my present purpose. 

5 Kum. Chron.y 1871, p. 227. 

G Ibid., 1846, p. 170. 

7 Ibid., 1892, p. 83. 

8 Not published. These details are taken from private notes kindly 
lent me by Mr. Carlyon-Britton. The place of the find is not certain, 
but it is supposed to have been Canterbury. 

0 Num. Chi or i., 1905, p. 112. . 



EPIGRAPHY ON COINS OF THE NORMAN KINGS. 401 


Battle, 10 circa 1860 ; 1 coin of the “ Full face — Cross fleury ” 
type (Hks. iv.), 1 of the “ Double inscription’ 1 type 
(Hks. 258), 10 of Hks. 255. 

The following contained coins of Henry I and 
Stephen : — 

Watford, 11 1818; of Henry T, 58 coins of Hks. 262 and 419 
of Hks. 255; of Stephen, 643 coins of the “Watford” 
type (Hks. 270). 

Dartford , 12 1825; of Henry I, 4 coins of Hks. 255; of 
Stephen, an uncertain number of Hks. 270. 
Nottingham , 13 1880 ; of Henry I, 7 coins of Hks. 255, also 
1 of Hks. 251, and 1 of Hks. iv.; of Stephen, 45 of 
Hks. 270. 

Sheldon, 14 1867 ; of Henry I, 3 coins of Hks. 255 ; of Stephen, 

Hks 270 

65 of Hks. 2/0, and 2 mules ^69' 

Linton ,! 5 1883 ; of Henry I, 3 coins of Hks. 255 ; of Stephen, 
40 of Hks. 270 and 39 of Hks. 269 (“ Cross voided and 
Mullets ” type). 

The following contained coins of' Stephen only : — 
Bute,!® 1864; 3 coins of Hks. 270 and 24 of Hks. 269. 

The following contained coins of Stephen and 
Henry II : — 

Awbridge ,! 7 circa 1902, of Stephen, 31 coins of the “Aw- 
bridge” type (Hks. 268) ; of Henry II, 110. coins of the 
“Tealby” type. 

10 Nam Ch?on., 1873, p. 175. 

11 Ibid., 1850, p. 138. In AnJinn^jiu ,\o\, xxi. p. 589, are mentioned 
about 130 coins of the same three types, which are perhaps another 
portion of the same find. 

13 Num. Chron ., 1851, p. 186. 

13 Ibid., 1881, p. 37 Comparatively few coins described. 

11 Brit. Num Join it , vol vii. p. 27, 

15 Num. Chron., 1883, p. 108. 

1(7 Ibid., 1865, p. 57. 

17 Ibid., 1905, p. 354. 



402 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


¥ 

Prom these finds the following conclusions may be 
drawn : — 

Of William II’s last three types there is no evidence, 
for in each of the two finds containing his coins and 
coins of his successor, the type which must for other 
reasons be placed last (Hks. 248) is missing. 

Of Henry I, either Hks. 252 (“ Quatrefoil and 
Pyramids 5 ') or Hks. 25 L (“Annulets”) may be the 
first, as both are found with coins of William II. 

Hks. 257 (“ Annulets and Pyramids ”) and Hks. 2G7 
(“ Voided Cross and Fleurs”) seem to be connected by 
the Bari find, but their position in the reign is uncertain. 

The last type of the reign is clearly Hks. 255 
(“ Quatrefoil on Cross fleury ”) from the Hartford, Not- 
tingham, and Sheldon finds ; this is immediately preceded 
by Hks. 262 (“Pellets in Quatrefoil”) from the Lowes- 
toft and Watford finds; shortly before this probably 
come Hks. iy. (“ Full face — Cross fleury ”), Hks. 258 
(“Double inscription”), and Hks. 265 (“ Lozenge fleury 
enclosing Star ”), but the coins of these types in the 
Canterbury and Battle finds are too few T for any definite 
conclusion. 

Of Stephen, Hks. 270 (“ Watford 55 type) is shown to 
be the first type by the Watford and other finds con- 
necting it with the coins of Henry I ; next to this 
comes Hks. 269 ( u Cross voided and Mullets ”) from the 
Linton and Bute finds ; the last type of the reign must 
be Hks. 268 (“Awbridge” type) from the Awbridge find. 

The following are the Mules : — 

William II, Obv. — Hks. 247. Bev. — Hks. 248.18 
PPL XVI. 1.] (L. E. Bruun Coll.) 

18 This mule was not known to me till after I had read a paper before 



EPIGRAPHY OK COINS OF THE NORMAN KINGS. 403 


Henry I, Obv.— Hks. 267. Bev.— Hks. 266.' [PL XVI. 2.] 
(P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton Coll.) 

„ Obv.— Hks. 263. Bev.— Hks. iv. [PI. XVI. 3.] 

(Hunterian Coll.) 

i. Hks. 258. Bev.— Hks. iv. [PI. XVI. 4.] 

(Hunterian Coll.) 

„ Obv. — Hks. 265. Bev.— Hks. 262. [PL XVI. 5.] 

(P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton Coll.) 

Stephen, Obv.— Hks. 270. Bev.— Hks. 269. [Pl. XVI. 6.] 
(Sheldon Find.) 

The following overstrike places Hks. 250 before Hks. 
247 : — 

A coin of William II, Hks. 247, reading + FOLIERDON-BTF, 
overstruck on a coin of Hks. 250 (British Museum). 

By combining evidence of Finds, Mules, and Over- 
strike, we form the following groups (the numbers being 
those of TIawldns ) : — 


William II. 

250—247—248. 

Henry I. 

First type = 252 or 251. 

257—267—266. 

263 — iv. — 258 (probably late in the reign ; cf. Canterbury 
and Battle finds). 

265 — 262 — 255 (the last type of the reign). 


Stephen. 

270 (first type) — 269. 

Last type = 268. 

the Society, In which, for epigraphical reasons, I suggested that Hks. 
247 should immediately precede Hks. 248. The mule was not originally 
the basis of my arrangement but a later confirmation of it. Nor was I 
at that time certain of the overstrike ; others have since confirmed my 
opinion of it, 



404 


NUMISMATIC CHHONICLE. 


These groups fortunately form a sufficient framework 
to support the epigraphical material by means of which 
I shall endeavour to construct a sequence of the types 
down to the end of the reign of Stephen. 

To make the subject as clear as possible I here 
append a table of drawings to show, in their order, the 
different forms of lettering* which occur throughout 
this period ; for this purpose the letter I, that is to say, 
the single upright punch, with serifs added where they 
occur, is the most convenient letter to reproduce. The 
letters are drawn to scale, three times their original 
size, and the horizontal lines, which mark half milli- 
metres in the original, show clearly their relative sizes. 



Series I. is in use throughout William II’s first two 
types [PL XVI. 7] ; it also occurs on some coins of 
Hks. 250 [PI. XVI. 8]. Other coins of this tyjie (Hks. 
250) have the larger lettering of Series II. [PI. XVI. 9], 
and on some coins both punches are seen in use together. 

Series II. is also used throughout Hks. 247 with very 
rare exceptions ; for example, PI. XVI. 10 shows punches 
of Series II. throughout, with the exception of N and 
perhaps D in the mint-name, which are made from 
punches of Series III. ; Fig. 11 is also of Series II. with 
smaller punches (Series I. or III. ?) for the first three 
letters, EDP, on the reverse. No coins of this type are 
known which are made of punches of Series III. only. 

Series III. is used throughout Hks. 248, the last type 
of William II [PI. XVI. 12; XVII. l],and also throughout 




EPIGRAPHY OH COIN'S OF THE NORMAN KINGS. '!,4§ 5 

the “ Annulets ” type of Henry I (Hks. 251) [PI. XVII. 
but is not found on any other type of this reign ; this 
seems sufficient reason for accepting the evidence of the 
Bermondsey find, as opposed to that of the Shillington, 
in placing Hks. 251 as the first type of this reign. 

It will be seen from the above table of punches (p. 404) 
that a line drawn between Series IV. and Series V. divides 
the forms of lettering into two very distinct classes. 
Down to the end of Series IV. the punches are always 
made with concave sides and serifs are never added ; in 
and after Series V. serifs are always added by means of 
separate punches at the top and bottom of the upright 
punches 19 (and also usually, though not invariably, at 
the ends of the horizontal punches) ; also from this point 
onwards the form of the punch is changed by its sides 
being convex instead of concave. Clearly, therefore, 
Series IV., the only remaining lettering of the early 
class, comes next in order to Series III. Series IV. 
occurs throughout the “ Profile — Cross fleury” (Hks. 
254), “Pax” (Hks. 253), and “Annulets and Pyramids” 
(Hks. 257) types ; the punches vary on both types 254 
and 253, from 2*0 to 16 millimetres [PL XVII. 3, 4], and 
on Hks. 257 they are usually slightly larger, 2‘2~2*0 
millimetres [Pl. XVII. 5]. Of these three types the 
last-mentioned (Hks. 257) is connected by the Bari find 
with Hks. 267 (“Voided Cross and Fleurs” type), of 
which the lettering is of Series V. ; this type (Hks. 257) 
should therefore be the last of the three of Series IV., 
a conclusion which is supported by the forms used for 
the letters H } a, and V. On all previous types, including 
Hks. 254 and 253, the Roman H (M) has been the only 

10 Exceptions are very rare indeed. A Chichester coin of Hks. iv. 
in the British Museum has no serifs in either inscription. 



406 


NUMISM VTIC CHRONICLE. 


one in use, and A and v have been composed simply of 
two upright punches (II), with the exception of the A in 
Pax (^) on Hks. 253 ; but on Hks. 257, and on every sub- 
sequent type the English form (Ht>) is used, also different 
punches are used to form more correctly the letters A and 
V (^, Having thus fixed Hks. 257 as the last of the 
three types of Series IV., we are left with the other two, 
Hks. 254 and 253, as the second and third types of the 
reign. Which of the two precedes the other I can find 
no evidence to show, unless perhaps we can deduce from 
the new form of A occurring in pax, that Hks. 254 
is the later ; but, on the other hand, this may be a con- 
ventional use, for on the u Pax ” types of Harold I and 
William I the same form is used in the word PAX, though 
not then in use in the inscriptions. 

As the “Voided Cross and Fleurs” type (Hks. 267) 
is connected by the Bari find with Hks. 257, which we 
have found to be the fourth type, and as Mr. Carlyon- 
Britton’s mule again connects Hks. 266 (“ Pointing Bust 
and Stars ” type) with Hks. 267, we may assume Hks. 
267 and 266 to be Henry I’s fifth and sixth types 
respectively. The lettering of these types is Series V., 
the first of the new class with serifs and convex sides. 
Some coins of Hks. 267 are made with punches of a 
straighter, thinner form and rather higher (2*7 mm.) 
than the rest. These I take to be the earliest punches of 
the new class, as the more convex punches, which vary 
from 2*5 to 2*3 mm. in height, are those in use on 
Hks 266 [cf. PI. XVII. 6, 7] ; the same punches (Series 
V.) are also in use on Hks. 252, ££ Quatrefoil and Pyra- 
mids ” [Pl. XVII. 8, 9], Hks. 256, ££ Larger Profile— Cross 
and Annulets” [PL XVII. 10], and Hks. 263, “Cross in 
Quatrefoil” [PI. XVII. 11], and also on some coins of 



EPIGRAPHY ON COINS OF THE NORMAN KINGS. 407 


Hks. iv., “Full face — Cross fieury,” and Hks. 258, 

“ Double inscription ; ” on these last two types the 
remaining coins have punches of Series VI. Placing 
these two types (Hks. iv. and 258), which combine 
punches of Series Y. and VI., later than the types with 
punches of Series Y. only, we have Hks. 252, 256, and 
263 to follow after the sixth type (Hks 266) ; of these 
Hks. 263 is connected by a mule with Hks. iv., and 
therefore seems to be the last of the three, i.e. the ninth 
type; which of the other two (Hks. 252 and 256) is the 
earlier seems to me quite uncertain. The Shillington 
find, as we said above, contained coins of Hks. 252 with 
coins of William II, but that this is, so to speak, a 
“ compound ” find — a hoard, that is, in which a period 
elapsed between its original composition and its com- 
pletion before burial— is shown by the fact that this type 
(Hks. 252) has lettering of the new class with serifs, 
and therefore must be preceded by the four non-serif 
types of Henry I, not to speak of Hks. 267 and 266, 
which have also been shown to precede it ; unless we 
can suppose, as I hardly think, that these numerous 
intervening types were represented among the many 
coins of this find that were not described. 

I have already mentioned that the “ Full face — Cross 
fieury ” (Hks. iv.) and “ Double inscription ” (Hks. 258) 
types contain coins of both Series Y. and YI. ; on some 
coins also of each type these two styles of lettering are 
mixed. These two types are therefore the latest of 
Series Y. and earliest of Series YI. PI. XVII. 12 and 
PI. XVIII. 1 are both coins of Hks. iv. with punches of 
Series V.; and PI. XVIII. 2 is a coin of the same type with 
the smaller, neater lettering (2T-2-0 mm.) of Series YI. 
On PI. XVIII. 3 and 4 are coins of Hks. 258 with 



408 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


lettering of Series V. in the outer inscription of the 
reverse, and of Series YI. in the obverse inscription and 
the inner of the reverse. The reverse of Hks. iv. is 
muled with obverses of both Hks. 263, the ninth type, 
and Hks. 258 ; I therefore place it between the two types 
with which it is muled, thus making it the tenth type 
and Hks. 258 the eleventh. 

Punches of Series YI. are also used throughout the 
“Smaller Profile — Cross and Annulets” (Hks. 264) and 
“ Star in Lozenge Fleury ” (Hks. 265) types [PI. XVIII. 
5, 6, 7], and also on some coins of Hks. 262, which we 
have seen above (p. 402) must be the fourteenth type of 
the reign [PL XVIII. 8]. As Hks. 265 is connected with 
Hks. 262 by Mr. Carlyon-Britton’s mule, and must there- 
fore be the thirteenth type, the other type on which 
punches of Series YI. alone are used, Hks. 264, imme- 
diately precedes Hks. 265 and is the twelfth type of the 
reign. 

The lettering of Series VII., which is slightly larger 
(2*3 mm.) and somewhat straighten — that is, less convex in 
shape — is used on some coins of the “ Pellets in Quatre- 
foil 55 (Hks. 262) type, the other coins of this type being, 
as we saw above, of Series YI. (cf. on PI. XVIII. No. 8 
of Series YI. with No. 9 of Series YII.). Series VII. is 
also used throughout the “ Quadrilateral on Cross 
fleury 55 (Hks. 255) type, which we have seen (p. 402) to 
be the last, or fifteenth, of Henry I [PI. XVIII. 10]. 

Stephen’s first type (Hks. 270) also has lettering of 
Series YII. [Pis. XVIII. 11 and XIX. 1] with the excep- 
tion of obverse inscriptions where the form STIEFNE is 
used. For this purpose it seems that special punches were 
served out of a larger size (2*6-2*7 mm.) [PL XVIII. 12], 
which are found also, though very rarely, in obverse 



EPIGRAPHY ON COINS OF THE NOKMAN KINGS. 409 


inscriptions of coins of tlie next type (Hks. 269). The 
punches of Series VIII. were introduced during the issue 
of Hks. 270, as a coin in Mr. Roth’s collection has this 
smaller lettering [Pl. XIX. 2], but I have not yet found 
it on any other coins of this type. The “ Cross voided 
and Mullets 55 (Hks. 268) type, the second of the reign 
(see above, p. 402), has lettering of Series VII. on some 
coins [PI. XIX. 3], and on the rest are found punches 
of Series VIII., a smaller lettering of l*9-2‘0 mm. 
[Pl. XIX. 4], which is used on all the coins I know 
of the “Cross and Fleurs” (Hks. 276) and “Lozenge 
Fleury and Annulets ” (Hks. xix.) types [Pl. XIX. 5, 6], 
which may, therefore, from their epigraphical connexion 
with the second type of the reign, be placed immediately 
after it as Stephen’s third and fourth types, though 
which of the two is the earlier I think it is at present 
impossible to say. 

The type which I place next is one unknown to 
Hawkins, of which I only know two specimens, one in 
the British Museum from Hazlitt’s sale, 1909, lot 1050 
(the obverse is figured on Pl. XIX. 7a), and the other 
in Mr. Roth’s collection (the reverse is figured on 
Pl. XIX. 76). On Mr. Roth’s specimen (the obverse is 
illegible) the reverse here figured has lettering of Series 
VIII., and the lettering on the British Museum speci« 
men is of Series IX., the larger lettering (2- 5-2* 6 mm.) 
which is used on the remaining two types of the reign. 
As this type [Pl. XIX. 7a, 7b] thus forms the connecting 
link between Series VIII. and Series IX., I place it as 
the fifth of the reign. Of the remaining two types 
(Hks. xviiit. and 268), Hks. 268 has been shown to be 
the last type by the Awbridge find which connects it 
with Henry I’s Tealby type ; they both have lettering of 



410 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Series IX. [PL XIX. 8, 9, 10], which is also found on the 
“Tealby” coins of Henry I, which read hENRi REX on 
the obverse 20 [Pl. XIX. 11, 12]. The “ Profile— Cross 
and Pyramids ” (Hks. xviii. V) must therefore be Stephen’s 
sixth type, and the “ Awbridge ” (Hks. 268) type his 
seventh and last. 

It will be noticed that in each series the measurement 
of punches has been given to within one-fifth, or even 
one-tenth of a millimetre; that the punches could be 
made with such accuracy for such long use (usually a 
period of three or four types) shows that they were 
mechanically reproduced, as Messrs. Fox have proved to 
have been the case in the reigns of Edward I, II, and III. 
They were used, as one would naturally expect, till they 
were worn out, and then supplanted by a new set, as 
we see by the fact that the series of punches do not 
as a general rule coincide with issues of types, 21 but 
come in gradually during the issue of one or two types 
in such a way that the types may be divided into “ pure ” 
types, or types on which one set of punches only is used, 
and “transitional ” types, or types on which two sets, 
an old and a new, are seen, whereby the order of the 
series and thence of the types has been made possible. 
The consequent arrangement is shown in the following 
table, in which the types of William II, Henry I, and 
Stephen are set out in the order in which I have here 

20 The other “ Tealby” coins (reading hENRI REX ftNGL) have a 
smaller style of lettering, and I therefore suppose them to he the lator 
coins of this type. 

21 Series IY. and V. are the only exceptions in this period. Series IV. 
was evidently brought m because a coin of smaller diameter was re- 
quired, and therefore smaller lettering (perhaps in the hope of making 
"the clipping of coins more difficult) ; Series Y. was necessary for the 
complete change in style which the coinage underwent at the intro- 
duction of Type Y. (Hks. 267). 



EPIGRAPHY OH COINS OP THE NORMAN KINGS. 411 


arranged them, and against each type are marked the 
styles of lettering fonnd on the coins ; the table shows 
clearly the “pure” and “ transitional ” types which I 
have just mentioned. Square brackets link together those 
types which are connected by finds / 22 and curved brackets 
those which are connected by mules ; this will serve to 
show the extent to which this epigraphical arrangement 
fits in with the order of the types so far as it can at 
present be determined from other sources. 



- 2 X Rave only put square brackets to those types of which the con- 
nexion by finds is good evidence. I have not, for example, marked 
the first type of Henry I as connected with William II by the Ber- 
mondsey find, because its evidence might be said to be negatived by the 
Shillington find. 



412 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


A further description in detail of the coins figured on 
the plates is unnecessary; the object of their illustration 
is to show the different lettering on different types. It 
only remains to say that they are all in the British 
Museum with the exception of PI. XVI. 1 (L. E. Bruun 
Coll.), 2 (P. TV. P. Carlyon-Britton Coll.), 3 and 4 (Hun- 
terian Coll.), 5 (P. W. P. Carlyon-Britton Coll.), 6 (Shel- 
don find; see Brit. Num. Journ yol. vii. p. 44 and 
pi. ii. 32), PI. XVII. 5 and 7 (Hunterian Coll.), PL XVIII. 1 
(P. TV. P. Carlyon-Britton Coll.), PL XIX. 2, 6, and 7b 
(B. Both Coll.) ; and to thank Dr. George Macdonald, 
Keeper of the Hunterian Collection, Mr. Carlyon-Britton, 
Mr. Both, and Mr. Bruun for their kindness in allowing 
me the use of their coins to illustrate this paper. 

G. C. Brooke. 



XVII. 


NOTES ON SOME ITALIAN MEDALS. 

(Plate XX.) 

Ekancesco Lomellini, by Lodovico Leoni. In his 
third volume, p. 121, A, M. Armand has set up a medal- 
list signing A . LVD . D said to have been working about 
1570. This signature is supposed to be found on a 
medal of Angelo Lomellini, which is described as follows : 
“Lomellini (Angelo), of Genoa, brother of Cardinal 
Benedetto 1 and of Francesco Lomellini. Diam. 68. AN . 
LOMELL1NUS . DAVID . F(ilius) et B . CARD . F (rater) AET . 
AN . LXV .—A . LVD . D . Bust of Angelo Lomellini to right. 
Rev. IN . ROMA. The escutcheon of the Lomellini.” The 
authority quoted is Avignone (Gaetano), Medaglie dei 
Liguri e della Liguria , 1872. 

Reference should now be made to the description of 
a medal of the above-mentioned Francesco in Arm., I. 
251, 2, under Lodovico Leoni. A good specimen of this 
piece in the British Museum (bronze, diam. 69) affords the 
key to the whole matter. This and the alleged Angelo 
medal are so esactly alike in every particular, with the 
exception of the name, FRAN for an, and of DVRABO for 
IN ROMA on the reverse (as stated in the description), 

1 This Benedetto became a Cardinal in 1565 and died in 1579, and he 
is the subject of a medal by another artist, signing HN, recorded in 
Arm., I. 253 and III. 121, as of the year 1569, when his age was 52. 

VOL. XIII., SERIES XV. 2 F 



ill 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


that an error is at once suspected, and so it proves to be. 
First with regard to the supposed signature A . LVD . D . 
The A is simply the well-known triangular stop, and the 
D is a misreading for L so that the signature of Lodovico 
Leoni remains. Then it will be found, by comparison 
with a less perfect specimen, that the two first letters of 
FRAN have dropped out in the casting, giving rise to 
the mistaken name of Angelo, while the words in ROMA 
on the scroll are a misreading of VRA in the central part 
of DVR A BO. The result, therefore, is that the medal of 
Angelo is as much a phantom as- the signature, and that 
the whole description in III. 121, A, may be eliminated 
from the Catalogue. 

Dante (Arm., II. 11, 1), Diam. 56 [PL XX. 1]. The 
reverse of this medal seems never to have been fully 
explained. The editors of the Tresor (Med. Italy I. xiv, 8) 
express their regret that, owing to the blurred condition 
of the medal before them, they are unable to give a more 
complete description of this very curious subject. On 
one side stands Dante, holding in his left hand the open 
book of the Diviua Gomntediu , and extending his right 
arm as if in the act of addressing or reviewing the scene. 
Before him appears a towered rock which stands for the 
Mountain of Paradise. There is a winding road running 
round it, and an archway towards the top. On the summit 
are two figures described by Arrnand as “ deuo: person- 
uctges ” and by Friedlaender as “ zwei Heine Figuren nnter 
einem Baume” These, however, will be found to represent 
Adam and Eve, standing on either side of the Tree of 
Knowledge, round which the serpent is entwined. At 
the foot of this and an adjoining rock may be distin- 
guished two caverns, entrances to the infernal regions, 



NOTES ON SOME ITALIAN MEDALS. 


415 


with demons and nude human forms about them. Above 
are the seven circles of Heaven. Describing the per- 
formances of the Mysteries, in which Italy, and especially 
Florence, excelled, Burckhardt says, “ In the public 
squares, in the churches, and in the cloisters, extensive 
scaffolds were constructed, the upper story of which 
served as a Paradise to open and shut at will, and the 
ground-floor often as a Hell, while between the two lay 
the stage properly so called, representing the scene of 
all the earthly events of the drama” (Renaissance in 
Italy, II. p. 184, Eng. Transl.). These shows reached 
their full development in the fifteenth century. 

For the various sources of Dante’s likeness Holford’s 
Portraits of Dante (Medici Society) should be consulted, 
but the most important one is supplied by the well- 
known contemporary fresco by Giotto in the Bargello 
chapel ( circa 1300). At a later date (1465) his picture 
in the Duomo at Florence was painted by Domenico 
di Michelino, under the order of the Signoria. 2 In this 
picture Dante stands facing the spectator, holding the 
open book as on the medal, between Inferno and portions 
of the city of Florence, having behind him the Mountain 
of Paradise and the heavenly circles. 

The date of the bust at Naples seems to be uncertain, 
but it may have some connexion with the medal, at any 
rate in time. 

It will be seen that on the medals the laurel wreath is 
strongly emphasized. Owing to his long banishment 
from Florence Dante was not crowned during his life, as 
he would not accept the ceremony in any but his native 
city. 

- Op. the early Florentine engraving (Hind, Catal, of Eaily Italian 
Engravings, A, I. t 23). 


2 f 2 



416 


NUMISMATIC CHItONICLE. 


The introduction of printing into Florence in 1471 
added to the popularity of his works, and it is to the last 
quarter of the fifteenth century that the date of the 
medals may probably be assigned (see Arm., I. 10, 28, 
and 29, as to the authorship of two other small medals, 
attributed by Friedlaender to Pisano). 

The authorship of the larger medal and the question 
whether those of Petrarch and Boccaccio (corresponding 
more or less in size) are by the same hand, as suggested 
by Friedlaender, are matters for discussion. It is 
remarkable that fine examples of all the three should be 
so extremely rare. 

The smaller medal (diam. 31) here illustrated in 
PL XX. 2 (it is believed) for the first time is described 
by Armand in III. 153, E, from this specimen. 

Luca Gauuico, of Naples (Arm., II. 164*6), b. 1475; 
Bishop of Civita in 1545, died 1558. Instead of panth evs 
after GAVRicvs the legend of the obverse should read 
NEAPOL . VATES . ENTHEVS ( tjicino Vistinetu iffilitftl'*). 
This is a happier rendering for one destined for the 
episcopate than the name of a priest of Apollo. It 
appears that Gauricus practised some form of divination, 
at any rate in his earlier life. Having predicted to Giov. 
Bentivoglio his downfall at Bologna, the diviner was 
ordered to be swung backwards and forwards five times 
against a wall by a rope suspended from a tall winding 
staircase. This is related by P. Giovio. Vates in the 
legend probably means “ seer” rather than “poet.” He 
may not have been “ inspired ” in the latter sense. 

Lodovico Domenichi, of Piacenza, d. 1564. By 
Domenico Poggini (Arm., I. 255, 4). The medal (see 



NOTES ON SOME ITALIAN MEDALS. 


417 


PI. XX. 3) with its reverse, which represents a vase of 
flowers with lightning falling on it, is described at the 
beginning of Domenichi’s own work on Imprese . The 
legend should read anaaeaotai kai oy KAiEi ("A flame 
has burst forth and does not burn”) instead of KYKAiEi 
(Armand). The reading is correctly given by Supino, 
II Medagliere Mcdkeo, p. 148, No. 439. Heiss (II. 49) 
mentions that the reverse relates to the tortures Dome- 
nichi suffered from the Inquisitors at Florence ; also that 
G-iovio obtained his pardon. Domenichi himself explains 
the vase as representing human life, the flowers the 
virtues and graces given by Heaven, struck but not 
destroyed by his misfortunes. 

Virginia di Negro (Arm., III. 295, 1). Part of the 
legend should read A . P . A . after dicta, instead of A . PA 
letters which remain to be interpreted. 

Raefaello Maffei, of Yolterra (Arm., II. 52, 24), 
b. 1451, died 1512 (see PI. XX. 4). On the reverse for 
OTON read otonia, the Latin name of Yolterra, which 
forms the subject of the reverse. Diam. 39. 

Girolamo Cardano (Arm., II. 162, 21), physician 
and philosopher, of Milan, 1501, died 1576. A specimen 
is signed LEO under the shoulder, as the medal of 
Michael Angelo by Leone Leoni. 

Mary of Austria, wife of the Emperor Maximilian II 
(Arm., II. 237, 6). The figure on the reverse holds a crown 
and not a book (as queried). Diam. 65 instead of 63. 

Pietro Aretino (Arm., II. 153, 11). An example in 
lead bears the date 1542 in relief under the shoulder, 



418 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


Hippolita Gonzaga, wife of Antonio Caraffa (Arm., I. 
241, 1). The signature is in relief, not incised, and 
should read iac . TREZ . instead of IA . TREZ . as stated in 
the description of the reverse. 

Gianfrancesco Mahtinioni (Arm., II. 160, 11) for 
aet 37 (?) on the obverse read ANN . 27. 

Francesco Ordelaffo (Anu, I. 43, 2). For michi 
on reverse read Mini. 

J ulius II (Arm., I. 104, 3). The letters s . P . Q . R . are 
inscribed on the shield to the right. 

Carlo Visconti (Arm., II. 206, 15). The reverse 
represents a tree, nearly dead, nourished by its heart 
(“ cor alit ”) ; not “ coral.” 

Andrea Eiccio (Arm., I. 12, 1), 1470, died 1532. In 
connexion with this interesting medal three principal 
questions arise, (1) whether Eiccio made it himself, 
(2) the date, and (3) the interpretation of the reverse. 

With regard to the first, in the absence of a signature 
or any documentary evidence, the answer can only be 
conjectural and must be based on the character of the 
work itself. In the first place, there is the peculiarity of 
the legend on the obverse — Andreas . Crispus . Patavinus . 
Aereum , D . Ant . Candelabrum . F. One may almost 
think that this goes some w r ay towards being tantamount 
to a signature. The medal then was designed to celebrate 
the great achievement of the artist’s life, and the portrait 
is to perpetuate the features of the man who created it — 
Candelabrum Virumque — both together. The modest 



NOTES ON SOME ITALIAN MEDALS. 


419 


but characteristic presentment of the portrait is that of 
a simple craftsman, leaving the reference to his work to 
speak for his credit. So far as is known Eiccio was not 
a trained medallist in the professional sense, though he 
may have seen something of the process when he was a 
pupil of Bellano (d. circa 1492). Friedlaender (Vol. II- 
Tab. XIV.) places the latter’s medal of Eosselli side by 
side with that of Eiccio, apparently for the sake of com- 
parison, and there is some similarity of style. It can 
hardly be doubted that Eiccio was capable of producing 
the piece, and the technical defects are rather in favour 
of his authorship than otherwise. The way in which 
the legend is put in is not customary, and the lettering 
is irregular. There is also a leaf-like or floral ornament 
in a very unusual position in the field at the point where 
the legend begins and ends (see Tresor, II. xxxviii. 4). 
He may quite possibly have had a drawing of his portrait 
supplied by another hand for his model. The medal 
stands alone, so that there is no evidence from analogy, 
for the Cornaro piece, admitted with wise hesitation by 
Armand (I. 120, 2) as attributable to Eiccio, on the 
authority of Cicognara, is not within twenty years of his 
time, and the same applies to the two cognate specimens 
that follow it. 3 

(2) The date of the medal, as a commemorative work, 
should fittingly coincide with the completion of the 
candelabrum. Mr. G. F. Hill, in his Portrait Medals of 
Italian Artists (1912), places this event in 1516 (correct- 
ing Armand’s 1510). In this year Eiccio was forty-six, 
and the portrait does not make him look any older. He 
appears as in the full vigour of manhood. 

3 See Bin liny ton. 3Iay<uine, April, 1913, p. 21, where this group is 
shown to be probably of Venetian origin, about 1550, 



420 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE 


(3) Then with regard to the reverse, which is also 
simple and original, with the legend Obstante . Genio . 
irregularly written and unequally divided, the style is 
not inconsistent with some of Iticcio’s work. 

The luminary at the top of the design is large enough 
to represent the sun instead of a star, as it is usually 
taken to be, and this may have a closer and more intelli- 
gible connexion with the scheme. The laurel tree, it 
may be noticed, is not really dead, for its roots must be 
alive to account for the new growth. It is an old tree, 
with all its lower branches gone and its head broken by 
the wind. Nevertheless in spite of adverse circumstances, 
with the help of the sun, if sun it be, it is making this 
new effort. The laurel’s enormous power of vitality and 
rejuvenescence is well known, and it makes a good 
emblem of longevity. The young shoot is vigorous and 
already bearing berries, and it is in this part of the 
representation that the point of the symbol would seem 
to lie. 

May it not be that the design refers not to the man 
but to his art, and in particular to this special production 
of his art ? The peculiarity of the candelabrum is that 
it presents such a combination of Christian and pagan 
subjects, the latter predominating, and it is not unlikely 
that there may have been some demur to the introduc- 
tion of inconsistent decoration into a work intended for 
ecclesiastical display. There are instances of the same 
thing in pictures, but this is a bolder and more notice- 
able step on the part of one devoted to the antique. 
The suggestion, therefore, is that the old tree represents 
antiquity, perishing by neglect, while the new birth 
stands for the revival of its spirit in the estimation of 
the more cultured and enlightened. 



NOTES ON SOME ITALIAN MEDALS. 421 

Blit whatever tlie meaning of the reverse may be, with 
the general predisposition to believe, sometimes incor- 
rectly, that artists made their own portraits, it will need 
strong evidence to change the received opinion that 
Riccio executed this medal, at the time of his triumph, 
and in view of the fame that he desired. 

T. Whitcombe GtBEene. 



XVIII. 


A NEW MEDAL BY CLAUDE WABIN. 

(See Plate XXI.) , 

The medal of John Prideaux which is illustrated in 
PL XXI. seems to be hitherto unpublished. It is of 
lead, and measures 2^ inches (64 mm.), exclusive of the 
loop. The patina is rather light, but there seems no 
reason to doubt its being a cast of the time to which it 
is dated, viz. 1638. Whatever its date, it represents an 
otherwise unknown work by the artist who signs it C ■ WA, 
for Claude Warm. 

John Prideaux (1578-1650) is entitled on the medal 
Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford, a position which 
he held from 1615 to 1641, when he became Bishop of 
Worcester. He is described as being in the fifty-eighth 
year of his age. How he was born, according to the 
Dictionary of National Biography, on September 17, 
1578. It follows that, strictly speaking, he could only 
be described as being in his fifty-eighth year between 
September 17, 1636, and September 16, 1637. Yet the 
medal is dated 1638. The explanation of the discre- 
pancy probably lies in the loose use of “ aetatis suae ” as 
a translation of “ so many years old.” Prideaux was 
doubtless asked by the medallist how old he was, and 
replied “ 58 years,” which was promptly set down as the 
“year of his age.” The possibility of a similar error has 



A NEW MEDAL BY CLAUDE WARIN. 


423 


always to be reckoned witli in estimating the year of 
production of a medal only dated by the age of the 
sitter. 

Our medal is signed c - WA . The initial of the surname 
is made out of an inverted triangle by two strokes of the 
graver. There can be no doubt of the attribution to 
Claude Warm. I do not propose to attempt to decide 
here the much-vexed question of the distinction between 
Jean and Claude Warm, the more so as a much more 
competent critic, M. J. de Foville, intends to study the 
question thoroughly . 1 But I must yield to the tempta- 
tion to make a few remarks bearing on the subject. In 
the first place, it seems impossible to dissociate this 
medal from the well-known portrait of Bodley, so that 
Bondot’s 2 attribution of the latter to Claude is con- 
firmed. We have in both the same highly academic 
conception of the portrait as a whole, and a remarkable 
similarity in the treatment of the hair, which is not 
modelled, but incised with the graver. This engraving 
was doubtless done on the wax model, not on the metal ; 
it is indeed difficult to work with the graver on lead 
without throwing up a burr. The effect, anyhow, is 
feeble, and neither the Bodley nor the Prideaux can 
rank as a great work of art, although they both have a 
distinct attractiveness ; the artist knew how to portray 
gentlemen of culture. 

1 He has begun by an article in the Revue de VArt ancien et moderne 
for Aug. 10, 1918, on the early medals of Jean Warm. 

a N. Rondot, Claude Waiin, Paris, 1888. The date of the Bodley 
medal is fixed to 1646 by an entry, to which Mr. H. H. E. Oraster has 
kindly called my attention, in the Library accounts for 1646 : “ Item to 
ye painter yt drew S 1 . Thomas Bodley’ s picture & to Mr. Warren that 
made his medale to each of them 2 s In toto 4 s .” (See J. D. Macray, 
Annals of the Bodleian , 2nd edit., 1890, p. 102 ; Pietas Oxoniensis, 1902, 
p viii ) 



424 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


But if these two are by Claude Warm, what of the 
other medals of Englishmen signed “ Warm ” or £ * Varin ” 
or “ Ya 75 ? Bundot 3 boldly assigns them all to Claude, 
pointing out that Jean was so fully occupied in France 
during the period when these medals were made that 
he cannot have spent sufficient time in England to do 
them, even if there were any evidence of his visiting the 
country. On the other hand, there is no evidence of the 
whereabouts of Claude from 1631 to 1646. Those years 
he may therefore have spent wholly or partly in England. 
The case against the attribution of so many English 
medals to J ean seems fairly strong, although it must be 
remembered that it did not take long, even then, to cross 
the Channel, and J ean might have made his wax models 
during short excursions and cast them at home. But 
the medals which Bondot ascribes to Claude seem to me, 
so far as they are represented in the collection of the 
British Museum, to fall broadly into two classes. One 
contains all the medals of English people, 4 except the 
Prideaux and the Bodley, and perhaps also the medal 
of Le Sueur may be placed with them. By far the finest 
of them is the unsigned Thomas Cary, 5 a brilliant piece of 
technique which is probably not surpassed by any other 
work of the kind in the seventeenth century. Now this 
medal seems to me to come extremely close to Jean 


3 Who is foHowed by Eorrer in Ms article in the Num. Giro 1918, 
643 ff. Rondot’s remark (p. 27), that almost all Jean Warm’s medals, 
including the Richelieu, are struck, shows how carefully this writer’s 
statements require to be verified. 

4 I.e. Margaret Gary (for the signed medal of her husband, see nest 
note), the Blakes, Richard Weston, Endymion Porter, Sir William 
Ducy, and Charles I [Num. Gin on., 1913, PI. X.). 

5 The signed medal of Gary is puzzling, and possibly designed by an 
inferior hand as a pendant to his wife’s portrait. 



A NEW MEDAL BY CLAUDE WATtlN. 


425 


Warm’s signed medal of Richelieu of 1630 (rev. tandem 
VICTA SEQVOR). There is the same bold relief, rising 
very, steeply from the field, the same feeling for the 
differentiation of texture, and the same handling of the 
hair. These qualities are present, though to a less 
degree, in the other medals of English men and women. 
It is strange that the finest of all, the Cary, should be 
unsigned. Possibly it was meant to have a signed 
reverse, like the Richelieu. 

The other class, vastly inferior, it seems to me, to the 
first, contains such medals as the Mazarin, the Alphonse 
de Richelieu, the Salian, and the restitutions of Cicero, 
Aristippus, Griulio Romano, &c. They are large and 
pretentious and for the most part devoid of character. 
It hardly seems possible to me that the same man can 
have made both classes of medals, unless his hand had 
begun to fail him after the period to which the English 
medals belong. It is true that the influence of Dupre 
is very strong in that period ; but the works are spirited 
and thoughtful. To say, with Rondot, that these English 
medals lack originality, is hardly fair to them. The 
medals of Frenchmen, and the restitutions which have 
been mentioned, are, with the possible exception of the 
Salian, heavy and lifeless. 

The question, however, can only be decided — if then — 
after an examination of more material than is available 
to me. It might have been easier to come to a conclu- 
sion had Rondot condescended to illustrate more of the 
medals that are certainly signed by Claude, instead of 
confining his illustrations almost entirely to the medals 
of doubtful attribution. 

Meanwhile, M. de Foville has kindly sent me casts of 
two medals which bear on the question. One is the 



NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


42(3 


suppused Louise Perachon, signed C-WARIN> G the other 
the Marguerite Bellet . 7 M. de Foville is of opinion that 
liondot is right in attributing all the English medals to 
Claude, whose a\ ork is very unequal. Though I hesitate 
to differ from so high an authority, I must confess that, 
to my eye, the Louise Perachon and the Marguerite 
Bellet have just that quality of dullness and heaviness 
in conception and execution which seems to mark them, 
with the Prideaux and Bodley, as the work of an artist 
distinctly inferior to the author of the medals of Charles I, 
Thomas Cary and his wife, the Blakes, and the rest of 
the Englishmen in question. 

In preparing this note, I have had the advantage of 
consulting Miss Helen Farquhar. It is particularly 
gratifying to me to find that the opinion of one who has 
made so extensive a study of the English medals of the 
period coincides with my own in all the essentials of the 
division between the medals which may safely be assigned 
to Claude, and those which seem to be by a more genial 
member of the family, whether he is Jean or another 
unknown to fame. In any case, in dealing with the 
question of attribution, one has to remember that various 
members of the family may well have worked in common, 
as the Boettiers seem to have done. This would perhaps 
account for the absence of initials in many of the 
signatures. 

GL F. Hill. 


l ’ Cp. Rondot, PI. i. No. 2. 

7 Ibid., p. 41, No. 5. On the cast only VARIN is discernible, but 
M. de FoviUe writes <£ il se pourrait que le C fut tombe a la fonte, car 
ce medaillon est a part cela identique aux autres exemplaires (Rondot, 
p. 41, No. 5) signds C • VARIN. A la loupe, sur Poriginal, il me somblc 
voir C ■ VARIN.” 



MISCELLANEA. 


Some Unveutain Coins associated with Chios. 

'Cue uncertain coin of Ionia published on p. 268 of the Ninn. 
Uhron. for the current year recalls a smaller piece published 
by Canon Green well on p. 282 of the volume for 1897, and 
illustrated on PL xiv. 8. Cp. Reeling, Scmmlnny Warren, 
Tafel xxxii. 1411. This coin bears a Sphinx seated right on 
obverse with both forelegs on the ground, the farther one 
showing in front of the nearer, and on the reverse a Gorgo- 
neion in a slrdlow incuse square. It weighs 32*7 grs. (2*118 
grammes). Another specimen of the same coin in the Leake 
Collection, at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, measures 
13*00 mm., and weighs 29*81 grs. (1*917 gram). 

These coins are evidently of later date than the one under 
consideration, though they might easily belong to the same 
mint. The weights, however, are a little hard to reconcile 
with this supposition. The two types are not so far removed 
from each other in time as to be the same denomination, 
degraded in tho later specimens. Besides which, the differ- 
ence in weight is too great even for the characteristic rapid 
decline of some Creek standards. A different denomination 
seems hardly possible under the usual Ionian system of 
division into thirds and sixths. One is almost driven, there- 
fore, to demand a change of standard, though it is hard to 
say in what standards. In volume ii. of his Trccite (p. 1134), 
under the head of Chios, M. Babelon draws attention to two 
small silver coins of Ionian fabric in the National Collection 
at the Bibliotheque, Paris, which he considers to be alliance 
pieces between Chios and neighbouring cities. A third is 
described by M. Babelon in the Inventaire Wciddington , 
No. 1269, PL ii. 15, but I place it first in order here as it 
seems to be the earliest. They all three have a Sphinx on 
the obverse — the first to right of very early style raising 
the off forepaw, the second also to right with both forepaws 
on the ground, and the third to left raising the off forepaw. 



428 


numismatic chronicle. 


No. 1 has* a Horse's head right on the reverse ; Ho. 2 a 
Helmeted bearded head right ; and No. 3 a Lion’s head left in 
a beaded square : thus suggesting alliances between Chios, 
and Cyme, Calymna, and Miletus respectively. In a similar 
way our coins might be looked upon as recording an alliance 
between Chios and Clazomenae. 

Another link with Chios is afforded by the Sphinx’s* up- 
raised forepaw in the B.M. specimen, and in two of those 
from Paris. This feature occurs not only on some of the 
early electrum, as Mr. Hill remarks in his footnote, but on a 
whole series of early silver didrachms, one of which I published 
in Nmn> Chron. for 1911, p. 85 and ff. 

On the subsequent issues at Chios this attitude of the 
Sphinx is, with some rare exceptions, not repeated till 
Imperial times, when it became the rule ; but if we are to 
suppose that the B.M. uncertain piece and the similar ones 
in the Canon Greenwell and Col. Leake collections belong to 
the same mint, then they present a strong similarity to the 
Chian issues. The earlier one has the raised forepaw and the 
later one not, though we must not forget that in the former 
case the Sphinx is turned to the left, and in the latter to the 
right. At Chios the Sphinx invariably looks to left on the 
silver coinage until the first century b.c., when some of 
the Attic drachms then struck show a Sphinx to right. The 
whole of the evidence is contradictory whichever way one 
looks at it, and it is impossible to come to any decision in the 
matter at present, but it seemed worth while to draw attention 
to the above facts in the hope that they may help towards the 
finding of a true verdict at some future date. 

J. Mavrogordato. 


NOTICES OP RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 


Numismatiqiie Cou&titntiiitnuc. Par Jules Maurice. Tome III. 
Paris : Leroux, 1912. Pp. xlviii + 282. With 11 plates. 

The Relnlli'L' Values of Homan Goins. 

The third volume of M. Jules Maurice’s work published a 
few months since is not less useful and instructive than those 
which have preceded it. 

It completes the notices of the mints of the period by 
dealing with those of Nicomedia, Cyzicus, and Antioch in 
Asia, and Alexandria in Africa. The accounts of these mints 
have been largely revised since they were published as separate 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 




papers in various Numismatic Journals, and are of great 
value for reference. 

It may be, however, that numismatists in general will 
find the Introduction not the least important and suggestive 
portion of the book. After an interesting chapter on the 
persecution under Maximinus Daza and its effect on the coin 
types, M. Maurice proceeds to expound certain theories as 
to the classification and relative values of the coinage of the 
period, and the effect of the monetary reforms of Diocletian 
and Constantine the Great which have been arrived at by 
M. Dattari and himself. The views of M. Dattari are set 
out in the paper read by him at the Brussels Numismatic 
Conference in 1910 in the PivUta Italictna di Numismatica, 
1906, Fascicolo III., and in the Proceed imj* of the Italian Insti- 
tute of Numismatic*, 1913, vol. i. The plate published with 
the Brussels paper is reproduced by M. Maurice. 

The following is an attempt to summarize the conclusions 
of the two authors, and to indicate what evidence is avail- 
able to support them and what is lacking. To some extent 
the authors are agreed, but as there are several important 
points of difference between them, their conclusions diverge. 

Their theories, so far as set out by M. Maurice, deal more 
particularly with the coins which are wholly or in part com- 
posed of bronze, which they agree in classifying as follows : — 

Grand bronze (G.B.), Moyen bronze (M.B.), Moyen bronze 
reduit (M.B.R.), Petit bronze (P.B.), Petit bronze reduit 
(P.B.B.), Quinarius, a coin which, following M. Mowat, it 
is convenient to call a Quadrans, but which M. Dattari con- 
siders to be the Cententionalis, and the smallest coin of all, 
the Nummus, which in fact was very little used during the 
period under consideration, and was little more than a 
monetary expression. The reduced coins appeared under the 
reform of Constantine, and our authors consider that the G.B. 
or large follis represented the earlier sesterce, and that the 
coin called quinarius is in fact the denarius communis of 
account. 

To assist in the identification of the coins it may be pointed 
out that the coin called P.B. is of the size of the Securitas 
and Spes types of Helena and Fausta, the P.B.R. comprises 
(inter alia) the larger Gloria Exercitus type, while the quinarii 
include the smaller pieces bearing the same inscription. The 
pieces which M. Maurice calls quadrantes were common under 
the Tetrarchy, when they bore on the obverse the radiate 
bust of the Emperor, and on the reverse the legend Concordia 
Militum. After the reform of Constantine coins of this 
denomination were issued only in the territories of Licinius. 

VOL, XIII., SERIES IV. 2 G 



430 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


They commonly bear his radiate bust, or the helmeted bust 
of his son, and the reverse legend lovi Conservatori with a 

X 0 

mint-mark J ^ . 

M. Dattari has fixed the approximate weights of these coins 
by the examination of over 6000 specimens, mostly in the 
finest condition, with the silver wash still visible. These 
coins have been deposited in the Brussels Collection, and the 
curious can there check his results. M. Maurice accepts 
them as correct, and the present writer, who has examined 
other coins of the period to the number of some hundreds, 
ventures to express his concurrence. His results showed 
slightly greater weights, but the difference, no doubt, arose 
from the fact that the specimens he examined were for the 
most part heavily patinated. 

The coins of all denominations from G.B. to quinarius 
inclusive are found silver washed, but no washed quad r antes 
or nummi have been recorded. M. Maurne gives the results 
of a number of analyses made in the mint of Trance, from 
which it appears that all the silver- washed pieces analyzed 
contained an alloy of silver varying roughly from 2 per cent, 
to 4 per cent, (or, as claimed by M. Dattari, to 4*50 per cent.), 
while no such admixture is found in the quadrantes or nummi. 

The relative value of silver to bronze being, during the 
period in question, at first 55*38 to 1, and afterwards 63*29 
to l, 1 the above-mentioned alloy caused a very appreciable 
enhancement of the actual value of the mixed pieces, and 
both authors consider that they passed current at that actual 
value, whatever it was, and that the wash of silver was 
employed to differentiate them in the public eye from the 
pure bronze currency. There seems every reason for accepting 
this interesting conclusion which satisfactorily solves the 
vexed problem of the silver washing, and disposes of the 
theory that these coins were either something of an official 
fraud on the public, and an attempt to make base metal pass 
as silver, or at best a token coinage. 

So far MM. Maurice and Dattari are at one, but divergence 
commences with the different interpretations which they place 

upon the mint-mark j j ^ above referred to as being found on 

the later issue of the quadrantes of bronze. This mark at 
once recalls the mark IIS on the early silver sestertii, and 
M, Maurice interprets it “ decima pars,” while M. Dattari 
reads “ duodecima pars sestertii.” The former interpretation 

1 The authorities are not agreed as to these exact values. 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS 


431 


seems to be the more probable, but whichever be correct, we 
obtain a measure of the value in bronze of the mixed pieces 
which can be easily applied to them. It is to be hoped that 
a sufficient number of analyses will in time be carried out to 
enable us to ascertain with certainty what was the average or 
theoretic amount of silver alloy introduced by the mint into 
these issues, for such knowledge would perhaps be a determin- 
ing factor in fixing the scale of values. 

At present the variation of the percentages actually found 
is such that either a decimal or a duodecimal scale may be 
correct. An alloy of about 3 per cent, is sufficient for M. 
Maurice, while 4*50 per cent, would fully justify M. Dattari. 
In each case the basis of the scale is the weight and value of 
the quadrans, viz. 2*88 grammes of bronze, and the following 
results in grammes are arrived at : — 


Denomination of coin 

Theoretic 

weight 

Decimal 
scale value. 

Duodecimal 
scale value. 

G.B. ... 

10-00 

28-80 

34-56 

MB . ... 

6-66 

19-20 

23-04 

M.B.Il 

5 00 

14*40 

17-28 

P.B. . . . 

3-33 

9*60 

11-52 

P.B.R. . 

2-50 

7*20 

8-64 

Quinariub . . . . 

1-66 

4-80 

5-76 

Quad LMDS . . . 

2-88 

2-88 

2*88 

Nummus ... ... 

1-44 

1*44 

1*44 


M. Maurice considers that the value of the pound of gold 
under the respective reforms of Diocletian and Constantine 
was 240,000 and 288,000 grammes of bronze, while M. Dattari 
contends for 288,000 and 345,600 grammes respectively. 

He considers that the pound of 288,000 was introduced by 
Augustus, 2 and his argument may be put in his own words 
contained in a recent letter on the subject. “ Under Hero 
and thence to Caracalla, when the pound of gold was divided 
first into 45 aurei, and then into 50, the equivalence of one 
aureus to 25 denarii remained, as did the equivalence of one 
denarius to 4 sestertii or 192 grammes of bronze. When 
Diocletian introduced the new system by cutting one pound 
of gold into 60 parts and re-established the cjLenarius of 
Hero, it is probable that one denarius remained e4ual to 192 
grammes of bronze, and therefore with his reform one pound 
-of gold was equal to 288,000 grammes. When Constantine 


2 lievue Nnmhmuliquc, 1909, pp. 855 et seq. 



432 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


introduced thesolidi o£ 72 to the pound of gold the proportion 
of bronze rose to 345,600 grammes” 

He does not, therefore, admit the existence of the pound of 
240,000 grammes which is necessary to the theory of M. 
Maurice, because we know from the Edict of Diocletian that 
the denarius communis was one 50,000th part of the pound, 
and the value of that denarius is, according to his scale, 4*80 
grammes. 

The authoi itative decision of this point of difference would, 
it seems, give the victory to one scale or the other, but there 
does not appear to be conclusive documentary evidence on 
either side. M. Maurice calls to his assistance the mark 
XXji frequently found in the field of the large follis, the posi- 
tion of the type being of course indicated by the vertical line. 
This he considers to mean that the coin is of the value of 20 
nummi or 2 S' SO grammes, and he similarly interprets the 
Greek letters KA, which are also common, but are commonly 
found together at the side of the type. 

M. Dattari believes that the large follis (G.B.) introduced 
by Diocletian took the place of the coins classed by collectors 
as -£E 3 which bear the exergual mark XXI or KA, and form a 
large portion of the currency of the latter part of the third 
century ; and he believes that these coins, which are fre- 
quently found silver- washed, were in fact of mixed metal, and 
passed as sesterces or quarters of the denarius. It may be 
pointed out in this connexion that the silver- washed coins of 
the latter half of the third century bear other marks as well 
as those above mentioned, and that it seems probable that the 
whole of the coins of the period classed as iE 3 were silver- 
washed at the time of their issue. If this be so, seeing how 
few pieces of smaller module exist, it would appear that there 
must then have been as great a lack of small change in the 
Roman Empire as was at times the case in England, and that 
Diocletian’s reform and provision of smaller money must have 
been of great public advantage. 

It is easy to accept the above interpretation of the mark 
XX|I as the interposition of the type between the numerals 
may well indicate that they are not to be read as a continuous 
number, but when the mark is exergual, or in Greek characters, 
some difficulty arises. It will be remembered that the exergual 
mark XX is frequently to be found on small silver- washed 
coins of Aurelian which, in size, weight, and character, do not 
seem distinguishable from those marked XXI. It hardly seems 
possible that coins so similar can have passed at different 
values, and at values so slightly differing, and the marks may 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 


be different expressions of the same fact, viz. that the coin 
bore the relation of 20 to 1 to some other coin. This sugges- 
tion is at variance with the view, held by the older numis- 
matists, that these marks were employed in the reform of 
Aurelian to indicate that the pieces were to pass at the rate 
of 20 or 21 respectively to the large bronze sesterce, or 500 
or 525 to the aureus. If it be true that silver- washed coins 
were always alloyed with silver, then it is clear that the last- 
mentioned theory would fail, for the washed Hi! 3 would have 
been of too great intrinsic value to occupy so low a place in 
the scale, and with something like a 3 per cent, alloy they 
would be worth about one-twentieth part of a denarius. In 
any case it seems impossible that the reference of the mark 
XXI on the coins of Aurelian can have been to the nummus, 
for that coin was not in issue, and there seems no reason for 
believing that it was then even a monetary expression indi- 
cating the value to which the name was afterwards attached. 

It may be objected that Aurelian did not strike fine silver 
denarii, and this is true, but most numismatists, and especially 
M. Dattari, will agree that the coin never lost its theoretic 
place in the Roman series at least until the reform of 
Diocletian. 

Again Carausius, who struck neither G-.B. nor nummi, but 
did issue fine silver denarii, frequently used the mark XXI 
and less frequently the mark XX. If those marks had any 
real monetary value on his coins they could hardly refer to 
anything but the denarius. He may, however, have merely 
copied the mint-marks of Continental Emperors as he cer- 
tainly copied their types. 

It does not seem difficult to believe that a simple mark of 
proportionate value may have been employed by Aurelian in 
one relation and by Diocletian, whose monetary system was 
quite different, in another. 

M. Maurice also refers to the monogram CMH which termi- 
nates the reverse legend of certain M.B. of Nicomedia and 
Cyzicus, which he reads as 900 = 1 pound of silver, and, 
taking as he does the pound of silver to have been worth 
17,280 grammes of bronze, and to have stood as 13*89 to 1 
in relation to gold, he reaches a total of 210,019*20, which 
is very little in excess of the gold value of 240,000. If his 
interpretations of mint-marks are correct they go far to 
support his conclusions, but, as M. Dattari has pointed out, 
the position of this monogram is one which is not usually 
occupied by a mint-mark or mark of value, and there may 
be some other explanation of it, 



4:34 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


There are also other- marks such as K.P., KB., <fec., found 
on M.B. demanding interpretation, which, it the theories 
of M. Maurice are to be accepted as conclusive, should be 
consistent with them. In fact, the whole question of the 
mint-marks of the third and fourth centuries requires further 
study and explanation. 

The two authors are agreed as to the relation which the 
mixed coins bear to each other and to the pound of gold, but 
as they differ as to the relative value of gold to bronze, they 
also differ as to the relation of bronze coins to those of other 
metals. Their results are tabulated below. M. Maurice’s 
decimal scale applied to a pound of gold of the value of 
288,000 grammes of bronze works out as follows : — 


Name of coin. 

a 

a 

53 

£ 

2 

cS 

& 

Qiunauus, 

c4 

Ph 

Ph 

M 

w 

P 

CO 

p 

d 

Pound of 
gold 

Nummus .... 

1 

2 

31 

5 


10 

13', 

20 

200,000 

Quadrans 

— 

1 

i-; 

2£ 

3', 

5 

o; 

10 

100,000 

Quinarius .... 

— 

— 

i 

14 

2 

3 

4 

6 

60,000 

P.B.R 

— 

— 

— 

1 

11 

2 

2? 

* 

4 

40,000 

P.B 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

1-1 

2 

3 

30,000 

M.B.R 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

11 

2 

20,000 

M.B 

[ 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

11 

15,000 

G-.B. . . . 

| 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 

10,000 


M. Dattari’s duodecimal scale applied to a pound of gold of 
345,600 grammes of bronze is identical as to the mixed coins, 
but gives the following somewhat more convenient results for 
the nummus and quadrans, viz. : — 


Nummus . . . . 

1 

2 

4 

6 

8 

12 

16 

24 

Quadrans . 

— 

1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

8 

12 


240.000 

120.000 


It will be noticed that the values which M. Dattari attri- 
butes to the mixed coins are, like his pound of gold, one-fifth 
higher than those of M. Maurice. If we find sufficient 
evidence to prove the appreciation of the pound of gold from 
288,000 to 345,600 grammes, is it not possible that the mixed 
pieces also appreciated in like proportion, in which case the 
scale of M. Dattari would then correctly take the place of 
that of M. Maurice 1 

If we may accept either scale, there remains the further 



NOTICES OF BECENT PUBLICATIONS. 


435 


problem of the satisfactory application, of it to the gold and 
silver coinage which must be solved before we can claim a 
perfect knowledge of the monetary systems of the fourth 
century. Although large accounts were kept with sufficient 
accuracy by means of folles or purses and the denarius 
communis, there must been an accepted rate of exchange 
between all the pieces in circulation on which the small 
trader and money-changer carried on their businesses. Our 
authors have, as we have seen, provided an acceptable and 
identical solution so far as the mixed coinage is concerned, 
and M. Dattari’s scale provides a simple one for the bronze 
pieces. 

As to the more precious metals, it seems to be established 
that under the reform of Constantine 72 solidi were struck 
from the pound of gold, and that the silver coins of that 
reform were the miliarense and the siliqua. It is also estab- 
lished that under the reform of Diocletian the pound of gold 
was reckoned as worth 50,000 of the denarii communes, and 
it would seem common ground that this proportion was raised 
to 60,000 by the reform of Constantine. 

The miliarense was nominally, at any rate, 1000th part 
of a pound of gold, and it is agreed that it was of the value 
of 10 G-.B., and that its weight of 4*55 grammes was identical 
with that of the solidus. 

M. Babelon accepts it as a fourteenth part of the solidus, 
but considers it to have been “ monnaie de luxe,” rarely issued, 
and it is certainly very scarce. It would be, under M. 
Maurice’s scale, of the value of 288*00, and, under that of 
M. Dattari, of 345*60 grammes of bronze, and in either case 
an element of error is here introduced, for, under the one 
scale 14 miliarensia would be worth 4032 grammes though 
the solidus was worth 4000 grammes only, while under the 
other scale we get a value of 4838 grammes against a solidus 
of 4800 grammes. 

We have here apparently a legalized margin of error which 
may have some bearing on the problem of the small trader 
above referred to. The exact position of the siliqua is 
obscure, and it may even be doubted whether it was issued 
in any quantity during the reign of Constantine the Great, 
whose silver of any denomination is rare. MM. Babelon 
and Maurice consider it to be the twenty-fourth part of a 
solidus and that it stood in relation to the miliarense as If 
to 1. Its theoretic weight is given as 2*60 grammes, and 
M. Maurice believes that it was at first of the value of 
144*00, and afterwards of 166*66 grammes of bronze. 
M, Dattari appears to hold that it represented the denarius 



436 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


and was one-twenty-fifth of the solidus, which would give 
it under his scale a value of 192 grammes. The name siliqua 
was originally applied to a weight yy^gth part of one pound 
of gold. M. Maurice’s scale is practically in accord with this 
as 1728 of the heavier siliquae give 287,999 grammes, while 
M. Dattari requires 1800 coins to reach the value of his 
pound of gold. The respective scales appear, theiefoie, to 
he as follows : — 


Decimal Scale. 


1 

Denomination of coin. 

2 

Value in bronze. 

3 

Siliqua. 

i 

Milia- 

lense 

5 

Solidus. 

0 

Tuund of 
gold 

Nummus .... 

1*44 

120 

200 

2800 

200,000 

Quadrans . . . 

2*SS 

60 

100 

1400 

100,000 

Quinarius .... 

4*80 

36 

60 

840 

60,000 

P.B.R 

7*20 

24 

40 

560 

40,000 

P.B 

9*60 

18 

30 

420 

30,000 

M.B.R 

14*40 

12 

20 

280 

20,000 

M.B 

19 20 

9 

15 

210 

15,000 

G.B 

28*80 

6 

10 

140 

10,000 

Siliqua .... 

166*66 

1 

13 

24 

1,728 

Miliarense .... 

288*00 



1 

14 

1,000 

Solidus 

4000-00 

— 

— 

1 

72 

Pound of gold . . 

288,000*00 

— 

— 

! — 

1 


The figures given in column No. 3 show an error of + 6*14 
grammes throughout. A reduction of one quinarius would 
reduce this error to +1*34, and if we take 58 quadrantes 
and 116 nummi the remaining error is +0‘38 only. 

In column 4, a siliqua and three-quarters gives an error of 
-(- 3’66 j the rest of the column is accurate. 

In column 5, 24 siliquae give an error of — 1T1; in 
respect of all other coins, the error is +32*00, which can, 
of course, be reduced from the G.B. downwards, but the 
common denominator 10 will be lost as well as the proper 
proportion to the previous column. 

In column 6, 1728 siliquae give, as we have seen, the same 
error, and the remaining figures are accurate. 



NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 


437 


Duodecimal Scale. 


1 

Denomination of coin. 

2 

Value in bronze 

3 

Siliqua. 

4 

Milia- 

renso 

5 

Solidus. 

... 

G 

Pound of 

gold 

Nummus .... 

1*44 

144 

240 

3360 

240,000 

Quadrans . . . 

2'88 

72 

120 

1680 

120,000 

Quinarius .... 

5*76 

36 

60 

840 

60,000 

P.B.R . 

8*64 

24 

40 

560 

40,000 

P.B 

11*52 

18 

30 

420 

30,000 

M.B.R 

17*28 

12 

20 

280 

20,000 

M.B 

23*04 

9 

15 

| 210 

15,000 

G.B 

34*56 

6 

10 

140 

10,000 

Siliqua 

192*00 

1 

If 

25 

1,800 

Miliarense .... 

345*60 


1 

14 

1,000 

Solidus 

4800*00 

1 

— 

1 

72 

Pound of gold . . 

345,600*00 


— 


1 


Here the error in column 3 is + 1*5 *36 grammes, reducible 
in case of the lower denominations. 

In column 4 a siliqua and three-quarters gives an error of 
— 9*60, the remaining figures being correct. 

In column 5 the siliquae are correct, and the remaining 
figures show an error of +38-40, reducible in the case of the 
G.H. and all smaller denominations. 

M. Dattari, in his published table,* 1 prefers to set out his 
results with more precision, giving fractions in nummi, but it 
is suggested that the scale of the small trader and money- 
changer must have been very simple, avoiding fractions as 
much as possible. The scales above given show the largest 
number of pieces of each denomination which the seller of 
gold could exact without exceeding the error which is found 
to be authorized if the common view that a miliarense passed 
as one-fourteenth part of a solidus is accepted. It is less easy 
to suggest a marginal limit when the sale was of baser metals 
for gold, but assuming, as we must, that the vendor traded at 
a profit, we may make a somewhat similar allowance. 

It may be that, as on the Stock Exchange of to-day, there 
were regular buyers 3 * 5 and sellers’ prices, but whether the sale 
was of gold or other metal, the actual rate at which the 
transaction was carried out depended, no doubt, as do similar 
transactions now, on the price of the day, the local conditions, 
and the position and needs of the parties. 

Neither of the above scales is so conclusively exact and con- 


3 Bivista Italiana , 1906, Ease. III. The figures are unfortunately 

invalidated to a slight extent by an error as to the weight of the 

nummus which has crept in. 



438 


NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE. 


venient as to settle the differences between our authors, though 
the balance of convenience is perhaps in favour of the decimal 
scale. The vital point seems to be the conclusive proof of the 
value to which Constantine appreciated the pound of gold. 

There can, however, be little doubt that MM. Maurice and 
Dattari have rendered great service to Roman Numismatics 
and directed the study of the questions raised above into 
the proper channels, and that, whatever view may be ulti- 
mately taken of the points of difference between them, the 
principles underlying their work are sound. 

Percy H. Webb. 


T)ie Antihen Miin::en Milieus, Unter Leitung von F. Irnhoof- 
Blumer, herausg. von der Kgl. Akad. der Wissenschaften. 
Bearb. von JEI. von Fritze. I. Abteilung : Adramytion 
— Ensthene. Mit Tafel I.-X. Berlin (Reimer), 1913. 
Pp. v + 223. 

This is the first part of the new series of volumes of the 
great Berlin Corpus, which is to be concerned with Asia 
Minor. It is but a few months since we noticed (Nmi. 
Citron., 1912, p. 227) the latest part of the earlier series 
dealing with Thrace, by Miinzer and Strack, in the production 
of which the author of the volume before us played a material 
part. We have become accustomed to regard the progress of 
the Corpus as slow • but the term is relative, and no one who 
examines the details of the work by Dr. von Fritze, Dr. 
Regling and those who, unfortunately, are no longer to be 
counted among the contributors to the publication, can be 
anything but astonished at the rate of progress. Whether 
it will be as speedy in the future, or whether the whole load 
will gradually devolve on the “ shoulders immense, Atlantean ” 
of Dr. von Fritze, remains to be seen. On the somewhat un- 
seemly controversy which has arisen about the methods of 
the publication, and which can do no good to any one, we 
wish to express no opinion here, knowing well that numis- 
matists and historians are as likely to agree as poets and 
philosophers. But the trouble probably has its roots in the 
singular opinion, which we believe was held by the great 
scholar in whose honour the undertaking was begun, that no 
special training was required to make a numismatist; an 
opinion which may have influenced the Academy in its ad- 
ministration of the scheme. 

The extreme thoroughness of Dr. von Fritze’s methods 
makes it almost impossible to pick holes in his work, even if 



NOTICES OE EECENT PUBLICATIONS. 


439 


one wished to do so. I may mention only that the British 
Museum has comparatively recently acquired good specimens 
of Apollonia 282 and Hadrianoi 523. It is that same 
thoroughness, doubtless, which has caused the damning 
word “ ungenau ” to be so plentifully sprinkled over the 
pages of the book. It seems sometimes to be applied to 
descriptions by previous writers, which are manifestly in- 
tended to be merely summary, as well as to descriptions 
containing actual errors. G- F H 

Die Mihizen und das JManzwesen bei den Scrtytores Hlstorlae 
Augustae . Inaugural-Dissertation. . . . Berlin. Yon 
Karl Menadier. 

This useful little essay aims at throwing fresh light on the 
vexed question of the historical authority and the date of the 
“Augustan History,” by an examination of the statements 
relating to numismatics contained in it and a comparison of 
them with what we know from other sources. The arrange- 
ment is clear and well thought out, the criticism, is vigilant 
and acute, and the general method is that of the sanely 
sceptical modern historian. The general results arrived at 
are fairly definite and satisfactory. The various Lives must 
date from the time of Constantine or later, and many of the 
statements about numismatics contained in them are either 
confused or absolutely wrong. In some cases it seems possible 
that the writer simply invented what he states as a fact. 
The one point in Dr. Menadier’s work that seems to us to 
merit adverse criticism is his tendency to overstrain his points 
and to attach too much weight to minute fragments of evi- 
dence. On p, 44, for example, he claims that the fact that 
an amount is given first in sesterces, then in pounds of silver, 
proves that, at the date of writing, the former style of reckon- 
ing was no longer intelligible. Surely the utmost that we can 
infer is, that it was no longer easily and universally intelligible; 
but this necessary modification, alas, deprives the argument 
at this point of its force. Again, we may observe that on p. 56 
a style of lcverse type, already common under Constantius II 
and Constans, is said not to come into general use until the 
time of Julian. We do not think that Herr Menadier makes 
out much of a case for pushing the date of composition of this 
work towards the end of the fourth century. But these are 
small points ; and we must be sincerely grateful to the author 
for a careful and illuminating study, as too for the useful 
bibliographies which he adds at the close of his work. 

H. M, 



INDEX. 


Acanthus, early telradrachm of, 
of peculiar fabric, 262 
Aethelstan, coins of, in the 
Douglas find, 326 
Ajariis, a Jinn, mentioned on a 
com, 126 

AKTIA type of Hierapolis, 3 
Alexander III (of Scotland), coins 
of, in the Blackhills find, 59: 
m Mellendean find, 62 
Alexandre de Bruchsella, an 
engraver at the Mint, 352-353 
All Mirza, Shaikh, and the King of 
the Jinns, 127-129 
Alost, sterlings of, found in Scot- 
land, 113 


| Ap^ollonia (Crete), copper coin of, 

Ares on coins of Hierapolis, 9 
Aretino, P., medal of, 417 
| Armenia, copper coins of Arta- 
vasdes III of, 273-274 
Arnould VIII, of Loos, sterlings 
of, found in Scotland, 115 
Artemis at Hierapolis, 9-11, 135 
Ashburnham, W<, Governor of 
Sandsfoot Castle, 122 
Asklepios at Hierapolis, 11-13 
Athena at Hierapolis, 13-16 
Aurelius, M., coin of Corinth of, 
264 

Axminster, a Saxon mint, 340- 
341 


Anazarbus or Caesarea Cappado- 
ciae, coin of, 270 

Anglo-Saxon coins, found at Dou- 
glas, 322-349 

Anlaf of Northumbria, penny of 
found at Douglas, 337 ’ 

Charles, engraver, 359- 

360 

Anthony, Derick, engraver, 358 
Anthony, Thomas, engraver, 360, 

361 

Antiochus I, of Syria, stater of 
acquired by B.M., 271 
Antiochus IV, of Syria, copper 
coins of, 271 r 

Antoninus, M., chronology of Da- 
nubian wars of, 162-179, 275- 
321 

Apollo on coins of Hierapolis, 4-9 
140, 147 ’ 

Apollo Archegetes, on coin of 
Hierapolis, 10 

Apollo Kitharoedos, on coins of ' 
Hierapolis, 4-9 

Apollo Lairbenos, on coins of 
Hierapolis, 6, 7, 16, 17, 19, 125, 
1 * 1 , &c, 


B. 

Bagh Iram, mentioned on coin 
of the King of Jinns, 127-128 

Baktanus, a Jinn, 125-126 

Balliol, John, coins of, found at 
Blackhills, 59 ; at Mellendean, 
62 . * 

Bayse, Henry, an engraver, 355- 

Beck, Bishop, pennies of, found 
in Scotland, 78, 83, 85, &c. 

Bethune, Bobert de, sterling of 
found in Scotland, 114 

Blackhills, Edward pennies, &c., 
found at, 58-119 

Blanchet, A., notice of his Numis- 
matitjiie Frangaise, vol. i., ISO- 
132 

Boule at Hierapolis, 138, 143 

Boulton's copper coinage, 379- 

Brabant, sterlings of, found in 
Scotland, 115 

B 367-368'’ engraV6r ' S63 ~ 365 > 



INDEX. 


441 


Brooke, G. 0. . — 

Countermarking of base Tes- 
toons, 130 

Notice of Blanchet’s . Manuel de 
Niunhmati'iuo Fiamaisc , i., 
130-132 

Epigraphical data for the ar- 
rangement of the coin-types 
of William II, Henry I and 
Stephen, 399-412 
Bruce, Robert, coins of, found at 
Blackhills, 59 

Bruchsella. See Alexandre. 

Bull on coins of Hierapolis, 16 
Bull’s head on coins of Hiera- 
polis, 17 


C. 

Caesarea Cappadociae or Anazar- 
bus (?), 270 

Cambrai, sterlings of, found in 
Scotland, 116 

Cameron, J. S., and Hill, G. F.: — 
Some Cretan Coins, 381-388 
Capua, copper coin of, acquired 
by British Museum, 258 
Caracalla, bronze coins of Cyzicus 
of, 267 ; his visit to Hierapolis, 
158, 159 

Cardano, G., medal of, 417 
Carthago Nova, tetradrachm of, 
acquired by British Museum, 
274, 275 

Caulonia, silver coin of, 259 
Chersonesos (Crete), copper coin 
of, 381 

Chrysoroas, river god at Hiera- 
polis, 16, 17-19, 149 
Cnidus, hemiobol of, 269 
Codrington, Oliver : — 

Coins of the King of Jinns, 123- 
130 

COMOB, meaning of, 37 n. 
Constantinople, coins of, found at 
Corbridge, 34 

Corbridge, Roman coins found at, 
31-56; weights of, 48; mints, 
41-43 ; types, 43-55 ; burial of 
hoard, 55-56 

Corinth, stater of, with ivy-leaf, 
264 ; imperial coins of, 264, 265 
Crump, C. G., and Johnson C. : — 
Tables of Bullion coined under 
Edward I-III, 201-246 
Cybele at Hierapolis, 137-138 


Cydonia (Crete), silver and bronze 
coins of, 382 

Cyzicus, bronze coin of Caracalla 
of, 267 

D. 

Damastium, silver coins of, 263 
Dampierre, Gui de, coins of, found 
in Scotland, 113 
Dante, medals of, 414-416 
Demeter at Hierapolis, 19-21 
Demos at Hierapolis, 136, 148-150 
Dionysos at Hierapolis, 9, 21-23, 
144, 153, 156 
Dodd, Rev. C. H. : — 

Chronology of the Danubian 
Wars of the Emperor Marcus 
Antoninus, 162-179, 275-321 
Domenichi, L., medal of, 416-417 
Douglas (Isle of Man), Anglo- 
Saxon coins found at, 322-349 
Double-axe at Hierapolis, 22, 23 

E. 

Eadgar, coins of, found at Douglas, 
329-337 

Eadmund, coins of, found at 
Douglas, 327 

Eadred, coins of, found at Douglas, 

327, 328 

Eadwig, coins of, found at Douglas, 

328, 329 

Edward I and II, pennies of, found 
at Blackhills and at Mellendean, 
57-119 

Edward I-III, bullion coined by, 
200-245 

Ephesus, new magistrates of, 268- 
269 

Erythrae, counter-marked coins 
of, 894 

Eubosia at Hierapolis, 153, 154 

E. 

Finds of coins : — 

Blackhills (Edward I-II) , 57-119 
Corbridge (Roman), 31-57 
Douglas (Anglo-Saxon), 322-349 
Ephesus (Alexander bronze), 
395-398 

Mellendean (Edward I-II), 57- 
119 

Smyrna (Kyme), 389-895 



442 


INDEX. 


Flanders, sterling of, found in 
Scotland, 114 

Flaviopolis (Ciliciae), coin of, 269 
Flynt, Nicholas, engraver, 351- 
352 


G. 

Gallienus, bronze coin of Nicaea 
of, 266 

Gaurico, Luca, medal of, 416 
Gerousia at Hierapolis, 29, 157 
Gilbert, J., engraver, 362 
Gortyna, silver coins of new type 
of, 382, 383 

Gratian, coins of, found at Cor- 
bndge, 34-38; with Valcntinun 
II, 35, 38 ; w T ith Theodosius I, 
36, 79 

Greene, E., engraver, 365-367 
Greene, T. Whitcombe : — 

Notes on Italian Medals, 413- 
421 

Greyhound countermark on 
testoons of Edward VI, 130 
Griffin at Hierapolis, 154 
Grueber, Herbert A. ; — 

The First Corbridge Find, 31-57 
The Douglas Find, 322-369 


H. 

Hainaut, sterlingb of, found in 
Scotland, 114 

Hekate at Hierapolis, 23 ; or 
Selene, 141 

Heracles at Hierapolis, 24-25, 157 
Heracleion (?) (Crete), copper 
coins of, 383 

Hermes at Hierapolis, 14-16 
Hero (standing), at Hierapolis, 
25-27 

Hero (riding), at Hierapolis, 28-30 
Hertford Mint, 341-345 
Hierapolis in Phrygia, coins of, 
1-30, 133-162 

Hiorapvtna (Crete), copper coin 
oi. 384 

Hire, G. F. : — 

Greek Coins acquired by the 
British Museum, 1911-1912, 
217-276 

A New Medal by Cl. Warin, 
412-426 

Notice of Vie Antiken Munzen 
Mysicns, 438, 439 


Hill, G. F., and Cameron, J. 

S. 

Some Cretan Coins, 381-388 
Hobb, William, engraver, 361 
Hvgieia on coins of Hierapolis, 
11-13, 138-136 


1 

Ionia, uncertain silver of, 268 
Iram, gardens of, 127, 128 
Isis at Hierapolis, 136-149 
Itanos, silver coin of, 384 


J. 

Jinns, coins of King of, 123-130 
Johnson, C. See Crump, C G. 


K. 

Kimon, decadrachm from flawed 
die by, 260-261 

Kirkcudbright. See Blaekhills. 

Klazomenae, countermarked coins 
of, 394 

Knidos, countermarked coins of, 
395 

Kyme, countermarked coins of, 
389-391 

Kybele. See Cybelc. 


L. 

Lairbenos. Ser Apullo. 

Latos (Crete), copper coins of, 385 
Latos-Etera (?), copper coins of, 383 
Langport Mmt, 338-340 
Lisos, copper coin of, 385 
Lomellini, F., medal of, by Lud. 

Leoni, 413 
Lunus. See Men. 

Lykos, river of Phrygia, and wolf, 
coin type, 156 
Lyttos, silver coin of, 385 


M. 

Macdonald, G. : — 

Two hoards of Edward pennies 
recently found in Scotland, 
57-119 



INDEX. 


443 


Maffei, Raffaello, modal of, 417 
Magnus Maximus, gold coins of, 
found at Corbridge, 40-41 
Mamaea, bronze coin of Hiera- 
polis of, 269 

Mary of Austria, medal of, 417 
Mattingly, Harold : — 

Notice of Menadier’s Die Man- 
sen u . das Muti'incbcn bei den 
Sa ipf\ire i ][u>to)iae Augustae, 
439 

Maurice, J., NnniLmcrfujiie Con- 
slu)itiniL'ii)ie,i\\ , notice of, 428- 
438 

Mavrogordato, J. : — 

Some uncertain Coins associated 
with Chios, 427-428 
Maximmus, bronze coin of Nicaea, 

265 

Mellendean, Edward pennies, &c., 
found at, 57-117 
Men at Hierapolis, 138-139 
Menander, magistrate at Hiera- 
polis, 5 

Milne, J. G. : — 

Countermarked Coins of Asia 
Minor, 889-398 

Mopsos and Torrebos at Hiera- 
polis, 140 

N. 

Namur, sterlings of, found in 
Scotland, 113-114 
Negro, Virginia di, medal of, 417 
Nemesis at Hierapolis, 11, 13, 
141-142 

Neptune. See Poseidon. 

Nicaea, Imperial coins of, 265- 

266 

Nike at Hierapolis, 143 
Norms, H., engraver, 314-355 


0 . 

Olous (Crclu), bionze coin of, 386 
Orion (9 (Crete), bronze coin of, 
386 

P. 

Pergamene coins, counterstruek 
in Crete, 387-388 
Persephone, rape of, Hierapolis, 
143-148 


Peter de Turnemire, his private 
mark, 74 

Phaestus, silver coin of, 387 
Pitt, R., engraver, 357 
Plautilla, bronze coin of Corinth 
of, 264 

Pluto at Hierapolis, 143-145 
Populonia, gold coin of, 258 
Portcullis countermark on tes- 
toons of Edward VI, 130 
Poseidon at Hierapolis, 145-146 
Pndeaux, Bishop John, new medal 
of, 422-426 
Prosser, R. B. : — 

Boulton’s Copper Coinage, 378- 
880 


R. 

Rawlins, Thomas, engraver, 369- 
371, 373-374 

Restitutor ReipubUcae, Roman 
legend, 45-47 

Roettiers, the, engravers, 375-378 
Roma at Hierapolis, 147 
Rome, coins of mint of, found at 
Corbridge, 32, 37, 40 


S. 

SA : on half-crowns of Charles I, 
119-123 

Salisbury Mint (?), 119-123 
Salonica, bronze coin of Nicaea 
of, 266 

Sandsfoot Castle, SA : 119-123 
Sangaldib = Ceylon, 127, 128 
Sarapis at Hierapolis, 147-150 
Segesta, tetradrackm of, acquired 
by British Museum, 259 
Selene or Hekate at Hierapolis, 
141 

Seleucus IV, plated tetradrachm 
of, 272 

Selinus, silver coins of, 260 
Sharp, John, engraver, 353, 354 
Simon, Thomas, engraver, 368- 
369, 371-373, 374-375 
Sterlings, foreign, found in Scot- 
land, 60, 62 ; forgeries of, 66 
Symonds, Henry 
Are the coins of Charles I, bear- 
ing the mint letters SA : cor- 
rectly assigned to Salisbury ? 
119-123 



444 


INDEX 


Symonds, Henry — Cuufir lud 
English Mint Engravers of the 
Tudor and Stuart Periods, 
14S5-1G8S, 349-377 
Syracuse, decadrachm of, by 
Kirnon, with flaw in die, acquired 
by British Museum, 260-262 


T. 

Tarsus, bronze coin of Elaga- 
balus of, 270 

Testoons, countermarked, of Ed- 
ward YI, note on, 130 

Theodosius I, coins of, found at 
Cor bridge, 39, 40 

Thessalian League, find of coins 
of, near Larissa, 263 fl 

Thurium, unpublished silver coins 
of, 258 

Torrebos and Mopsos at Hiera- 
polis, 140 

. Trebonianus Gallus, bronze coins 
of Nicaea of, 265 

Treves Mint, coins of, found at 
Corbridge, 33-41 

Twins at Hierapolis, 149 

Tyche at Hierapolis, 110-114 


Y. 

Valens, coins of, found at Cor- 
bridge, 34 ; with Gratian, 38 
Yalentinian I, coins of, found at 


Corbridge, 32-33 , with Valens, 
33-35 

Valentinian II, coins of, found at 
Coi bridge, 38, 39 

Valerian, bronze coin of, of 
Nicaea, 265-266 

Vessel on coins of Hierapolis, 114 
Von Pritze, Die Ant . Munzcn 
My si ens, notice of, 438, 439 


W. 

Wade, W., engraver, 368, 369 

Warin, Claude, medallist, 422- 
426 

WARIN, medals signed, 424-426 

Webb, Percy H. : — 

Helena, N. E., 377-379 
Notice of I. Maurice, Xumi *- 
mutiyae CoustauUnieunc, iii., 
423-438 

Weber, Leo : — 

Coins of Hierapolis in Phrygia, 
1-30, 133-162 

Wolf-type at Hierapolis, in allu- 
sion to river Lykos, 155-156 

Wriothesley, T., engraver, 355 


Z. 

Zeus Bozios at Hierapolis, 28 
Zeus Laodikeios at Hierapolis, 14, 
147, 156-158 

Zeus Troios at Hierapolis, 25, 138 


LONDON: PRINTED JBY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, £.E Vi AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET, W. 



CATALOGUE OF LANTERN-SLIDES AND 
NEGATIVES. 


(Supplement No. 1 to the List published in 1918.) 

GREEK AND ROMAN COINS. 

Towns, &c„ in Alphabetical Obdeb. 

H9012 Achaean League, JR. (B.M. Cat. Peloponnesus, pi. 2, 1 *.) 

H9018 Aegina, JR. (B.M. Cat Attica, pi. 23, 1 24, 13 25, 5 .) 

H9014 Aegospotami, JR. (B M. Cat. Thrace , p. 187, No. 1.) 

H9015 Ambracia, JR (B.M. Guide, v. B 10.) 

H9155 Anemurium, M. Primitive statue of Artemis. (B.M. Cat. 
Lycaonia, c&c., pi. 7, 9 ) 

H9156 Aphrodisias Cariae, M. Types showing Cultus-statue of 
Aphrodite. 

H9017 Arcadia, JR. (B.M. Guide , iii. B 37.) 

H9018 Argos, JR. (B.M. Cat. Peloponnesus , pi. 27, h 12 .) 

H9019 Aspendus, JR. (B.M. Guide, ii. A 39.) 

H9020 Boeotia, JR. (B.M. Cat. Central G^'eece, pi. 5, 7 .) 

H9157 Caesarea Cappadociae, At. Primitive cultus figure. (B.M. Cat. 
Galatia , &c., pi. 9, 10 .) 

H7403 Carthago Nova, Hispano-CarthaginianBarcid coinage. (N, Chr., 
1914, pi. Ylil. 11, &c.) 

H7412 Caulonia, JR restruck on Corinthian stater. (N. Chr , 1914, 
pi. VII. 7.) 

H9021 Ceos. (B.M. Cat. Crete, pi. 21, 4 .) 

H7415 Chios. * Period I. (625-575 b.c.) El. and JR. v 

H7416 „ ,, II. (575-545 b.c.) El. and JR. I N . Chr., 1915, 

• H7417 „ „ III. (545-500 B.c.) At. [ pi. I, II. 

H7418 „ „ in. and IV. (500-478 b.c.) At. J 

H7409 Corinth. Fourth-century stater. (AT. Chr., 1914, pi. VII. 13.) 
H9158 Cyrene, A/. Types showing Chariot and Zeus Ammon. 

H90B7 Cythera. (B.M. Cat. Peloponnesus , pi. 21, IB .) 


H9031 Elis, JR. (B.M. Cat. Peloponnesus , pi. 10, 12 11, h) 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


32 


H9159 

H9160 

H9161 

H9162 

H9163 

H9165 

H9166 

H90B2 

H9033 


H740S 

H9167 


H7403 

H9168 

H9169 

H7101 

IT9170 

H7402 

H7410 

H7414 


H9169 

H7407 

H9174 

H9171 

H9172 

H9173 

H9174 

H7411 


H9175 

H9174 

H9176 


Ephesus ? El. Earlhsi inscribed coin. (B.M. Cat. Ionia, 
pi. 3, 8 .) 

,, HI. Fiftn-century Bee types. 

„ ,11. Frurth-century Bee and Stag types. 

„ *11. Third-century. Hellenic Artemis : Berenice II. 

„ A 7. 87-84 b.c. Artemis types. 

„ M Artemis the huntress : Artemis riding the deer. 
„ M. Artemis cultus-statue. 

Eretria, alt. (B.M. Guide, ii. B 39.) 

Euboea, JR. (B.M. Cat. CenluiJ Greece, pi. 17, 'h) 

Gela. Tilth -century Tetradrachm. Bull wearing wreath. 
(N. Chr., 1914, pi. VII. 9.) 

„ Fifth-century Tetradrachm. Sosipolis crowning bull. 
((?. F. Hill, Coins of Ancient Sicily, pi. V. 11.) 

Kispano-Carthaginian Barcid Coinage of Carthago Nova. 

(N. Chr., 1914, pi. VIII. 11, &c.) 

Hypaepa, M. Artemis Anaitis in temple {ferny. Hadrian). 

Idalium, At. Sphinx and Lotus ; Nagidus, Hi. Aphrodite. 
Ionian Electrum. Pegasus. (N. Chr., 1914, pi. VIII. 1.) 

Magnesia ad Maeandrum, M. Leukophryene. 

Melos. Fifth-century staters. (N. Chr., 1914, pi. VII. 14-16 ) 
Messana (Sicily). Tetradrachms lettered A, B, D, &c. 
(N. Chr., 1914, pi. VII. 12.) 

Metapontum. Fourth-century silver. (JV. Chr., 1914, 
pi. VII. 2.) 

Nagidus, M. Aphrodite ; Idalium, iR. Sphinx and Lotus, 
Nysa (N. Chr., 1914, pi. VIII. 3), Tyre, Sidon. Prize crowns. 

Paphos, Pergamum, Sardes, M. Shrine of Paphian Aphrodite. 
Perga, M. Pergaean Artemis (autonomous and imperial.) 

„ M. Tetradrachm, obverse . (B.M. Cat. Lycia , &c., 

pi. 24, T) 

„ alt. Tetradrachm, reverse. (B.M. Cat. Lycia, dc., 
pi. 24, l .) 

Pergamum, Paphos, Sardes, M. Shrine of Paphian Aproditc. 

Bhegium, silver and copper hemiobols. (N. Chr., 1914, 
pi. VII. 5.) 

Samos, M. Cultus-statue of Hera. 

Sardes, Paphos, Pergamum, M. Shrine of Paphian Aphrodite. 
Selinus, Hi. Baver-gods Hypsas and Selinos sacrificing. 



CATALOGUE OF LANTERN-SLIDES AND NEGATIVES. 33 


H9177 Selinus, JR. Artemis and Apollo ; Selinus ; Heracles ; Hypsas. 
H7407 Sidon, Tyre, Nysa. Prize crowns. 

H7413 Thurium. Didrachms of reduced standard, old and new 
types. ( N . Chr., 1914, pi. VII. 4.) 

H7407 Tyre, Sidon, Nysa. Prize crowns. 


Emperors, Kings, or Dynasts, and Magistrates, in Alphabetical 

Order. 

H9016 Antigonus Gonatas, M. (B.M. Guide, v. B 5.) 

H7405 Antiochus III, Seleucus I and III. Tetradrachms. (N. Ghr. , 
1914, pi. VIII. 7-9.) 

B 663 Clodius Macer, denarius, with aurei and denarii of Nero and 
Civil Wars. (JV. Chr ., 1914, pp. 110, ff.) 

H7404 Eucratides and Timarchus. (N. Chr ., 1914, pi. VIII. 10, &c.) 
H9034 Eumenes II, M. (B.M. Cat. Mysia, pi. 24, 5 .) 

B 664 Galba. Denarii of Civil Wars and Galba, Asses of Nero. 
(V. Chr ., 1914, pp. 110, ff.) 

B 6G5 „ Aurei and Denarii; denarii of Civil Wars. (N. Chr, t 

1914, pp. 110, ff.) 

B 666 ,, Aureus and Sestertii. ( N . Chr., 1914, pp. 110, ff.) 

B9035 Gordian III. (B.M. Cat. Med. pi. 41, 4 .) Reverse only. 

B9036 „ ( „ „ pi. 42, 1 .) Reverse only. 

Macer. See Clodius Macer. 

B 663 Nero, aurous ; aurei and denarii of Civil Wars and denarius of 
Clodius Macer. (N. Chr., 1914, pp. 110, ff.) 

B 664 ,, asses ; denarii of Civil Wars and Galba. (N. Chr., 1914, 

pp. no, ft.) 

Orodcs I of Parthia; restruck tetradrachm. (B.M. Cat. 

Parthia , pi. 14, 10 .) Obverse. 

,, „ rostruck tetradrachm. (B.M. Cat. 

Parthia , pi. 14, 10 .) Ecve?se. 

Otho, aureus; aurei of Vitellius ; denarii of Civil Wars. 
(JV. Chr ., 1914, pp. 110, ff.) 

H7405 Seleucus I and III, Antiochus III. Tetradrachms. (N. Chr., 
pi. VIII. 7-9.) 

H7404 Timarchus and Eucratides. (N. Chr., 1914, pi. VIII. 10, &c.) 


113383 
H3384 
B GG7 



34 


ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


B 667 Vitellius, aurei , aureus of Otho ; denarii of Civil Wars. 
(N. Chr 1914, pp. 110, ff.) 

B 668 Vitellius, aurei, denarius and as. (N. Chr. 1914, pp. 110, ff.) 

B 669 „ aurei and denarii. „ » »’ 

B 670 ,, aurei, denarius and as. „ ,, „ 


GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

NS Edward III. Florin, half -florin, and quarter-florin. 
/Edward III. Noble of 1344. 

1 Edward IV. Angel of first issue. 

S Edward IV. (V. Chr., 1914, pi. XXI. 1-5.) 

S ( „ „ » 6-12.) 

S „ ( „ „ pL XXII. 1-6.) 

S „ ( „ „ 7-14.) 

S „ ( „ „ pi. XXIII. 1-4.) 

S „ ( „ „ 6-10.) 

S ( „ „ pi. XXIV. 1-5) 

S „ ( „ „ „ 6-11.) 

/Henry VII. Testoon. (Grueber, XIII. 388.) 

NS | Henry VII or VIII (?). Sovereign (m.m. Lis and Cross 
I Crosslet). 


MEDALS, BADGES, &c. 

83, 84 N Anne : cliche proofs of large union medal or seal ( 9 ). 

85 N Italian plaquette of Hugo d’Este and Parisina Malatesta. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

46 N Spanish lever coin-press found with dies (Philip III or 
IV ( 9 ) copper) at Seville. 

Slides have been added of Nos. 137', 299, 302, 315, 317, 318. 


96 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

86 








Nam. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. XIII. PL IV 







FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND 






Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. XIII. PL VI 



FIRST CORBRIDGE FIND 
OKI CMTIMliM MAfiNIIS MAXIMUS') 
































Nitm. Chruii Ser. IV. Vol. XIII. PL XVII 



WILLIAM I, TYPE V; HENRY I, TYPES l-X 














Num. Chron. Ser. IV. Vol. XIII. PI. XX 









PROCEEDINGS 


OF THE 


ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 



PROCEEDING'S OP THE 

EOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


SESSION 1912—1913. 


October 17, 1912. 

•Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of May 18 were read 
and confirmed. 

Mr. Charles J. P. Cave was proposed for election as a 
Fellow of the Society. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table, and thanks were ordered to be sent to their donors : — 

1. Transactions of the Japan Society. Yol. ix. 

2. Beport of the United States National Museum, 1911. 

3. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Yol. xxxii., Pt. 1. 

4. Memoires de la Societe royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 
1911-1912. 

5. Bulletin of the Archaeological Institute of America. 
Tol. iii., No. 2. 

6. Journal of the Boyal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Vol. xlii., Pts. 1 and 2. 

7. The Numismatist, June to September, 1912. 

8. The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. 
Yol. vii., No. 4, and Yol. ix., No. 1. 



4 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


9. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
Nos. 346-350. 

10. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Yol. xxx.,, 
Nos. 3 to 11. 

11. Revue Beige de Numismatique. 3 me and 4 me livraison,, 
1912. 

12. Aarbogenfor Nordisk Oldkyndighed og Historie, 1911. 

13. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. 2 and 3, 
1912. 

14. Revue Numismatique. 2 me and 3 me trimestre, 1912. 

15. Revue Suisse de Numismatique. Tome xviii., l re 
livraison. 

16. La Restauration de 1 J Atelier Monetaire de Neuchatel 
en 1588. By W. Wavre and E. Demole. From the Authors. 

17. Numismatische Zeitschrift. Heft 3, 1911. 

18. Bulletin de TAcademie royale de Belgique. Nos. 4-7, 
1912. 

19. American Journal of Archaeology. Yol. xvi., Nos. 
2 and 3. 

20. Report of Madras Government Museum, 1911-1912. 

21. Notices Extraites de la Chronique de la Revue 
Numismatique. 2 me trimestre, 1912. By A. Blanchet. From 
the Author . 

22. L’Avenement de Postume a TEmpire. 21 and 22. 
By A. Blanchet. From the Author. 

23. Reattribution of Certain Tetradrachms of Alexander 
the Great. By E. T. Newell. From the Author . 

24. Journal Internationale d’Areheologie Numismatique,. 
1912. 

25. American Journal of Numismatics. Yol. xlvi., No. 2. 

26. Biographical Dictionary of Medallists. By L. Forrer^ 
Yol. v. From Messrs. Spink & Son. 

27. Zeitschrift fur Numismatik. Bandxxix., Heft. 3 and 4. 

28. Catalogue of Islamic Coins. By Ahmad Zira. From 
Mr. H. A. Grueler . 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


5 


29. La Monnaie royale depuis la Reforme par Charles V. 
By A. Dieudonne. From the Author . 

30. Forty-second Annual Report of the Deputy-Master of 
the Mint, 1911. 

31. Annual of British School at Athens. Ho. xvii. 

Mr. Bernard Roth exhibited a unique gold stater of the 
Andecavi found on the beach at Lymington over 25 years 
ago, resembling De la Tour, Atlas de Monnaies Gauloises , 
PI. xxi., Ho. 6723, but with horse to 1. instead of r. 

Mr. T. Bliss exhibited the following English sovereigns : — 

Third Coinage of Henry VII. Obv. Lys. King enthroned 
with sceptre. Bev. Dragon. Small shield on double rose. 
(Wt. 239 grains.) 

Henry VIII : First Coinage. Obv. Crowned portcullis on 
both sides ; King enthroned with portcullis at his feet. 
Bev. Shield on double rose. (Wt. 235 grains.) Third 
Coinage. Lys on both sides. Obv. King enthroned. Bev. 
Shield of arms with lion and dragon supporters j H R on 
tablet. (Rud., PI. vi. Ho. 1.) (Wt. 198 grains.) 

Edward VI. : Third Year. Obv. King seated in chair of 
state with sword and orb. Bev. Arms crowned with usual 
supporters; below E. R. on tablet. (Wt. 168 grains.) Second 
Coinage. Obv. King seated on throne. Bev. The same with 
arms crowned with usual supporters ; below E. R. on tablet, 
(Rud., PI. vii. Ho. 2.) (Wt, 169 grains.) 

Mr. Percy H. Webb read a paper entitled <c Helena H. F.,” 
in which he discussed the coins attributed to Helena, Helena 
the younger, and Fausta, and concluded that the only Helena 
depicted on the coinage is St. Helena, mother of Constantine. 
(This paper was printed in Yol. XII, (1912), pp. 352-360.) 

Mr. H. A. Ramsden read a paper on some remarkable 
square and round early Chinese coins. These were pieces of 
5 chuy some bearing the mint, differing in type from anything 
previously known. 



6 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


November 21, 1912. 

Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of October 17 were 
read and approved. 

Mr. Charles J. P. Cave was elected a Fellow of the Society ; 
Mr. A. van Buren and the Rev. W. L. Gantz were proposed 
for election. 

The following Presents were announced and laid upon the 
table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their donors : — 

1. The Secret of Kanishka. By J. Kennedy. From the 
Boyal Asiatic Society . 

2. Bulletin of the Archaeological Institute of America. 
Vol. hi., No. 3. 

3. Numismatische Zeitschrift. Band v., Heft. 1. 

4. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 351. 

5. American Journal of Numismatics. Vol. xlvi., No. 3. 

6. Notices Extraites de la Chronique de la Revue Numis- 
matique. By A. Blanchet. 3 me trimestre, 1912. From the 
Author. 

7. Les Billets de la Caisse Patriotique de la Chatre en 1792. 
By A. Blanchet. From the Author . 

8. La Monetazione di Augusto. By L. Laffranchi. From 
the Author . 

9. Contributi al Corpus della Falsificazione, 1911 and 1912. 
Archeologia e Numismatica. By L. Laffranchi. From the 
Author. 

10. Publications da la Section historique de l’lnstitute 
de Luxembourg. Vol. lii., fasc. 2, and Vol. lviii. 

1 1. Bulletins de la Socidte des Antiquaires de TOuest. 2 me , 
3 me , and 4 nie trimestre, 1911. 

12. Forvannen Meddelanden. 



EOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


7 


13. Guide to the National History Museum, Stockholm. 
By O. Montehin. From the Boyal Academy , Stockholm. 

Mr. F. A. Walters exhibited a medallion of Commodus 
(Cohen, Ho. 474 ; Gnecchi, PL lxxxiii, 3) found at York. 

Miss Helen Farquhar showed an unpublished medal of 
Charles II by Jean Varin and a slate matrix by S. Henning 
for a medal of Mary, Queen of Scots, on which she read 
a short paper. (This paper is published in this volume, 
pp. 246-254.) 

Mr. J. H. Pinches exhibited a portrait plaque of the late 
General Booth. 

Mr. W. H. Valentine exhibited a Persian coin purporting 
to be struck by the “King of Jinns ” on which Dr. Codring- 
ton read a paper. (This paper is published in this volume, 
pp. 123-129.) 

Mr. H. A. Grueber read a paper on the “ Douglas (Isle of 
Man) Find of Anglo-Saxon Coins.” These coins were found 
some years ago with silver ornaments in Douglas. They 
covered the period c. 925-975 a.d., and were with one ex- 
ception — a penny of Anlaf — coins of Wessex. Mr. Grueber 
connected the deposit with the visit to Chester of Edgar 
in 973. 


December 19, 1912. 

Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.K.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of November 21 
were read and approved. 

The Bev. W. L. Gantz and Mr. A. van Buren were elected 
Fellows of the Society ; Mr. W. Bertram Thorpe was pro- 
posed for election. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 



8 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : — 

1. Manuel de Numismatique Frangaise. Yol. i., by A. 
Blanchet. From the Author . 

2. Journal of Hellenic Studies. Yol. xxxii., Pt. 2. 

3. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 352. 

4. J ournal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 
xlii. 3, and Index to xli. 

5. Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, ix., Pt. 2. 

6. Archaeologia Aeliana. N.S., Yol. viii. 

The Rev. Edgar Rogers exhibited a series of rare or un- 
published copper Seleucid coins on which he read notes. 

Mr. R. B. Whitehead, I.C.S., read a paper entitled “ The 
Early History of India illustrated by Coins.” After giving 
a sketch of the history of the decipherment of the Kharosthi 
legends on Graeco-Indian coins, the author dealt with the 
rise of the Greek kingdom in Bactria and its transference to 
India : he showed how the coins illustrate its gradual decline 
in India, and traced from the coins the history of the various 
Scythian invaders who ultimately overthrew and succeeded 
the Greek kings. 


January 16, 1913. 

Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of December 19, 1912, 
were read and approved. 

Mr. W. Bertram Thorpe was elected a Fellow of the Society. 
The following Presents to the Society were announced, and 
thanks ordered to be sent to their donors : — 

1. Numismatic Circular, 1912. From Messrs. Sjpinh & Son . 

2. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 353. 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


9 


3. Bulletin of the Archaeological Institute of America. 
Vol. iii., Ho. 4. 

4. Report of Horniman Museum, 1911. 

5. Revue Suisse de Humismatique. Tome xviii., 2 me 
livraison. 

6. Revue Beige de Humismatique. l 6re livraison, 1913. 

7. Academie Royale de Belgique; Bulletin. Hos. 8 bo 11. 
1912. 

8. American Journal of Archaeology. Vol. xvi., Ho. 4. 

9. Monnaies de Batenbourg. By the Vicomte B. de 
Jonghe. From the Author . 

Mr. Bernard Roth exhibited a specimen of each type of 
Stephen’s coinage in the order suggested in Mr. Brooke’s 
paper, and a halfpenny, a mule between types I and II ; 
Mr. Roth also showed a remarkable square Hiberno-Danish 
penny with legible inscriptions on both sides. 

Mr. Henry G-arside exhibited a set of recent coins of 
Canada, 5, 10, 25, 50 cents silver, and a bronze cent of 1911 ; 
sovereign (mint-mark C), 5, 10 dollar gold of 1912, and the 
1912 issues of the anna and its subdivisions for British India. 

Mr. G. C. Brooke read a paper on 1 £ Epigraphical Data as 
a clue to the order of the Coin Types in the Horman Series,” 
in which he gave the results of a series of detailed measure- 
ments of the punches used in the dies for the coins of the 
Horman kings, and proposed a rearrangement of the types 
as a result. A discussion followed in which Messrs. Law- 
rence, Earle Eox, Shirley-Eox, Carlyon-Britton, Hocking, and 
the President took part. 


Eebruary 20 s 1913. 

Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., E.R.S., P.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of January 16 were 
read and approved. 



10 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


Mr. J. S. Shirley-Fox was proposed for election as a Fellow 
of the Society. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : — 

1. British Numismatic Journal. Yol. viii. Presented by 
Miss Far guitar. 

2. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Yol. xxiv. From the Society. 

3. Aarsberetning, 1911. From the Forenimjcu til Norshe 
F< > rtids m i n d cs m e rice rs B evaring. 

4. The Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. 
Yol. ix., Nos. 3 and 4. 

5. Portraiture of our Stuart Monarchs. By Miss H. 
Farquhar. Pt. iv. From the Author . 

6. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 354. 

7. American Journal of Numismatics. Yol. xlvi., No. 4. 

8. Finlands Kyrskor and Tidskrift. By R. K. Meinander 
and J. Rinne. xxvi. From the Finslca Forminnesforeningens . 

9. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica. Fasc. iv., 1912. 

10. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Nos. 12, 13, 
14, and 15. 

11. KLatalog der Historischen Abteilung der LuftschifFahrts- 
Ausstellung. Frankfurt-am-Main. 

12. Revue Numismatique, 1912. 4 me trimestre. 

Mr. W. J. Hocking read a paper entitled “ Some Notes on 
Norman Epigraphy/’ in which he discussed the method of 
minting Norman coins from the technical point of view. As 
a result of his examination of the coins, Mr. Hocking was 
convinced that the dies were engraved and not struck by 
punches. A discussion followed in which Mr. Earle Fox, 
Mr. Webb, and the President joined. 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


11 


March 12, 1913. 

Percy H. Webb, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the meeting of February 20 were read and 
approved. 

Mr. J. S. Shirley-Fox was elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to their 
donors : — 

1. NumismatiqueConstantinienne, By J. Maurice. Tome 3. 
From the Author . 

2. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Yol. xlii., Pt. 4. 

3. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
N o. 355. 

4. Notices Extraites de la Chronique de la Revue Numis- 
matique, 1912. 4 me trimestre. 

5. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland* 
Yol. xlvi. 

6. Bulletin de la Societe des Antiquaries de l’Ouest. Pts. 2, 
3, 4 of 1910 j Pt. 1 of 1911; Pts. 1 and 2 of 1912. 

7. Guide to the Horniman Museum. From the London 
County Council. 

8. Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
Nos. lxii. and lxiii. 

The Rev. Edgar Rogers exhibited a fine tetradrachm of 
Antiochus YII and Cleopatra Thea of Syria. 

Mr. Webb showed four coins of Helena N. F., and read 
a note in reply to criticism by M. Jules Maurice on his 
previous paper. 

Miss Helen Farquhar exhibited a fine series of coins illus- 
trating Mr. Symonds’s paper. 

Mr. Henry Symonds read a paper on cc The Mint 
Engravers of the Tudor and Stuart Periods,” in which he 
gave a complete list of the gravers then in office with their 



12 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


dates. Two previously unknown incidents in Briot’s life 
were described, and light thrown on the gravers who worked 
at the Tower mint during the Civil War. (This paper is 
printed in this volume of the Chronicle.) 


April 17, 1913. 

Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of March 12 were 
read and approved. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks ordered to be sent to the 
donors : — 

1. Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1913. Pt. i. 

2. Revue Beige de Numismatique, 1913. Pt. ii. 

3. Revue Suisse de ISTumismatique. xviii., 3. 

4. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 1913. Nos. 16 
to 21. 

5. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 358. 

6. Annuaire de l’Academie Royale de Beige, 1913. No. 79. 

7. Numismatische Zeitschrift. 1913. 

8. G. T. Turner : A Calendar of Feet of Fines relating to 
the County of Huntingdon. Cambridge, 1913. From the 
Author. 

9. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute, 1912. 

10. Cagliati : Supplemento al Monete delle due Sicilie. 

Mr. Bliss exhibited a half sovereign, a George noble, an 

angel, half- and quarter- angel of Henry VIII, and, on behalf 
of Mr. Baldwin, specimens of the new and old nickel coinage 
of Nigeria. 

Mr. Webb showed a specimen of the new 5 cent piece of 
the United States presented to the Society by Mr. A. R. 
Frey. 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


13 


Mr. L. A. Lawrence read a paper by Mr. Brooke and 
himself on “ A Find of Long-Cross Pennies at SteppingleyA 
Mr, Lawrence briefly outlined the classification of the series, 
and illustrated by drawings the various types of crown, &c., 
which marked the different types, and showed the bearing of 
this find on his researches. 


May 18, 1913. 

Percy H. Webb, Esq., Treasurer, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the ordinary meeting of April 17 were 
read and approved. 

The following Presents to the Society were announced and 
laid upon the table, and thanks were ordered to be sent to 
the donors : — 

1. Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal. VoL 
x., No. 1. 

2. American Journal of Archaeology. Yol. xvii., No. 1. 

3. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Yol. xliiL, Pt. 1. 

4. Monatsblatt der Numismatischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 
No. 357. 

5. Proceedings of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society 
of Philadelphia. Yol. 25. 

6. Coin Types of Imperial Rome. By F. G-necchi. Trans- 
lated by Emily A. Hands. From Messrs. Spink dc Son. 

7. Italo-Greek Coins of Southern Italy. By the Rev. 
A. W. Hands. From Messrs . Spink & Son. 

8. Suomen Museo. Finsk Museum, xix., 1912. 

9. Numismatische Zeitschrift. Heft 1, 1913. 

Messrs. C. P. Hyman and G. C. Brooke were appointed to 
audit the Society’s accounts for 1912-1913. 

Mr. Webb read a further note on the Helena N. F. 
question, in which he discussed several points raised in a 
letter from M. Jules Maurice. 



14 


PROCEEDINGS OP THE 


Mr. J. Allan read a paper on “ The Circulation of Arab 
Silver Coins in Mediaeval Europe,” in which he traced the 
route and gave an account of the trade by which silver coins 
of various Arab dynasties of the seventh to tenth centuries, 
notably of Persia and Transoxania, were brought through 
Russia to the Baltic coasts, and thence dispersed over 
Northern Europe by the Norsemen. Dr. Codring ton and 
Mr. Webb also spoke. 


June 19, 1913. 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A., President, 
in the Chair. 

The Minutes of the Annual General Meeting of June 20, 
1912, were read and approved. 

Messrs. L. G. P. Messenger and Frederick J. Brittan were 
appointed scrutineers of the ballot for the ensuing year. 

On the motion of the President it was unanimously agreed 
to change the hour of meeting of the Society next session to 
6 p.m. 

The following Report of the Council was then read to 
the meeting : — 

The Council have again the honour to lay before you their 
Annual Report as to the state of the Royal Numismatic 
Society. 

It is with deep regret that they have to announce the 
death of one Honorary Fellow : — 

Commandant Robert Knight Mowat, 
and of the following seven Fellows — 

Rt. Hon. Lord Avebury, P.C., F.R.S., D.C.L. 

B. C. Chetty, Esq. 

Capt. R. J. H. Douglas. 

Sir Robert Hamilton Lang, K.C.M.G. 



KOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


15 


John Robinson McClean, M.A. 

Rev. W. G. Searle, M.A. 

Baron G. de Worms, F.R.G.S., F.S.A., D.L. 

They have also to announce the resignation of the following 
eight Fellows : — 

George Clulow, Esq. 

William S. Churchill, Esq. 

Frank LI. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

Richard Hewitt, Esq. 

Charles E. Keary, Esq , M.A., F.S.A. 

E. A. Mitchell-Innes, Esq., K.C. 

John E. Pritchard, Esq., F.S.A. 

Walter F. Vinter, Esq. 

On the other hand, they have much pleasure in announcing 
the Election of the following six Fellows : — 

A. W. van Buren, Esq. K. Anantisama Rao, Esq. 
Charles J. P. Cave, Esq. J. S. Shirley-Fox, Esq. 

Rev. W. L. Gantz. W. Bertram Thorpe, Esq. 

The number of Fellows is, therefore : — 


June, 1912 . . 

Ordinary. 

. . 292 

Honorary. 

21 

Total. 

313 

Since elected . 

. . . 6 

— 

6 


298 

21 

319 

Deceased . . . 

. . . 7 

1 

8 

Resigned . . . 

. . . 8 

— 

8 


283 

20 

303 


The Council have to announce that they have awarded the 
Medal of the Society to Dr. George Macdonald, Honorary 
Curator of the Hunterian Coin-Cabinet, and of the Cabinet 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

The Hon. Treasurer’s Report, which follows, was then laid 
before the meeting : — 



STATEMENT OE RECEIPTS AND DISBURSE- 

fhom June, 1912 , 

23 The Royal Numismatic Society in Account 


To Cost of Chi emit b — 
Printing 
Plates, &c , . 

To Boohs, &c. . 

To Lantern Expenses 

To Bent and Refiediments 

To Sundiy Payments 

Balance in hand — 
General Account . 
Research Account 


£ s. d. £ s. d 

166 5 10 
75 9 9 

241 15 7 

2 18 0 

4 10 9 

41 9 9 

9 2 6 


238 18 3 
14 3 10 

253 2 1 



MENTS OF THE ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY, 

to June, 1913. 

with Percy H. Webb, Hon Treasurer. £r. 


£ s. d . £ s. d . 

By Balance brought forward — 

General Account ...... 204: 19 3 

Research Account . . . . . 12 6 2 

217 5 5 

By Sub<ci ijjllo/is, &c . — 

205 Ordinary Members at £1 Is. (less loss on 

foreign cheques, &c.) . . . . . 215 3 2 

4 Entrance Fees . . . . 4: 4 0 

219 7 2 

By Sales of Chronicles, Ac. . . . . . , 80 16 7 


By Dividends on Divestments 



£552 18 8 


Examined and found correct, 


GEORGE 0. 


► Bon. Auditors 


[ANA 
BROOKE, J 

June 12, 1913. 


b 



18 


PROCEEDINGS OP THE 


The Reports of the Council and of the* Treasurer were 
adopted on the motion of the President ; Mr. Coleman 
P. Hyman suggested that the Chr^nidc might be issued in 
bound form, and a discussion took place on the proposal. 

The President then presented the Society’s medal to Dr. 
George Macdonald, and addressed him as follows : — 

Dr. Macdonald, — 

It is a great pleasure to me to be in this chair on an 
occasion so grateful to myself, when the Royal Numismatic 
Society is conferring on one of its most distinguished members 
the only proof it can offer of its appreciation of his work. I 
am sure you will feel, Sir, if you look over the list of those 
who have already received this honour, that you find yourself 
to-day in a very goodly company comprising nearly all those 
who for several years past have most successfully cultivated 
our Science. I am just as sure that all your friends here 
feel that you are a most worthy addition to that group of 
decorated Coin-Men, and that none of them has more com- 
pletely earned this prize. Your career at the University was 
a brilliant one. You carried with you to Balliol the reputa- 
tion you had made at Edinburgh where you received the 
Ferguson Scholarship in 1883, and you left Oxford with two 
“ firsts.” You began your literary career soon after by trans- 
lating a portion of Erdmann’s notable work on the history 
of Philosophy, a good beginning for a student whatever line 
of study he may afterwards pursue. You found a congenial 
occupation at Glasgow, where you finally became the first 
lecturer on Classical Archaeology. It is not strange that 
living at Glasgow with such tastes and such preparation you 
should have deemed it a worthy work to catalogue the first 
and noblest collection of Greek coins ever made in these 
islands by a single individual, a man whose distinction and 
reputation as a most skilled and successful doctor have made 
his name a great beacon in the annals of Medicine in every 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


19 


latitude. This magnificent series of Greek coins had been 
very partially described a century ago by a fine scholar, 
Combe. The collection, which was very rich in unique and 
rai^e coins, could not, however, in Combe’s time be adequately 
treated, for the science of Greek Numismatics was still in its 
cradle. Tt was a scandal that so noble a collection as that 
which had been presented by Hunter to Glasgow should have 
remained for so long undescribed and virtually inaccessible, 
and it was indeed a good fortune that the work should have 
passed into the hands of one so well prepared for it. Although 
professedly a catalogue your three portly volumes really form 
an indispensable classic on the subject of Greek coins of all 
parts of the Greek world, full of new suggestions and sound 
learning, and carried out according to the most modern 
lights. 

In 1 905 you delivered the Rhind Lectures on the “ Origin 
and Development of Coin-Types,” a notable performance, and 
you were one of the most helpful of those who assisted our 
“ father Anchises ” Head in preparing the second edition of 
his great work — the Historia Numorum. You also wrote a 
memoir on the technique of the coiner’s art dealing with 
fixed and loose dies published in Corolla Numismatica . You 
have enriched our own Numismatic Chronicle with twelve 
excellent memoirs, in which, in addition to the Greek series, 
you have discussed the Homan medallions and contorniates 
in the Hunterian Collection, and three hoards of Edwardian 
pennies found in Scotland. 

A favourite subject of yours, which is especially illuminated 
in the Hunterian Catalogue, namely, the coins of the Seleucid 
series, has been further explored in another aspect in a notable 
paper on Seleucid portraits in the Journal of Hellenic Studies , 
while the same dynasty has furnished you with materials for 
a second memoir in the Zeitsch'ift fiir Numismatik. 

This is a rich harvest for one explorer to have gathered, 
and especially when we measure it not merely by its extent 



20 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


but by the general level of excellence attained in it. We 
notice with delight that you retain your youth and your 
vigorous health, and we may express the hope that your 
excellent plough will for many years to come traverse some 
of those arid and difficult fields which still remain unexplored, 
that we shall continue to profit by your learning and by your 
friendly urbanity towards us all. We hope that you will 
carry to Scotland with you and retain in your memory the 
kind thoughts of us all for yourself which accompany this 
gift, and will no doubt do a good deal to make it welcome 
to you. 

On receiving the Medal, Dr. Macdonald replied — 

Mr. President and Fellow-Members of the Royal 
Numismatic Society, — 

I can assure you that I appreciate, and appreciate 
most deeply, the distinction which the Council have conferred 
on me by adding my name to what it may now perhaps 
seem a trifle immodest upon my part to speak of as the 
Society’s roll of honour. Under any circumstances the diffi- 
culty of framing a suitable acknowledgment would have 
been great. It has not been made any less by the over- 
whelming kindness of the remarks which have accompanied 
the presentation of the Medal. Your too friendly words, Sir 
Henry, have filled me with something not far removed from 
confusion. I can only thank you for them most heartily, and 
in the same spirit of humility as that in which I thank the 
Council for their generous recognition of such services as it 
has been my good fortune to be able to render to the science 
which is the common interest of us all. 

There is, however, one point which I ought not to miss this 
opportunity of emphasizing, one obligation which it is a simple 
duty to put on record. Although residence at a distance 
from London has effectually prevented my attending the 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


21 


ordinary meetings, yet the more I reflect upon it, the more 
conscious do I become that my work, qualecimque est, would 
have been impossible without the existence of this Society as 
a focus, if I may so put it, of help and information. It is 
just twenty years since the late Professor Young suggested 
that I should undertake to prepare a revised Catalogue of 
Dr. Hunter’s Greek coins. At that time I had absolutely 
no qualifications for the task except a keen interest in the 
subject, and a strong conviction that here was something 
which needed doing, something which it was worth while 
trying to do well. I should very soon have found myself 
sadly adrift, had it not been that by joining this Society I 
was at the outset brought into touch with those who were 
able to give me the guidance and advice of which I was so 
much in need, and particularly with the Mentor who has 
already been alluded to by you — Dr. Head, whom so many 
of us are proud to look up to with the respect and affection 
that a really great teacher can always command from his 
pupils. I well remember the encouragement I derived from 
the cordial way in which he wrote to welcome my first 
contribution to our Chronicle . Another incident that stands 
out vividly in my recollection is the visit I received not long 
afterwards from our late President, Sir John Evans, who 
put himself to no small personal trouble to seek me out in 
Glasgow, in order that he might tell me by word of mouth 
of his warm interest in what I was attempting to accomplish. 

But I am not here to indulge in personal reminiscences. 
I am here to express grateful thanks for this handsome and 
honourable reminder of the favourable judgment you have 
been pleased to pass on such fruit as the study I have 
devoted to numismatics has borne. You have referred, Sir 
Henry, to the distinguished company in which I shall hence- 
forth find myself. In thinking of the long list of those who 
have preceded me as recipients of the Medal, I cannot but 
realize that my own merits fall far short of the merits of most 

1 ) 3 



22 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


o£ those who have gone before. In one thing only can I 
claim to be second to none — in warm appreciation of the gift 
now so generously and so kindly bestowed. 

The President then delivered the following address : — 

Miss Fakquhar and Gentlemen, — 

The fashion of giving an annual address by the 
President of a learned Society is not so frequent as it was 
once, the fact being that it becomes increasingly difficult to 
make it other than an otiose record of work already done or a 
scanty syllabus of prospective work. You will pardon me 
therefore if I turn for inspiration elsewhere than to furnishing 
you with a bald, barren, and incomplete list of the papers 
which you and our friends elsewhere have written during the 
last two years with appreciations which, inasmuch as they 
would cover a larger field than any individual can compass, 
must be impertinent when they are not useless and ridiculous. 
Neither shall I read to you a list of obituaries of those who 
have gone away. I always think it more seemly myself that 
these notices should be taken as read and be included in our 
printed report, for the personal elements in them, except in 
certain special cases perhaps, can only interest those who have 
known the men. This will limit me greatly in my choice of 
subject, and I have determined to confine my remarks, which 
shall be short, to a subject which has occupied my thought a 
good deal lately, and which I deem a more important matter. 
It is at least a matter which I hope may prove more fruitful 
than conventional recapitulation of the triumphs secured by 
our study which has furnished materials for many similar 
addresses. For many years I have nursed the hope that we 
might here organize some plan to do for the English coinage 
what is being now done in Germany for the coinage of Ancient 
Greece, what has been already done in a considerable measure 
for the coinage of Ancient Rome, and has also been done, or is 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


23 


being done, for the great states of tlie Continent, and notably 
Italy, namely, to have an up-to-date monograph on English 
Numismatics, done as completely as it is possible to do it, and 
presenting the subject in its latest and most scientific aspects. 
Eor this purpose the times are singularly propitious. Never 
before have so many competent critics of the English series 
converged a critical examination upon it, and published so 
many and such excellent papers on different parts of it, and 
never have there been so many collectors especially devoted 
to it. A measure of this latter fact is to be found in the 
prices now paid at sales for English coins which make it 
almost impossible for Museums to compete with private 
collectors. A good example of what I mean is to be found 
in the recent sale of Mr. Walters’ coins. 

It is not only in the technical knowledge and the minute 
analysis of the coins themselves that so much progress has 
been made. This has been phenomenal, and has gladdened 
the hearts of many collectors with whom the systematic 
arrangement of coins in many cases constitutes the whole 
subject-matter of Numismatics, and the discrimination of 
minute details makes up the measure of numismatic pro- 
ficiency. I am not minimizing the importance and the neces- 
sity of this kind of knowledge without which collections of 
coins would merely be chaotic masses of individual objects 
without the possibility of methodical study. What I need not 
emphasize here, for it is a commonplace of our discussions, is 
that the fundamental object of the study of coins is not 
merely their systematic arrangement. Coins are in essence 
historical monuments, and Numismatics is really a branch 
of history, a most important branch of history, in which the 
documents are in so many cases dated, and unmistakably 
contemporary. In many cases they form the chief scaffold- 
ing upon which scientific history has to be built. I can 
speak with some slight experience on this matter, for it has 
been my fortune to devote a great deal of my life to try and 



24 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


elucidate the broken and disintegrated story of the Asiatic 
Nomads, and on considerable chapters of that investigation 
by far the most important materials, nay, the only really 
useful materials, have been coins. Many royal names, nay, 
dynasties of names, can only at present be recovered from 
coins. And this is not all. These same coins in many cases 
preserve the most precious documentary evidence of the art, 
the religious faith and ritual, the language, and the economic 
condition of the peoples who have used them, and the time 
has long ago gone by when it was thought that a numismatic 
memoir was to be tolerated, which was limited to a description 
of the metals from which the coins were made, their size and 
shape, the mere varieties of types and of mint-marks, and 
did not explore the wide horizon of historical and other 
lessons which are so abundantly illustrated by coins, and 
which to some of us form the main goals of the science which 
we pursue. 

A very special reason for pressing for the publication of a 
monograph on English coins at this time is the fact that 
we not only have a large number of very gifted and very 
competent students of the series as coins, but that we also 
have a much more trained and efficient body of scholars to 
deal with the documentary evidence in regard to our native 
coinage than we ever had before. Most of you know^that 
England is not only pre-eminent but almost incomparably 
so in the vast and virtually complete series of its public 
documents, legal and otherwise, dating back to the very 
beginning of our administrative system. No community in 
the world, save one perhaps, can vie with us in this respect. 
That one is the Church of Rome, the Chancellery of which is 
extraordinarily rich, but this also falls far behind our Record 
Office and other depositories in the earlier period. This is 
especially important to remember when we are dealing with 
coins as historical documents. Very few people have any idea 
of the wealth of documents illustrating the history of our 



KOYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


25 


coinage contained in our public records, which have never 
been printed or even examined. It was in fact a task beyond 
the capacity of any one man to compass. We cannot be under 
too great obligations to Snelling and Ruding and their suc- 
cessors, who have gleaned a fine harvest in this field of ex- 
ploration, but they have necessarily been gleaners. What 
is needed is a specially selected committee to deal with the 
documentary evidence. What may be expected here can be 
foretold from the prefaces to some of my friend Mr. Round’s 
volumes of the Pipe Roll in which the history of the coinage 
has been made such a feature. It is not only the documentary 
resources of the Rolls Office and other similar depositories that 
need a systematic search, but the records of the Mint itself, 
and still more the harvest to be gathered from Royal pro- 
clamations, which were virtually inaccessible until a splendid 
catalogue and syllabus of those still existing was made at the 
expense and instance of another friend of mine, the late Lord 
Crawford. I have been quite astonished at the number of 
virtually unpublished and unknown documents contained in 
that fine work. 

These are some of the reasons which have led me for many 
years to hope to see at least a beginning made of this most 
necessary and important work which I am pressing upon you, 
and I have felt that if I could induce you to sympathize and 
help in such a work I might, perhaps, have partially justified my 
having been placed in this chair by your favour when so many 
others with greater gifts than mine were available. Having 
these views I ventured a few weeks ago to bring the matter 
before a large meeting of the Society, and was greatly 
gratified by the reception of the proposal. It was unani- 
mously approved and apparently very cordially, and by none 
more so than by those present upon whom the chief burden 
of the day would fall. I accordingly ventured to ask some 
members of our Committee, who were also on the Committee 
of the British Numismatic Society, if they would bring the 



26 


PROCEEDINGS OF THE 


matter before it, and I also spoke to its president, Mr. Carlyon- 
Britton, and have received a very cordial letter from the 
secretary of that Society, my friend Mr. Andrew, which 
conveyed to me the adhesion of his friends to our scheme. 
The work in prospect is a long and laborious one. It will 
need a great effort. We may perhaps consider it now fairly 
started with the approval of all those most directly inte- 
rested in it, and the next step is to carry out what has been 
sanctioned in principle. In doing this I venture to surest 
that we should have a joint meeting of the Councils of the 
two Societies, who should proceed to elect a Committee 
representing those most competent and willing to carry out 
the scheme. This should discuss its details from every side, 
and formulate a plan of operations to be afterwards approved 
by both Societies. 

On the motion of the Rev. R. Scott Mylne, a vote of 
thanks was accorded the President for his address. 

The President then announced the result of the election of 
officers for the session 1913-1914 as follows .* — 


President. 

Sir Henry H. Howorth, K.O.I.E., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents. 

H. B. Earle-Fox, Esq. 

Henry Symonds, Esq., F.S.A. 

Treasurer. 

Percy H. Webb, Esq. 

Secretaries . 

John Allan, Esq., M.A., M.R.A.S. 

Frederick A. Walters, Esq., F.S.A, 



ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 


27 


Foreign Secretary. 

J. Grafton Milne, Esq., M.A. 

Librarian. 

Oliver Codrington, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., M.R.A.S. 

Members of the Council. 

G. C. Brooke, Esq., B.A. 

Sir Arthur J. Evans, M.A., D.Litt., LL.D., Ph.D., 
F.R.S., E.S.A. 

Miss Helen Earquhar. 

Herbert A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A. 

George Francis Hill, Esq., M.A. 

Barclay Vincent Head, Esq., D.C.L., D.Litt., Ph.D. 
L. A. Lawrence, Esq., F.S.A. 

F. W. Voysey Peterson, Esq., B.C.S. (retd.) 

Bernard Roth, Esq., F.S.A. 

Edward Shepherd, Esq. 



LIST OF FELLOWS 


OF THE 

ROYAL 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 


1913 



4 


LIST OF FELLOWS. 


19oTbbatty ; W. Gedney, Esq., 55, Broadway, New York, TJ.S.A. 
1910 Bennet-Poe, J. T., Esq., M.A., 29, Ashley Place, S.W. 

1909 Biddclph, Colonel J., Grey Court, Ham, Surrey. 

1880 *Biebek, G. W. Egmont, Esq., 4, Feuchurch Avenue, E.C. 
1885 Blackett, John Stephens, Esq., C.E., Im crawl, Abcri'oyle, 


1904 Blackwood, Capt. A. Price, 52, Queen’s Gate Teviaco, S.W. 
1882 ’''Bliss, Thomas, Esq., Coningsburgli, Montpelier Load 
Ealing, W. 


1879 *Blundell, J. H., Esq., 157, Cheapside, E.C. 

1907 Bosanquet, Prof. B. C., M.A., F.S.A., Institute of 

AiL-h.u oIosjv, 40, Bedford Street N., Liverpool. 

1896 Boulton, Sir Samuel Bagster, Bart., J.P., D.L., F.E.G.S., 

Copped Hall, Totteiidgt, Herts. ^ 

1908 Bousfield, Stanley, Esq., M.A., M.B. (Camb.), M.E.C.S., 

85, Prince’s Square, W. 

1897 Bowcher, Frank, Esq., 35, FjuLin Load, Bedford Tark, TV. 
1906 Boyd, Alfred C., Esq., 7, Friday Street, E.C. 

1S99 Boyle, Colonel Gerald, 48, Queen’s Gate Teiracc, S.W. 
1895 Brighton Public Library, The Curator, Brighton. 

1910 Brittan, Frederick J., Esq., 28, Gowan Avenue, S.W. 

1908 Brooke, George Cyril, Esq., B.A., British Museum, W C. 


1905 Brooke, Joshua Watts, Esq., Bossljn, Mavlljomngli, Wilts. 
1911 Browne, Eev. Prof. H. Browne, 35, Lower Lecson Street, 
Dublin. 

1896 Bruun, Herr L. E., 101, Gotlicrsgade, Copenhagen. 


1878 Buchan, J. S., Esq., 17, Barrack fttrooL, Dundee. 

1881 Bull, Eev. Herbert A., M.A., J.P., "Wellington House, 
Westgate-on-Sea. 

1910 Burkitt, Miles Crawfurd, Esq., Trinity College, Cainl.ridge. 

1897 Burn, The Hon’ble Mr. Eichard, I.C.S., M.E.A.S., Naini 
Tal, Allahabad, India. 

1881 Burstal, Edward K., Esq., M. Inst. C.E., St. Stephen's 
Club, S.W. 

1911 Burton, Frank E., Esq., J.P., Buddmgton House, Padding- 

ton, Notts. 

1878 *Buttery, W., Esq. (address not known). 


1904 Cahn, Dr. Julius, Niedenau, 55, Eiankfuit-am-Mam, 
Germany. 

1886 Caldecott, J. B., Esq., The Stock Exchange, E.C. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 


5 


ELECT I'D 

1908 Calle.ta Schembri, Bev. Canon H., D.D., 50, Strada Saluto, 
Valletta, Malta. 

1904 Campbell, W. E. M., Esq., I.C.S., Lucknow, United Provinces, 

India. 

1891 Carlyon-Britton, P. W. P., Esq., D.L., J.P., E.S.A., 43, 
lied ford Square, W.C. 

1905 Cartiiew, Colonel B. J., J.P., TVoodbridge Abbey, 

SullulJ:. 

1912 Cave, Charles J. P., Ditcbam Park, Petersfield. 

1910 fCuKTTY, B. C., Esq., Curator, Mysore Government Museum . 

B.m^aluio. 

1912 Clark, Cumberland, 22, Kensington Park Gardens, W. 

1891 *Clauson, Albert Charles, Esq., Hawksheud Plouse, Hat- 
field, Plerts. 

1911 Clements, Luther, Esq., Charlton House, Peckham Bye, 

S.E. 

1911 Coates, B. Assheton, Esq., 15, Onslow Crescent, SAV. 

1918 Codrington, Humphrey W., Esq., B.A., M.B.A.S., Kegalla, 
Ceylon. 

1886 Codrinlton, Oliver, E-q., M.B., E.S.A., M.B.A.S., 12, 
Victoria Bond, Glapham Common, Librarian. 

1895 Cooper, John, Esq., Beckfoot, Longsiglit, Manchester. 

1906 Cossins, Jethro A., Esq., Kmgsdon, Eorest Bo ad, Moseley, 

Birmingham. 

1902 Covernton, J. G., Esq., M.A., Director of Public Instruction, 
Banguon, Burma. 

1910 Cliee, James Edward, Esq., Tusculum, North Berwick. 

1886 * C r o m pt on - B o i j e rts , Chas. M., Esq., 52, Mount Street, W. 


1884 Dames, M. Loh<. worth, Esq., I.C.S. (retd.), M.B.A.S., 
Ciiehuiere, Edgeborough Boad, Guildford. 

1900 Dattari, Signor Giannino, Cairo, Egypt. 

1902 Davey, Edward Charles, Esq. (address not known). 

1888 Dawson, G. J. Crosbie, Esq., M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S., E.S.S., 
May Place, Newcastle, Staffordshire. 

1886 * Dewick, Bev. E. S., M.A., E.S.A., 26, Oxford Square, Hyde 
Park, W. 

1868 fEouGLAS, Captain B. J. H., Bosslyn, Hardy Boad, V/est- 
combe Park, S.E. 

1911 Druce, Hubert A., Esq., 65, Cadogan Square, S.W. 



6 


LIST OF FELLOWS. 


iLKCTED 

1905 Egger, Herr Armin, 7, Opernring, Vienna, 

' 1907 Elder, Thomas L., Esq., 82, East Twenty-third Street, New 
York, U.S.A. 

1898 Elliott, E. A., Esq., 16, Belsize Grove, Hunp^Wad, N.W. 

1904 Ellison-Macartney, Rt. Hon. William Grey, P.C., The 
Royal Mint, E. 

1895 Ely, Talfourd, Esq., M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A., 92, Fitzjohn’s 

Avenue, N.W* 

1888 Engel, M. Arthur, 23, Rue Erlangcr, Auteuil, Paris. 

1872 *Evans, Sir Arthur J., M.A., D.Litt., LL.D., E.R.S., 
P.S.A., Corr. de l’lnst., Youlbury, near Oxford. 

1892 *Evans, Lady, M.A., c/o Union of London and Smiths Bank, 
Berkhamsted, Herts. 

1904 *Farquhar, Miss Helen, 11 lLlyiavc Square, S.W. 

1886 Fay, Dudley B., Esq., 287, Beacon Street, Boston, Mass., 
U.S.A. 

1902 Fentiman, Harry, Esq., Muiray House, Murray Road, Ealing 
Park, W. 

1910 Fisher Library, The, University, Sydney, N.S.W. 

1908 FitzWilliam Museum, The Curator, Cambridge. 

1901 Fletcher, Lionel Lawford, Esq., Norwood Lodge, Tup- 
wood, Caterham. 

1898 Forrer, L., Esq., 11, Hammelton Road, Bromley, Kent. 

1912 Forster, R. H., Esq., M.A., LL.B., F.S.A., 2, Enmore Road, 
Putney, S.W. 

1894 ^Foster, John Armstrong, Esq., F.Z.S., Chestwood, near 
Barnstaple. 

1891 *Fox, H. B. Earle, Esq., 37, MaiLhcUn Square, S.W., V%ce - 
President. 

1905 Francklin, Edward, Esq., 20, Hyde Park Square, W. 

1868 Frentzel, Rudolph, Esq., 46, Northfield Road, Stamford 
Hill, N. 

1882 *Freshfield, Edwin, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., New Bank 
Buildings, 81, Old Jewiy, E.C. 

1905 Frey, Albert R., Esq., New York Numismatic Club, P.O. 
Box 1875, New York City. 

1896 *Fry, Claude Basil, Esq., Stoke Lodge, Stoke Bishop, 

Bristol. 


1897 *Gans, Leopold, Esq., 207, Madison Street, Chicago, U.S.A. 
1912 Gantz, Rev. W. L., Norton Rectory, Market Drayton. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 


7 


1 M i 1 1 n 

1871 Gardner, Prof. Percy, Litt.D., LL.D., P.S.A., 105, Banbury 
Boad, Oxford. 

1907 Gardner, Willoughby, Esq., Deganwy, North Wales. 

1889 Garside, Henry, Esq., 46, Queen’s Boad, Teddington. 

1918 Gilbert, William, Esq., 85, Broad Street Avenue, E.C. 

1904 Goldney, Francis Bennett, Esq., F.S.A., M.P., Abbots 
Barton, Canterbury. 

1894 Goodacre, Hugh, Esq., Ullesthorpe Court, Lutterworth, 
Leicestershire. 

1910 Goodall, Alex., Esq., 5, Maria Street, Kirkcaldy, N.B. 

1907 Goudy, Henry, Esq., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., Begius Professor 
of Civil Law, All Souls College, Oxford. 

1899 Gowland, Prof. William, F.I.C., M.C.S., F f B.S., F.S.A., 13, 
Bussell Boad, Kensington, W. 

1904 Graham, T. Henry Boileau, Esq., Edmund Castle, Carlisle. 

1905 Grant Duff, Evelyn, Esq., C.B., British Consulate General, 

Budapest. 

1891 *Grantley, Lord, F.S.A., Oakley Hall, Cirencester. 

1865 Gblenwell, Bev. Canon W., M.A., F.B.S., F.S.A., Durham. 
1871 Grueber, Herbert A., Esq., F.S.A., British Museum. 

1910 Gunn, William, Esq., 19, Swan Boad, Harrogate. 


1899 Hall, Henry Platt, Esq., Toravon, Werneth, Oldham. 

1898 Hands, Bev. Alfred W., The Bectory, Nevendon, Wickford, 
Essex. 

1912 Harding, Newton H., 110, Pine Avenue, Chicago, U.S.A. 

1904 Harris, Edward Bosworth, Esq., 5, Sussex Place, Begent’s 
Park, N.W. 

1904 Harrison, Frederick A., Esq., 10-12, Featherstone Street, 
E.C. 

1908 Hasluck, F. AV., Esq., M.A., The AVilderness, Southgate, N. 

1902 Haverfield, Prof. Francis J., M.A., LL.D., D.Litt., F.B.A., 
V.P.S.A., Christ Church, Oxford. 

1864 Head, Barclay Vincent, Esq., D.Litt., D.C.L., Ph.D., Corr. 
de l’lnst., 26, Leinster Square, Bayswater, W. 

1906 Headlam, Bev. Arthur Cayley, M.A.,D.D., Whorlton Hall, 
Barnard Castle, Durham. 

1886 *Henderson, James Stewart, Esq., F.B.G.S., M.B.S.L., 
M.C.P., 1, Pond Street, Hampstead, N.W. 

1901 *Henderson, Bev. Cooper K., M.A., Flat 4, 32, Emperor’s 
Gate, S.AV, 



8 


LIST OF FELLOWS. 


ELECTED 

1900 Hewlett, Lionel M., Esq., Moorcroft, Harrow-on-the-Hill, 
Middlesex. 

1908 Higgins, Frank C. } Esq., 5, West 108th Street, New York, 

U.S.A. 

1893 Hillers, The Ven. G. C., M.A., V.D., St. Thomas’s Rectory, 
Haverfordwest. 

1898 Hill, Charles Wilson, Esq. (address not known). 

1893 Hill, George Francis, Esq., M.A., Keeper of Crur , , British 
Museum. 

1883 Hobart, R. H. Smith, 619, Third Sticet, Brooklyn, New 
York, U.S.A. 

1898 Hocking, William John, Esq., Eoyal Mint, E. 

1895 Hodge, Thomas, Esq., 13, Wellington Street, SlnnJ, W.C. 

1875 Houtum - Schindler, General Sir Albert, K.C.I.E., 
M.B.A.S., Petersfield, Fenstanton, Hunts. 

1910 Ho worth, Daniel F., Esq., 24, Villiers Street, Ashton- 

under-Lyne. 

1878 FIoworth, Sir Henry FI., K.C.I.E., D.C.L., F.B.S., 
F.S.A., 45, Lexham Gardens, S.W., P/v hub ut. 

1883 Hubbard, Walter R., Esq., 6, Broomhill Avenue, Partick, 
Glasgow. 

1885 Hugel, Baron F. von, 13, Vicarage Gate, Kensington, W. 

1908 * Huntington, Archer M., Esq., Secretaiy to the American 
Numismatic Society, Audubon Park, 156tli Sticet, West 
of Broadway, New York, U.S.A. 

1911 Hyman, Coleman P., Esq., 48, Poitsdown Road, W. 


1910 Jekyll, Edward J., Esq., J.P., D.L., Higham Bury, Ampthill. 

1879 *Jex-Blake, The Very Rev. T. W., D.D., F.S.A., 13, 
Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 

1911 Johnston, Leonard P., Esq., The Cottage, Warn ingc amp, 

Arundel, Sussex. 

1911 Jones, Frederick William, Esq., 22, Bamshill Road, 
Scarborough. 


1874 *Kenyon, R. Lloyd, Esq., M.A., J.P., D.L., Pradoe, West 
Felton, Salop. 

1876 Kitchener, Field-Marshal Viscount, of Khartoum, G.C.B., 
O.M., K.P., G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., c/o Messrs. Cox & Co., 
Charing Cross, S.W. 

1901 Kozminsky, Dr. Isidore, 20, Queen Street, Kew, near 
Melbourne, Victoria. 



I, LI ClICD 


LIST OF FELLOWS. 


9 


XS8o *Lagereerg, M. Adam Magnus Emanuel, Chamberlain 
of H.M. the King of Sweden, Director of the Numis- 
matic Department, Museum, Gottenburg, and Rada, 
Sweden. 

1S71 fl^NG, Sin Robert Hamilton, K.C.M.G-., The Grove, 
Dedham, Essex. 

1906 Langton, John Gordon, Esq., F.C.A., E.I.S., 9e, H\de Park 

Mansions NAY. 

1910 Laughlin, Dr. W. A., M.A., Box 456, Virginia City, 

Ne\ Ada, U.S.A. 

189S Laver, Philip G., Esq., M.R.C.S., 3, Church Street, Col- 
chester. 

1877 Lawrence, E. G., Esq., Birchfield, Mulgrave R-jj,d, Sutton, 
Surrey. 

1885 ^Lawrence, L. A., Esq., F.S.A., 44, Belsize Square, N.W. 
1883 ' Lawrence, Richard Hoe, Esq., 15, Wall SUtvt, New York. 
1871 *Lawson, Alfred J., Esq., Smyrna. 

1893 Leslie-Ellis, Lieut.-Col. Henry, D.L., E.S.A., F.R.G.S., 
Magherymori. , Wicklow. 

1900 Lincoln, Frederick W., Esq., 69, New Oxford Street, W.C. 

1907 Lockett, Richard Cyril, Esq., Clouirturbrook, St. Anne’s 

Road, Aigburtli, Liverpool. 

1911 Longman, W., Esq., 27, Norfolk Square, W. 

1893 Lund, H. M., Esq., Waitara, Taranaki, New Zealand. 

1903 Lyddon, Frederick Stickland, Esq., 5, Beaufort Road, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

1885 ' 1! Lyell, Arthur Henry, Esq.,E.S.A., 9, Cranley Gardens, S.W. 

1895 Macdonald, Geo., Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.B.A., 17, Learmonth 
Gardens, Edinburgh. 

1901 Macfadyen, Frank E., Esq., 11, Sanderson Road, Jesmond, 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

1895 Marsh, Wm. E., Esq., Mai^tou, Bromley, Kent. 

1897 Massy, Col. W. J., 96, Oakley Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

1912 Mattingly, Harold, Esq., M.A., British Museum, W.C. 

1905 Mavrogordato, J., Esq., 4, DMnieira Court, Hove. 

1906 fMcCLEAN, John Robinson, Esq., M.A., Rusthall House, Tun- 

bridge Wells. 

1901 McDowall, Rev. Stewart A., 5, Belvoir Terrace, Cambridge. 
1905 McEwen, Hugh Drummond, Esq., E.S.A.(Scot.), Custom 
House, Leith, N.B, 

1868 McLachlan, R. W., Esq., 55, St. Monique Street, Montreal, 
Canada. 



10 


LIST OF FELLOWS. 


l.LLC'lf r> 

1905 Messenger, Leopold G. P., Esq., 151, Brecknock Boad, 
Tufnell Park, N. 

1905 Miller, PIenry Clay, Esq., 85, Broad Street, New York, 

U.S.A. 

1897 Milne, J. Grafton, Esq., M.A., Bankside, Goldkill, Farn- 

kam, Surrey, F < ■;< tyn Secretary. 

1910 Mitchell Library, The, GLi-guw, F. T. Barrett, Esq., 
Libuuian. 

1906 Mitchison, A. M., Esq., 11, Chelsea Embankment, S.W. 

1898 * Mono eton, Horace W., Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., 3, Harcourt 

Buildings, Temple, E.C. 

1888 Montague, L. A. D., Esq., Penton, near Crcditon, Devon. 
1905 Moore, William Henry, Esq. (address not known). 

1879 Morrieson, Lieut.-Col. H. Walters, B.A., F.S.A., 42, Beau- 
fort Gardens, S.W. 

1904 Mould, Bichard W., Esq., Newington Public Library,, 
Walworth Boad, S.E. 

1900 *Mylne, Bev. Bobert Scott, M.A., B.C.L., F.S.A., Great 
Amwell, Herts. 


1909 Nagg, Stephen K., Esq., 1621, Master Street, Philadelphia,, 

U.S.A. 

1893 Napier, Prof. A. S., M.A., D.Litt., Ph.D., F.B.A., I-Iu idmgton 
Hill, Oxford. 

1905 Nathan, Sidney, Esq., M.D., 11, Bolton Gardens, S.W. 

1910 Nesmith, Thomas, Esq., c/o J. Munro & Co., 7, Bue Scribe, 

Pans. 

1905 Newall, Hugh Frank, Esq., M.A., Madingley Bise, Cam- 

bridge. 

1906 Newberry Library, Chicago, TJ.S. America. 

1905 *Newell, E. T., Esq., Box 321, Madison Square, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1909 Niklewicz, H., Esq., 28, Park Place, Brooklyn, New York, 

U.S.A. 

1904 Norfolk, Duke of, E.M., K.G., Arundel Castle, Arundel. 
1904 Northumberland, Duke of, K.G., 2, Grosvenor Place, S.W. 


1898 Ogden, W. Sharp, Esq., F.S.A., Naseby, East End Boad, 
Finchley, N. 

1897 *0’Hagan, Henry Osborne, Esq., a 14, The Albany, 
Piccadilly, W. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 


11 


ELECTED 

1882 Oman, Prof. C. W. C„ M.A., LL.D., F.B.A., F.S.A., All 
Souls College, Oxford. 

1911 Oppenheimer, Henry, Esq., 9, Kensington Palace Gardens, W. 


1903 Parsons, H. Alexander, Esq., <{ Shaftesbury,” Devonshire 
Road, Honor Oak Park, S.E. 

1882 *Peckover of Wisbech, Lord, LL.D., E.S.A., F.L.S., 
F.R.G.S., Bank House, Wisbech. 

1896 Peers, C. R., Esq., M.A., F.S.A., 14, Lansdowne Road, 
Wimbledon. 

1894 Perry, Henry, Esq., Middleton, Plaistow Lane, Bromley, 
Kent. 

1862 *Perry, Marten, Esq., M.D., Spalding, Lincolnshire. 

1909 Peterson, F. W. Yoysey, Esq., B.C.S. (retd.), 38, Bassett 

Road, W. 

1888 Pinches, John Harvey, Esq., 21, Albert Embankment, S.E. ’ 

1910 Porter, Professor Harvey, Protestant College, Beirut, 

Syria. 

1889 Powell-Cotton, Percy H. Gordon, Esq., Quex Park, 

Birchmgton, Thanet. 

1887 tP^EVosT, Sir Augustus, Bart., F.S.A., 79, Westbourne 
Terrace, W. 

1903 Price, Harry, Esq., Arun Bank, Pulborough, Sussex. 

1911 Prichard, A. H. Cooper-, American Numismatic Society, 

156th Street, New York, U.S.A. 

1878 *Prideaux, Col. W. F., C.S.I., F.R.G.S., Hopeville, St. 
Peter’s-in-Thanet, Kent. 


1906 Radford, A. J. Vooght, Esq., F.S.A., Yacye, College Road, 
Malvern. 

1902 Ramsden, Henry A., Esq., Charge d’ Affaires of Cuba, P.O, 

Box 214, Yokohama, Japan. 

1887 Ransom, W., Esq., F.S.A., F.L.S., Fairfield, Hitchin, Herts. 

1913 Rao, K. Anantasami, Chunter of the Government Museum, 
Bangalore, India. 

1893 Raphael, Oscar C., Esq., New Oxford and Cambridge Club, 
68, Pall Mall, W. 

1890 Rapson, Prof. E. J., M.A., M.R.A.S., 8, Mortimer Road, 
Cambridge. 

1905 Rashleigh, Evelyn W., Esq., Stoketon, Saltash, Cornwall. 
1909 Raymond, Wayte, Esq., South Norwalk, Connecticut, U.S.A. 
1887 Ready, W. Talbot, Esq., 66, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

1903 Regan, W. H., Esq., 124, Queen’s Road, Bayswater, W. 



12 


LIST OF FELLOWS. 


ELECTED 

1876 *Robertson, J. Drummond, Esq., M.A., 17, St. George’s 
Court, Gloucester Eo.nl, S.W. 

1911 Robinson, E. S. G., Esq., B.A., British Museum, W.C. 

1910 Rogers, Rev. Edgar, M.A., 18, Colville Square, W. 

1911 Rosenheim, Maurice, Esq., 18, Belsize Park Gardens, N.W. 
1900 Roskell, Robert N., Esq., 1, Gray’s Inn Square, W.C. 

1896 ‘■Roth, Bernard, Esq., J.P., F.S.A., King’s Wood, Enfield. 

1903 Ruben, Paul, Esq., Pli.D., Alte Rabenstrasse, S, Hamburg, 

Germany. 

1904 Rustaffjaell, Robert de, Esq., Luxor, Egypt. 


1872 *Salas, Miultel T., Esq., 247, Florida Street, Buenos 
Ayies. 

1877 ' ! 'Sandeman, Lieut.-Col. John Glas, M.V.O., F.S.A., Whin- 
Hurst, Hayling Island, Havant, Hants. 

1906 Saw\er 3 Charles, Esq., 9, Alfred Place West, Tliurloe 

Square, S.W. 

1905 fS earle, Rev. W. G., M.A., 11, Scroope Terrace, Cambridge. 

1907 ‘"Seltman, Charles T., Esq., Iunghoe, Berkbamsted, Herts. 
1S90 Seltman, E. J., Esq., Kmglioe, Beikhamsted, Herts. 

1900 Shackles, George L., Esq., Wicker slt^ , Brough, R.S.O., E. 
Yorks. 

1908 Sulpucrd, Edward, Esq., 2, Cornwall Road, Westbourne 

Park, W. 

1913 Shirley-Fox, J. S., Esq., R.B.A., 5, Rossetti Studios, Flood 
Street, Chelsea, S.W. 

1896 Simpson, C. E., Esq., Beech Grove, West Parade Row, Scar- 
borough. 

1893 *Sims, R. E. Manley-, Esq. (address not known). 

1896 Sinha, Iyumvar Kushal Pal, Rais of Kotla, Kotla, Agra, 
India. 

1912 Smith, G. Hamilton, Esq., Killoran, Seymour Road, 
Finchley, N. 

1892 Smith, Vincent A., Esq., M.A., M.R.A.S., I.C.S. (retd.), 
116, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

1890 Smith, W. Beresford, Esq., Kenmore, Vanbrugh Park Road 
West, Blackheath. 

1905 Snelling, Edward, Esq., 26, Silver Street, E.C. 

1909 Soutzo, M. Michel, 8, Strada Romana, Bucharest. 

1894 Spink, Samuel M., Esq., 17, Piccadilly, W. 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 


13 


ItLFCrkD 

1902 Stainer, Charles Lewis, Esq., 10, South Parks Boad, Oxford. 

1878 Strachan-Davidson, J. L. Esq., M.A., LL.D., Master of 

Balliol College, Oxford. 

1869 "Streitfeild, Bev. George Sidney, Goddington Bectory, 
Bicester, Oxfordshire. 

1910 Sutcliffe, Bobert, Esq., 21, Market Street, Burnley, Lancs. 

1909 Symonds, H., Esq., F.S.A., Union Club, Trafalgar Square, 
S.W., V%ce-l J t* bide nt. 

1896 *Taffs, PI. W., Esq., 35, Greenholm Boad, Eltham, S.E. 

1879 Talbot, Lieut. -Col. the Hon. Milo George, Edgecote, 

Banbury. 

1888 Tatton, Thos. E., Esq., Wythenshawe, Northenden, Cheshire. 

1892 ’"Taylor, B. Wright, Esq., M.A., LL.B., E.S.A., 8, Stone 
Buildings, Lincoln’s Inn, W.C. 

1887 Taylor, W. H., Esq., The Croft, Wheelwright Boad, 
Erdington, near Birmingham. 

1887 Thairlwall, E. J., Esq., 12, Upper Park Boad, Haverstock 
Hill, N.W. 

1890 Thomas- Stanford, Charles, Esq., J.P., M.A., F.S.A., 

Preston Manor, Brighton. 

1896 Thompson, Sir Herbert, Bart., 9, Kensington Park 
Gardens, W. 

1896 Thorburn, Henry W., Esq., Cradock Villa, Bishop Auckland. 

1903 Thorpe, Godfrey F., Esq., Falklands, 62, Nightingale Lane, 

Balham, S.W. 

1913 Thorpe, W. Bertram, 270, Balham High Boad, S.W. 

1894 Triggs, A. B., Esq., Bank of New South Wales, Yass, New 
South Wales. 

1887 Trotter, Lieut. -Col. Sir Henry, K.C.M.G., C.B., 18, 
Eaton Place, W. 

1912 Van Buren, A. W., American School, 5, Via Vicenza, 
Puome. 

1874 Vize, George Henry, Esq., 15, Spencer Boad, Putney, S.W. 
1899 Vlasto, Michel P.,Esq., 12, Allee des Capucines, Marseilles, 
France. 

1892 Vost, Lieut. -Col. W., I.M.S., Muttra, United Provinces, 
India. 

1905 Wace, A. J. B., Esq., M.A., Leslie Lodge, Hall Place, St. 
Albans. 

1883 Walker, B. K„ Esq., M.A., Watergate, Meath Boad, Bray, 
Ireland. 



14 


LIST OF FELLOWS. 


ELECTED 

1897 Walters, Fred. A., Esq., F.S.A., 37, Old Queen Street, 
Westminster, S.W., Eon . Secretary. 

1911 Warre, Felix W., Esq., 231a, St. James’s Court, Buckingham 
Gate, S.W. 

1901 *Watters, Charles A., Esq., 152, Princes Boad, Liverpool. 

1901 Webb, Percy H., Esq., 4 & 5, West Sinithfield, E.C., Hon. 
Treasurer. 

1885 *' Weber, F. Parkes, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., 19, Harley Street, 
W. 

1883 * Weber, Sir Hermann, M.D., 10, Grosvenor Street, Gros- 

venor Square, W. 

1884 Webster, W. J., Esq., 76, Melford Boad, Thornton 

Heath. 

1904 Weight, William Charles, Esq., Wilton Dene, Wilbury Hill 

Boad, Letch worth. 

1905 Weightman, Fleet-Surgeon A. E., F.S.A., Junior United 

Service Club, Charles Street, St. James’s, S.W. 

1899 Welch, Francis Bertram, Esq., M.A., Wadham House, 
Arthog Boad, Hale, Cheshire. 

1869 *Wigram, Mrs. Lewis, The Bookery, Frensliam, Surrey. 

1908 Williams, T. Henry, Esq., 85, Clarendon Boad, Putney, 
S.W. 

1910 Williams, W. I., Esq., 22, High Durham Street, Bishop 
Auckland, Durham. 

1881 Williamson, Geo. C., Esq., F.B.S.L., Burgh House, Well 
Walk, Hampstead, N.W. 

1906 Williamson, Capt. W. H. (address not known). 

1869 Winser, Thomas B., Esq., F.B.G.S., F.I.A., 81, Shooter’s 
Hill Boad, Blackheath, S.E. 

1904 Winter, Charles, Esq., Oldfield, Thetford Boad, New 
Malden, Surrey. 

1906 Wood, Howland, Esq., Curator of the American Numismatic 
Society, 156th Street, W. of Broadway, New York, 
U.S.A. 

1903 Wright, The Hon’ble Mr. H. Nelson, I.C.S., M.B.A.S., 
Bareilly, United Provinces, India. 


1889 Yeates, F. Willson, Esq., 7, Leinster Gardens, Hyde 
Park, W. J 



LIST OF FELLOWS. 


15 


ELECTED 

1880 Young, Arthur W., Esq., 12, Hyde Park Terrace, W. 

1898 Young, James, Esq., 14, Holland Boad, W. 

1900 Zimmermann, Bev. Jeremiah, M.A., D.D., LL.D., 107, South. 
Avenue, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. 


HONORARY fellows 


ELECTED 

1898 Hxs Majesty Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy, 
Palazzo Quirinale, Borne. 

1891 Babelon, M. Ernest, Mem. de l’lnst. Bibliotb^pie Nationale, 
Paris. 

1908 Bahrfeldt, General-Major M. von, 9, Humboldstr., Hilde- 
sheim, Germany. 

1898 Blanchet, M. J. A., 10, Bd. Emile Augier, Paris. 

1898 Dressel, Dr. H., Miinz-Kabinet, Kaiser Friedrich Museum, 
Berlin. 

^ 1899 Gabrici, Prof. Dr. Ettore, S. Giuseppe dei Nudi, 75, Naples. 
1393 Gnecchi, Comm. Francesco, Via Filodrammatici 10, Milan. 
IS^IHildebrand, Dr. Hans, Biksantiquarien, Stockholm. 
187hlMHOOF-BLUMER, Dr. F., Winterthur, Switzerland. 

1893 Jonghe, M. le Vicomte B. de, Bue du Trone, 60, Brussels. 
1878 Kenner, Dr. F., K.K. Museen, Vienna. 

1904 Kubitschek, Prof. J. W., Pichlergasse,' 1, Vienna. 

1898 Loebbecke, Herr A., Cellerstrasse, 1, Brunswick. 

1904 Maurice, M. Jules, 10, Bue Crevaux, Paris. 

1898 Milani, Prof. Luigi Adriano, Florence, 

1899 Pick, Dr. Behrendt, Munzkabinet, Gotha. 

1895 Beinach, M. Theodore, 9, Bue Hammelin, Paris. 

1891 Svoronos, M. J. N., Conservateur du Cabinet des Medailles, 
Athens. 

1886 Weil, Dr. Budolf, Schoneberger TJfer, 38, hi., Berlin, W. 



16 


LIST OF FELLOWS. 


MEDALLISTS 

OF THE ROYAL NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

ELECTED 

188S Charles Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A. 

1884 Aquilla Smith, Esq., M.D., M.R.I.A. 

1885 Edward Thomas, Esq., F.R.S. 

1886 Major-General Alexander Cunningham, C.S.I., C.I.E. 

1887 John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. , P.S.A. 

1888 Dr. F. Imhoof-Blumer, Winterthur. 

1889 Professor Percy G-ardner, Litt.D., F.S.A. 

1890 Monsieur J. P. Six, Amsterdam. 

1891 Dr. C. Ludwig Muller, Cupenlngen. 

1892 Professor R. Stuart Poole, LL.D. 

1898 Monsieur W. H. Waddington, Senateur, Membre de lTnstitut, 
Paris. 

1894 Charles Francis Keary, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

1895 Professor Dr. Theodor Mommsen, Berlin. 

1896 Frederic W. Madden, Esq., M.R.A.S. 

1897 Dr. Alfred von Sallet, Berlin. 

1898 The Rev. Canon W. Greenwell, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

1899 Monsieur Ernest Babelon, Membre de l’lnstitut, Cm- 

servateur des Mt’ilmlDs, Pans. 

1900 Professor Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A., Litt.D. 

1901 S. E. Baron Wladimir von Tieseniiausen, St. Petersburg. 

1902 Arthur J. Evans, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Keeper of the 

Ashmolean Mu-laud, Oxford. 

1908 Monsieur Gustave Schlumberger, Membre de J’lnstitut, 
Paris. 

1904 His Majesty Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy. 

1905 Sir Hermann Weber, M.D. 

1906 Comm. Francesco Gnecchi, Milan. 

1907 Barclay Vincent Head, Esq., D. Litt., D.C.L., Ph.D., Corr. 

de l’lnst. 

1908 Professor Dr. Heinrich Dressel, Berlin. 

1909 H. A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A. 

1910 Dr. Friedrich Edler von Kenner, Vienna. 

1911 Oliver Cudringtun, Esq., M.D., M.R.A.S., F.S.A. 

1912 General-Leutnant Max Bahrfeldt, Dr.Phil., Hildesheim. 

1913 George Macdonald, Esq., M.A., LL.D. 



PATRON 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING- 


LIST OF FELLOWS 

OF THE 

ROYAL 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 

1913 


The sign * indicates that the Felloio has compounded for his annual 

contribution : f that the Felloio has died during the year. 

ELECTED 

1909 Admiral ELS. H. Prince Louis of Battenberg, G.C.B., 
G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., A.D.C., E.R.G.S., Mall House, 
Spring Gardens, S.W. 

1S73 *ALExfciEFF, M. Georges d’, Maitre de la Cour de S.M. 
l’Empereur de Russie, 40, Sergnewskaje, St. Petersburg. 

1907 Allan, John, Esq., M.A., M.R.A.S., British Museum, W.C., 
Hon. Secretary. 

1907 Allatini, Robert, Esq., IS, Holland Park, W. 

1892 Amedroz, Henry F m Esq., M.R.A.S., 48, York Terrace, 
Regent’s Park, N.W. 

1884 Andrews, R. Thornton, Esq., 25, Castle Street, Hertford. 

1909 Arnold, Edwin L., Esq., 108, Nightingale Lane, S.W. 

1900 f Avebury, Rt. Hon. Lord, P.C., F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D., High 
Elms, Down, Kent. 

1882 Backhouse, Sir Jonathan E., Bart., The Rookery, Middleton 
Tyas, R.S.O., Yorks. 

1907 Baird, Rev. Andrew E., D.D., 247, Colony Street, Winnipeg, 
Canada. 

1909 Baldwin, Miss A., 415, West 118th Street, New York, U.S.A. 

1902 Baldwin, A. H., Esq., Duncannon Street, Charing Cross, 
W.C. 

1905 Baldwin, Percy J, D., Esq., Duncannon Street, Charing 
Cross, W.C. 

1898 Banes, Arthur Alexander, Esq., The Red House, Upton, 

Essex. 

1907 Barron, T. W., Esq., Yew Tree Hall, Forest Row, Sussex. 

1887 Bascom, G. J., Esq., The Charles Building, 331, Madison 
Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 

1896 Bearman, Thos., Esq., Melbourne House, 8, Tudor Road, 
Hackney.